Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1973)

A.G.A.-Looking Ahead
Author(s): William P. Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
When the American Gas Association moved its headquarters to the Washington area three years ago, one of the prime reasons was to be situated where the action is. We came to the right place. Here is where it happens-although perhaps not as quickly as it should, and not always to our satisfaction. Lately the tempo has been picking up, because our countrys energy problems have reached a magnitude which makes prompt and effective action nothing less than imperative. Actually, we and all other energy industries cant complain that we havent been getting considerable attention in Washington for a long time now. As a matter of fact, its possible we have been getting too much attention from too many quarters all at the same time.
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Document ID: E3BED1DB

New Developments-Roots Rotary Gas Meters
Author(s): William K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Dresser Measurement Division of Dresser Industries. Inc. has or plans to introduce in the near future several significant new product developments, These include the following five: 1. Modular Concept 2. Aluminum Bodied 3MI25 & 5MI25 Meters 3. Temperature Compensated-Instrument Drive Meters 4. Fixed Factor Counters 5. 10:1 Instrument Drive Speed Reducer
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Document ID: 65EFDFCF

Proposed Underwater Platform-Offshore Louisiana
Author(s): C. T. Rosebrugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Underwater pipelining per se is commonplace these days and the techniques used vary with the size, length, and water depth. Generally speaking underwater pipelining as it exists today consists of laying a pipeline(s) from an existing production platform to a point on land or to another offshore production facility. The techniques involved in accomplishing this vary from company to company but generally speaking, the selected route is examined by conducting a bottom or sub-bottom profile to avoid obstructions such as wrecks, debris, and other pipelines, the pipe coated with concrete to obtain the design specific gravity and the pipeline installed using a ramp type lay barge. Soils data may be necessary if little is known of the area.
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Document ID: 5A7FA9B7

Operating And Maintenance Practices With Plastic
Author(s): E. F. Schrader
Abstract/Introduction:
Operating and maintenance practices for gas distribution systems have, by and large. been mandated by law. The Office of Pipeline Safety and our Public Utility Commissions have promulgated various rules and regulations regarding the practices that we shall use. These regulations provide the general ground rules for our practices each company must develop its plan in accordance with these ground rules to provide for the necessary mechanisms to put the plan in operation. Because of the broad interpretation that can be taken from present regulations, I would like to take this opportunity to explain nur operating and maintenance practices with plastic pipe.
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Document ID: 167B10C6

Application Of Exhaust Emission Analyzers To Vehicle Fleets
Author(s): Miles L. Brubacher
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper has two main purposes: to show how vehicie exhaust emission analyzers can be applied to fleet operations, and to show the benefits deriving from this application. Horiba Instruments, Inc., (formerly Olson-Horiba, Inc.) and Yellow Cab Co. of Los Angeles initiated a cooperative project to explore approaches to these two main goals.
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Document ID: BAF423DD

Nuclear Power Plant Licensing Status And Projections
Author(s): Angelo Giambusso
Abstract/Introduction:
There are currently but 29 operable nuclear plants, with a total electrical capacity of less than 15,00 mw, about 4% of the nations total. There are. however, some 160 additional plants either building, contracted for, more than 10 times as great as that of the operable plants. In 1972 alone, 36 nuclear plants were ordered by U.S. utilities. with a total electric capacity exceeding 38.000 mw. The adoption of nuclear power by electric utilities is occurring at a pace much faster than was anticipated but a few years ago, in 1962, responding to a White House request, the AEC prepared a comprehensive Report to the President on Nuclear Power. AEC then estimated that nuclear powers share of total national generating capacity would be 7% in 1980. AECs current estimate of the 1980 percent of total, based on commitments already made by utilities, is 21%, This proportion is forecast to rise to 40% by 1990 and to 57% by the end of the century.
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Document ID: 085C9CD4

Replacement Of Low Pressure Systems With Special Diameter Plastic Inserts
Author(s): Stephen G. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company is ihe oldest gas company in the United States. Its 4,100-mile disiribution system includes about 1,600 miles of cast-iron pipe ranging in size from 3 inches to 48 inches. Our cast iron is found in two distinct operating systems: one low pressure 7 inch WC and the other medium pressure. 1 to 10 psig. The distribution network is built around an old gas manufacturing plant with a few large medium-pressure lines acting as feeders for the very extensive low-pressure system, in the suburban areas we have a steel-pipe system operating at 99 psig fed from a 300 psig system. In Baltimore, we have had no chronic. aggravating problem with the cast iron pipe which demands its replacement. Instead, we recognized that nothing lasts forever therefore, some kind of replacement program is necessary.
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Document ID: E8AC17DD

Plastic Pipe Repair Procedures
Author(s): Eugene J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia Gas of Ohio has been involved with plastic pipe since 1954 when several test installations were made on company property. An all plastic 5 psi distribution system using ABS was installed in 1960 to provide service in a small rural community. By 1962 the company was renewing services on an operational basis by relining with high density polyethylene. The first plow-in by planting approximately one mile of 1-inch pipe through a chute was also made in 1962 to provide service to a microwave station. In 1967 the company went operational for direct burial service at pressures to 50 psi with polyethylene pipe in sizes through 4-inch.
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Document ID: 6C533F82

Cathodic Protection In Plastic Piping Systems
Author(s): m. D. Orton
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pacific Gas and Electric Companys gas distribution operating area is essentially northern California with transmission facilities extending Northeast to the Oregon border and Southeast to the Arizona border. This system includes approximately 4,600 miles of transmission pipeline, 25,000 miles of distribution main and 2.4 million gas meters in service. The evolution of PG&E operating practices has generally been influenced by similar technical advancements made by other targe gas utilities over the years. Early in our history, cast iron, wrought iron, and bare steel pipe were commonly installed. Wrapped steel pipe generally appeared around the late 1920s.
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Document ID: 88586EBA

El Pasos Lurgi Coal Gasification Project
Author(s): John Mills, Howard Holder
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous projections of the supply and demand of natural gas have shown thai the United States will soon have a severe shortage. In fact, in the 1972-73 heating season several instances of gas curtailment were reported. Estimates have projected shortages of 7.8 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) per year in 1980. building up to almost 20 Tcf by 1990- El Paso Natural Gas Companys supply and demand projections indicate that without additional gas supplies our shortages will be 800 MMscf/d by the year 1975. At the present lime El Paso has several projects under way to help meet ihe United States gas demand. The liquefaction of natural gas in Algeria to be transported to the Eastern part of the United Slates has been approved by the Federal Power Commission. The gasification of coal in northern New Mexico to produce 250 MMscf/d of synthetic gas for sale to El Pasos existing customers has been applied for certification from Ihe Federal Power Commission. Several other projects are in various stages of study and development.
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Document ID: 7EEE71EE

Soft-Pedaling Distribution Operations Noise
Author(s): Wayne C. Gracey
Abstract/Introduction:
On April 28, 1971, the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act became the law of the land. What does this mean to us as gas men? Just one heck of a lot! Among the many standards that one must comply with-or else-is one on noise. This noise standard states that eight hours is the maximum lime that a worker may be exposed to noise levels of 90dBA or more. If it reaches 115dBA the time falls off 1/4 or less. Before going any farther, lets make a couple of observations about sound measurement: 1. Sound pressure level is measured in dB (decibels). Of the three scales used, the A scale is recognized as being closest to simulating the human ear. Consequently. the readings used are the dBA readings. 2. Decibels are logarithmic, that is, 10 decibels are 10 times the power of 1: 20 are 1(X) times the power of 1 and 30 are 1000 times the power of 1. 3. A relatively small decrease in decibel readings on the A scale can reduce the strength of the sound considerably i.e. a sound of 83 decibels has twice the strength of a sound of 80 decibels. This is line, but what bearing does this have on distribution operations noise?
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Document ID: 7252F952

Coal Gasification-The Process
Author(s): Ray Newsom
Abstract/Introduction:
Two years ago, anyone wishing to discuss coal gasification had to first present an argument justifying why it should be given serious consideration. Recent developments in the areas of fuel shortages, gas curtailments. balance of payments, environmental concerns, etc., has clearly shown thai we must practice coal gasification. Now the question is how and how soon can it be done. Many companies have decided to make a serious effort to commence coal gasification as soon as possible. So, a large valid question is, what are the restraining forces to large scale immediate commercial coal gasification?
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Document ID: B8B5BF6E

Electrical Hazards In Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): Harold Boone
Abstract/Introduction:
The title, Electrical Hazards in Gas Distribution Systems, encompasses a very large subject. Perhaps we should tirst define the subject and the world hazard, The dictionary suggests hazard is risk or danger. Therefore, an electrical hazard involves risk or danger of spark or shock due to the gas piping becoming unintentionally energized. The results of unintentional electrical energizing of gas piping may result in injury. death, or damage to property. In preparing this paper, a literary search indicated that considerable attention has been given the subject in the area of high voltage transmission power lines, and very little attention to distribution system problems.
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Document ID: 546F9753

Energy-Problems And Solutions
Author(s): Virginia H. Knauer
Abstract/Introduction:
In Denver earlier this year, there wasnt enough fuel available for the schools. In Alabama and Louisiana, the lack of fuel forced thousands off their jobs, Right now in Atlanta. Sears is limiting the number of gallons of gas a customer can purchase for his automobile. Some independent gasoline stations have already posted empty or closed signs, and a number of oil and gas distributors are rationing sales to retailers. The Federal Power Commission issues two disturbing reports. One states that the curtailments of natural gas by suppliers to customers increased from 350 billion cubic feet in 1971 to 910 billion cubic feet in 1972, From November of 1972 to March of this year, curtailments were 522 billion cubic feet.
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Document ID: A8B2F049

LNG-Base Load Operations
Author(s): Robert H. Preusser
Abstract/Introduction:
Since Natural Gas came into widespread use in the 1950s, the addition of new loads was relatively straight forward. Distribution companies increased their contracts and the suppliers for firm and/or storage gas depending on the particular situation. Now a radical change has occured in that suppliers are not meeting contracted natural gas volumes. Other sources of supply had to be hurriedly found. Among the most expedient was the importation of LNG for base load use. Brooklyn Union first became involved with LNG in the fall of 1968 when it put its Greenpoint liquefaction in and vaporization facility into operation. This was to be used for peak shaving replacing an outmoded oil gas plant, which has since been demolished.
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Document ID: 5FF08C7F

Technical Considerations For Safety And Reliability Of Offshore Pipeline Systems
Author(s): D. E. Broussard
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines are the safest means of transportation. Long term experience on land has proven that petroleum pipelines are 30 times safer than barge and tanker transport, 250 times safer than rail, and 1000 times safer than highway transport by common carrier. The techniques that have been used to establish this safety record on land are being utilized for the design, construction, and operation of the growing number of submarine pipeline systems and they too are establishing similar or even better safety records. The lay barge method has been used to construct most of the estimatedl IS,000 miles of world-wide offehore trunk lines. The pipe control system utilizing horizontal tension and a stinger is the most versatile and universally accepted method of construction.
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Document ID: F544E67E

The Making Of A Supervisor
Author(s): William T. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The Michigan Consolidated Gas Company headquartered in Detroit serves approximately one million customers. The bulk of the services rendered are meter orders. leak complaints, and appliance adjusts. To facilitate the handling of our customers, the Detroit area is divided into eight service disiricis, with a general foreman in charge of each district. The districts are then divided into four sections comprised of a section foreman and from 15 to 19 servicemen in each section. The section foreman is referred to as our first line supervisor. To reach the level of a section foremen there are a number of screenings which take place. Each is designed so that when a man is promoted to the grade of section foreman we have the confidence that we have selected the right man for the job. This isnt to say that all do the job exceptionally well, rather it is to say that very few if any do the job unsatisfactorily. The key to what we consider a successful program rests with the training and counseling given to the employee prior to him becoming a foreman.
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Document ID: 34CB3D5F

New Developments-Gas Regulator Equipment
Author(s): Emil Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
We are using a new and different approach to the problem of overpres,sure in a gas meter: we have designed a meter relief system that has several distinct advantages: 1. Fast and easy installation-- The system can be mounted directly to the top of the gas meter in place of the cover plate by merely using four bolts. This is done without disturbing the piping, 2. High capacity-The relief orifice and vent are designed for extremely high capacity. The meter-relief system can handle a complete failure of the regulator even if the inlet pressure exceeds the manufacturers maximum recommended inlet pressure rating by 20% for a given size orifice. For example: The meter relief, as designed, will pass approximately 4700 CFH and will still maintain the service pressure under 1 lb.
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Document ID: 36BE9452

Status Of Automatic Meter Reading
Author(s): Walter C. Mission
Abstract/Introduction:
As you may be aware, interest in automatic meter reading is worldwide. The obvious reason for the tremendous amount of interest in automatic meter reading is all the advantages which are inherent in such a system. For instance, readings may take place any day, day or night. There are no accessibility problems and consequently better customer relations. Consequently, personnel problems are reduced and presumably a better safety record would also result. Moreover, reading meters automatically enables the utilities to do almost instantaneous load studies, rereads, and final bills. In short, automatic meter reading presents the ability to read meters more efficiently and faster.
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Document ID: 083064FB

Ultrasonic Examination Of Heatfused Polyethylene Pipe Joints
Author(s): Ervin Dziengielewski
Abstract/Introduction:
Twenty-six years ago my first job with the construction and repair department was with a cast iron main order crew. T was assigned on my first day of work as a helper to an old-time pipelayer. It was up to me to sling up ft-inch cast iron pipe and lower it into the trench. When this was done and the length of pipe reached the pipelayer, it was held about 2 feet above the trench bottom, and the old boy would strike it with his caulking hammer. If it had a sharp clear ring, it was considered to be free of cracks if it had a low thud sound, it was set aside and not used.
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Document ID: D6C5764F

R. N. Bery, R. J. Burcin
Abstract/Introduction:
Production of SNG from liquid hydrocarbons is discussed in terms of feedstock properties, product gas characteristics and gasification processes. Technical and commercial guidelines are suggested for building economical SNG plants efficiently, including preliminary evaluation, design, engineering, construction, and start-up.
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Document ID: 47F0252C

Selection Of Fire Resistant Lubricants For Gas Turbines
Author(s): B. W. Ritcey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal with the experience of TransCanada PipeLines in selecting, training. and operating with a synthetic lubricant of the phosphate ester type in gas turbines. Synthetic lubricant is usually a term applied to a lubricating fluid which is not derived from a natural hydrocarbon base. Such fluids include silicones, water/oil emulsions, glycols polyphenyls, and phosphate esters. There are a large variety of products made from these fluids all of which are tailored to their particular application requirement. Most synthetic fluids are selected because of operating characteristics, particular requirements supply or pricing. Not all of these are suitable for gas turbines.
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Document ID: 94CC5FCE

Quality Control-The Need For Inspection
Author(s): Hardy m. Cook, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the phases of any quality program is the inspection and test function. Inspection. defined in its most general sense, is the critical examination of product by measurement, test, or visual observation to determine compliance with a design specification or standards of good workmanship. Inspections are performed: (1) to ascertain the product quality at the various stages of manufacture, (2) to provide feedback of information used to control the quality of product during manufacture and (3) to assure the quality of the shipped product. Inspection to determine the acceptability of units of product or groups of product. called lots, is known as acceptance inspection. Product that fails acceptance inspection may be usable as nonconforming material which will be discussed later. It should be realized that these definitions contain the tacit assumption that the design is adequate and consequently conforming product will fulfill the customers expectations.
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Document ID: 4295F7ED

Washing Of Fleet Equipment And Related Cost
Author(s): Roy P. Dwyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Everything we come into contact with daily. makes either a good or bad impression upon us, I can remember my first trip to Chicago and how I was impressed with the overall cleanliness of the city, I immediately began making a comparison between the streets of Chicago and the streets of New York City. which certainly leave much to be desired. Both cities are faced with the same problems in maintaining clean streets, but it was quite obvious to me that Chicago was definitely doing something positive about it. Chicagos city government must have been aware of and worked at creating a good imagesomething as simple as having clean streets. What kind of an image does the equipment we put on the road daily project to our Customers and the general public? How do our customers see us? Are they impressed in a positive way?
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Document ID: 78D8904A

Measurement Complications Due To Alternate Gas Supplies
Author(s): L. J. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
Today the energy shortage is an item of top priority for the gas industry. Every day one hears of major new projects to make available alternate gas supplies of LNG and SNG. A few have already been started and this winter will see several more projects go into operation. These alternate gas supplies can pose many measurement problems for operating gas transmission and distribution companies. Some of these are quite obvious and direct technical problems. Others are not so obvious and can sneak up on the unwary operating company. The most obvious direct technical problem is in the measurement of LNG in the liquid slate. One learns quickly that good physical properties data on LNG mixtures are non existent. The densities for component gases in the liquid state are quite different and vary drastically with only relatively small changes in temperature.
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Document ID: 8B95AEAD

A Technology Survey Of High-Priority Distribution Needs In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): James Grimm, Earl Yeager
Abstract/Introduction:
Investigation of the present state of technology in the gas industry was accomplished mainly through in-depth interviews of operating and engineering people in a 35- company sample. Other resources normally expected to be current in technology which should be applicable to the gas industry were also used. These include: Major equipment suppliers to the industry Literature reviews Other research institutes Selected members of Battelles Columbus Laboratories staff. The 35-company sample selected was demonstrated to be representative of the gas industry. Therefore, solutions for the seven problem areas which are applicable to the sample companies could likely be considered applicable to the gas industry in the United States.
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Document ID: 2D3590B1

Measurements Of Liquefied Natural Gas In Commerce
Author(s): D. B. Mann, D. E. Diller, N. A. Olien, m. J. Hiza
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cryogenics Division of the NBS Institute for Basic Standards is currently involved in a number of programs dealing with liquefied natural gas (LNG). The objective of these NBS programs is to bring to bear over 20 years of cryogenic experience on certain selected LNG problem areas. A description of the programs will be given in the following sections as well as a summary of progress of this five-year effort. In addition, the objectives of past, present and projected LNG programs at NBS will be related to one specific LNG problem area, custody transfer, and suggestions will be made about maximum utilization of present and expected research results.
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Document ID: 7834D7B6

Balance Of Payments
Author(s): Gene P. Morell
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of Balance of Payments is a complex and highly debatable issue. In preparation for this presentation, a number of sources were contacted to find a reasonable definition of what balance of payments may be. Even the most knowledgeable decline to give me what they consider to be a full, impartial, and comprehensive definition of balance of payments. The obvious source. i.e. Websters Dictionary, gave the definition as a balance estimated for a given time period showing an excess or deficit in payments between one country and another country or other countries for all public and private business transactions, including export and imports, grants, debt payments. and finally, the most important part of the definition-etc.
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Document ID: 8E074B5C

Main Cooling Tower Water Reclamation
Author(s): John F. Eichelmann, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Robert Fuhring, who has authored a booklet exclusively for Westinghouse simply entitled Water, has stated various studies show that within the next 28 years this country will need one trillion gallons of fresh water daily. Disregarding the natural geographical di,stribution of this resource, it has been estimated that there are only about 600 billion gallons available. Obviously, if we could but reuse the water once, we could effect a 200-billion gallon surplus instead of a deficit. Dr. Leon Weinberger, past chairman of what was then called the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, has said in testimony given before a Senate sub-committee on water pollution that if we expect to meet the immediate needs for fresh water, particularly in the water-short Southwest, it is imperative thai we make multiple reuse of this resource.
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Document ID: DBA0597C

Planned Replacement Programs
Author(s): Rex J. Lysinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Planned replacement programs certainly do not have the popular appeal of subjects like The Energy Crisis or Balance of Payment Deficits or National Security, but their increasing importance is compounded by the tremendous requirement for capital to provide additional energy. There is an increasing need to replace or renew existing facilities as well as to construct new ones, and the limited capital available makes it imperative that every dollar is put to maximum use. The first phase of the Task Groups study of these programs centered on the development of a set of guidelines which could assist in organizing the various eiemenLs that must be considered when planning a large system replacement program. The second phase was to review the current replacement program activity among the committee members.
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Document ID: 4124B0DD

Charge Policy For Customer Service
Author(s): Howard P. Yeager
Abstract/Introduction:
The Providence Gas Company in Providence, R.I., is a publicly-owned gas utility over 125 years old. The company serves 103,000 customers and had a sendout in 1971 of over 12,000 million cubic feet of gas. In February 1972, faced with increasing numbers of customers, increased service demands, and technically more difficult service requirements, Louis R. Hampton, President, requested that steps be taken, as soon as possible, to revise the companys charge policy for service. It is important to understand that for years the company has given free service on everything except procurement and installation of appliance parts. The changeover to a full charge policy was difficult and required very careful planning. Our customers were not only used to free service but our employees. salesmen. servicemen. and supervisors were deeply orientated to this freeservice concept.
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Document ID: 0BE0637E

Some Aspects Of Long And Short Range Temperature Forecasting
Author(s): Peter R. Leavitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperatures are universally recognized as the principle external variable in the forecasting of gas send-out. Other meteorological parameters such as wind velocity, humidity, cloud cover, and precipitation also have to be considered. The relative importance of some of these vary considerably depending upon such things as the time of the year. hour of the day and most important, the nature of the load requirement. Most of these requirements, i.e., commercial, cooking, drying, and hot water are relatively independent of daily weather variations although there are definite changes on a seasonal basis. As a result, much of this type of activity appears as a contribution to the relatively constant base load. But. this is quite obviously not the case with the heating load, and it is also quite obvious that the single most important meteorological variable relating to this load is air temperature. Next in importance is the wind speed.
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Document ID: B181F6A9

Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Stationary Natural Gas Powered Engines
Author(s): H. A. Haimov
Abstract/Introduction:
Air pollution has become a subject of ever-increasing concern to the general public, government, and industry. Oxides of nitrogen, or NOx, is a lerm frequently used in the air pollution control efforts and applied to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). These substances are considered a major air contaminani, whose rate of formation is directly related to peak temperatures. Internal combustion engines are the single largest stationary source of NO, production from gas utilities operations and as such are of primary concern. For these reasons, the Southern California Gas Company undertook a program designed to determine the levels of NO, formation from its various stationary natural gas powered engines and to explore practical means for their reduction and control.
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Document ID: 74DFE531

The New Gas Appliance Improvement Network Gain()
Author(s): Harvey C. Foote
Abstract/Introduction:
During the next few years our industry will face more problems, obstacles, and changes than at any other time in its history. They will be brought about by restrictive legislation, outdoor and indoor pollution. environmentalists. consumer advocates. energy shortages, distribution of new gases. rising costs for energy on one hand, and on the other hand pressures from regulatory agencies to keep consumer costs down. There will be no easy solutions to these problems. As customer service representatives, what role can we play to help meet the challenges we face? I believe we have the potential of making the greatest contribution of all. It comes down to this, if the consumer is satisfied with gas as an energy and with the operation of appliances using that energy-many of the problems we face will be greatly diminished
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Document ID: 6BC235D3

Criteria For Determining The Strength Of Corroded Areas Of Gas Transmission Lines
Author(s): J. F. Kiefner, A. R. Duffy
Abstract/Introduction:
In certain circumstances buried pipelines may suffer varying amounts of metal loss as the result of galvanic corrosion. These losses can occur in areas where the coating and/or cathodic protection system fails to function as intended or where these protective devices are absent. When corroded areas are revealed, the question regarding whether or not to replace or repair the pipe arises. A given corroded region may or may not significantly affect the serviceability of the pipe, but without proven guidelines for separating corrosion which is severe from that which is not, a rational choice cannot be made. To provide such guidelines the work described herein was undertaken. From this work an effective corrosion criterion has evolved.
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Document ID: 1C97ADD3

PACE-A Management System For Gas Distribution
Author(s): R. G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas distribution department at Consumers Power Company was faced with a management control problem which was common throughout the utility industry. The problem was to provide our management team with a method of quickly and accurately evaluating their efforts in the area of operations and maintenance. With the advent of recent gas restrictions. the proportionate manpower assignment to the operations and maintenance area has increased substantially. This is evidenced by ihe fact that this year, 1973, the corporate budget in this category alone exceeds 514 million- We found thai previous attempts to measure work performance in the operations and maintenance area centered around a limited number of job categories which were easily delined. The accurate match-up of man-hours and payroll to these activities became difficult due to the ease with which man-hours could be shifted or misapplied to the unmonitored work areas. Serious questions of the vahditv of the reports were encountered and thus the necessity to account for all hours worked and all work performed became evident.
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Document ID: 986A986D

The Role Of Sng In The U.S. Energy Balance
Author(s): Henry R. Linden
Abstract/Introduction:
Considerable uncertainties exist with regard to the contribution that gas produced from petroleum and coal can make in meeting the rapidly increasing U.S. requirements for nonpolluting fuels. One major uncertainty in the supply of substitute natural gas (SNG) for interstate commerce is, of course, the position of the Federal Power Commission in regard to jurisdiction, pricing, and assumption of investment risk, SNG projects also face serious siting problems because of environmental restrictions imposed at both the federal and local levels. This creates especially severe obstacles to coal gasification. Feedstock availability and cost are other major concerns. Announced projects for production of SNG from natural gas liquids, naphtha, and crude oil have total feedstock requirements on the order of 1.5 to 1.6 million barrels per day, a little under 10% of current U.S. petroleum requirements. Since increases in petroleum demand will have to be met by corresponding increases in imports, this will intensify problems of reliability of supply, price stabilitv. and balance of trade associated with the rapidlv growing U.S. dependence on supplies outside the western hemisphere.
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Document ID: ED18B13C

The Importance Of Diligent Inspection To Assure A Sound Plastic Gas Piping System
Author(s): Jack W. Pierce
Abstract/Introduction:
Anv discussion of the importance of inspection, as it relates to extruding and installing plastic pipe, must, by the very concepts of inspection, apply lo all materials and to all inslallalions. This paper is pointed specifically toward plastic pipe the basic concepts apply to all engineered construction. This particular paper is directed toward one small but very important segment of the gas industry. Far too many problems have occurred throughout the industry because the inspecting function was disregarded or neglected.
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Document ID: 6E009630

New Horizons
Author(s): F. Donald Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
The energy crisis. The energy crunch. The shortage of energy. The energy problem, Everyone has his own pet phrase, but. at least, it appears that almost everyone knows something is wrong with our nations energy supply. Describing the problem in any detail to this audience would seem to be a little risky-since most of you are probably well aware of your own companies supply problems and the efforts to get more gas. But perhaps I can put a little different dimension on the subject, Id like to show you why I believe it is so essential for us to develop our nations gas reserves. It is a lot more than just job preservation for you and for me-it is of utmost importance to our country.
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Document ID: DD8CE06D

Sng From Light Hydrocarbons
Author(s): H. R. Wortman, A. J. Weiss
Abstract/Introduction:
The production of SNG from light hydrocarbons has started this year in the United States. The technology used in the design of these plants is mainly based on the work done by the British Gas Corporation and has been identified as the CRG or Catalytic Rich Gas process. As the name implies, the reactions that lake place in the conversion from light hydrocarbons to SNG is catalytic and this limits the feedstock to light hydrocarbons. The CRG process was used in the construction of about 40 town gas plants and the operating and design experience acquired from these plants has been used in the design and construction of SNG plants.
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Document ID: 077EEAAB

The United States Energy Situation
Author(s): David E. Hochanadel
Abstract/Introduction:
The possibility that the United States and the world is facing an energy crisis is painfully beginning to dawn. This specter is looming ever more convincingly as this past winter we saw how a shortage of one fuel will cascade almost through the whole gamut of fuels. The cut olf of interruptible gas backed into the propane market, dried it up, and then went on to invade the fuel oil market. Similarly, power plants, hungry for fuel, would pick up anything that would burn. The Chicago airports were nearly driven out of jet fuel, not to mention the impact of power plants on number two fuel oil. Intemiptible gas had been sold to all types of industrial and utility consumers at very low rates with the understanding that during peak winter demand periods they might not be able to be served. For winter after winter, the gas had not been interrupted and these consumers enjoyed the benefits of very low-cost energy throughout the year.
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Document ID: E4F5E351

New Developments-Gas Billing And Load Survey Via Magnetic Tape
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the uniquely new line of gas tape recorders designed especially for gas utilities and gas departments of combination utilities. Mercury Instruments new gas tape recorders usher in a whole new concept in gas volume recording. This first commercial unit constructed specifically for gas producers and utilities will find broad use in accumulating data for billing, price computation, cost analysis and usage patterns. Two types of recorders are descrilwd-the Mercury Gas Survey Tape Recorder (GSTR). and the Mercury Gas Billing: Tape Recorder (GBIR). Both will assist in the optimization of uses and conservation of our precious source of energy-gas.
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Document ID: 8A8A27CC

Recent Developments In Downhole Safety Valves
Author(s): Larry Johnson, Shelby Guidry
Abstract/Introduction:
The tremendous increase in usage of natural gases and liquid hydrocarbons, predicted for the United States in the years to come, makes it imperative that new developments in subsurface safety valve equipment are adequate to satisfy safety and conservation requirements of the huge storage facilities that will be needed. It is well established that any one type of subsurface safety valve installation will not protect all types of storage wells and reservoirs, and be practical from an operational standpoint at the same time.
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Document ID: FE0B0173

Concepts Of System Safety Analysis
Author(s): E. S. Cheaney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines certain of the key issues with respect to the possible adoption of system safety practices in pipeline management. This examination is preceded by discussions of several topics which provide an overview of the system safety management discipline. First is included a review of the history of system safety since its emergence in the late 40s. Following this is a discussion of the fundamental ideas upon which system safety management practice is founded. Then, there is an analysis of the basic problem of risk assessment and methods which might be employed to perform this function in the gas pipeline industry. Finally, the paper discusses four of the issues considered pertinent to the adoption of system safety practice: achieving sufficient plausibility of risk assessments, estimating the additional engineering-management workload required, development of an adequate database for risk assessment computations, and the achievement of reasonable uniformity in methodological practices throughout the industry.
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Document ID: 6DF5C43D

Field Maintenance Of Meters
Author(s): W. B. Richardson
Abstract/Introduction:
The entire concept of meter maintenance is rooted in economics. Both the gas company and the customer look upon ihe gas meter as a cash register-an arbiter of dollars-because each is concerned that true value be received for money spent. Regulatory agencies have part of their roots bedded deeply in ihe economics that stem from the publics desire that some basis of law guarantee fair treatment in the market place. The forces of both law and economics are sufficiently powerful to make mandatory a meter maintenance program for any gas company. The key to any meter maintenance program very likely will be a testing procedure to determine the accuracy of a meter. So long as a meter holds its abililv to measure gas correctly, there is Mitle or no need to perform any maintenance-except. perhaps, for paint and corrosion control. There arc three devices that are light weight and portable that can be used for testing large meters in place in the field.
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Document ID: 3CB25D7A

Quality Control-Incoming Materials
Author(s): R. C. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
When conducting quality control of incoming materials, it is important to include the quality assurance from the users point of view. In our case. 1 am going to define user rather narrowly as the man who has to operate and maintain the gas system as built. For this is the man who holds the bag after the engineers and purchasing agents have gone home. Other reasons for this close definition will soon become obvious. From this users point of view there are three fundamental questions. They are: (1) what did you want, (2) what did you get, and (3) what did you ask for? If you get the same answer to all three questions, any further discussions of quality assurance are academic. You have it made. However, unfortunately, this is rarely the case.
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Document ID: 4EAB7E7A

Large Diameter Cast Iron Replacement With High Pressure Steel Insert
Author(s): Richard C. Gaulin
Abstract/Introduction:
The major portion of Con Edisons New- York City distribution area consists of a low pressure (4 to 12-inch W.C.) system supplied through district regulators. The gas is carried to the district regulators through the New York City Supply System, formerly called the Gas Transfer System. This is the medium pressure (2-15 psi) system which formedv interconnected the various gas plants and holder stations in Manhattan, Bronx, and Queens. The holder stations were equipped with pumps whose function was the transfer of gas between holder stations. These holder stations also housed the regulators supplying the low pressure systems.
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Document ID: 3E549C60

Vapour Production From LNG Spills On Water
Author(s): G. J. Boyle
Abstract/Introduction:
The increase in marine transport of LNG has resulted in a need for rcHable dala for assessing the potential hazards which might arise from an accidental spillage of this product onto water. Several programs of research into the subject have been undertaken and reported, notably the U.S. Bureau of Mines has published two reports on the whole question of LNG spills on water with evalualions of the potential hazards (References I. 2), The Shell Pipeline Research Laboratory has reported a detailed study (Reference 3) of an early Bureau of Mines finding that LNG could explode on a water suriace and this has resulted in a widelv accepted explanation of this relatively harmless phenomenon.
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Document ID: 10315E03

Fpc And The Gas Industry
Author(s): Albert B. Brooke, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to commend the American Gas Association for its leadership role during the present energy dilemma. A.G.A.s warning in 1968 alerted the nation to the fact that natural gas supply, indeed, was marching a critical path and that there was more substance to producer claims of shortage than cry wolf A.G.A. has continued its efforts to imparl a better public understanding of the natural gas problem as well as assuming a constructive role, by itself and in conjunction with others, in efforts directed to solving the massive problem of fuels deficiency. The American Gas Association recently joined with other members of our energy industries in a joint statement appropriately entitled Toward Responsible Energy Policies, The statement is a highly realistic assessment of the present energy situation and identifies the national imperative that sound and timely decisions on energy policies are required to avoid energy shortfalls of a magnitude detrimental to national economic security.
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Document ID: A38A2AA7

Kill-A-Service
Author(s): John D. Cordone
Abstract/Introduction:
At Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation it was necessary for us to locate and retire all inactive gas services and stubs in order to comply with DOT 192.727 and the New- York State Public Service Commission 255 Code. The code slates, Each service line ihal has remained inactive for a period of two years, and for which there is no planned use. is to be disconnected or effectively sealed-ofF from the gas system at the main. Appropriate records shall be maintained of surveys for planned use of inactive lines and under no condition may a service line remain inactive for a period of more than five years.
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Document ID: 040E881E

Disposing Of Used Equipment
Author(s): W. E. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine what methods companies were using to dispose of used equipment. I sent survey forms to 81 companies and received replies from 74. In this survey I tried to determine the number of companies that were auctioning their equipment. If they were auctioning, did they conduct the auction themselves? I was also interested in knowing whether a Hold Harmless Agreement was signed when a vehicle was sold, and if they generally got a fair price for their equipment sold, The following are the answers as recorded from the questionnaires. The numbers may not add up because some of the questions were not answered.
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Document ID: D36F32A3

Measurements Of Liquified Natural Gas-Calculation Of Heating Value Of A Shipload Of LNG
Abstract/Introduction:
There are numerous methods of establishing the cargo value of liquefied natural gas prior to transfer. Because LNG exists in liquid form ai temperatures well below those traditionally encountered by the gas industrv, new measurement instruments, materials and techniques are needed to provide the necessary information. In addition. LNG is a concentrated form of potential energy with high unit value and. therefore, precision and accuracy of the value measurement must be recognized, established, and improved if necessary to maintain equity in trade.
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Document ID: 47D32D60

Consumer Legislation Spurs Customer Service Programs
Author(s): Pauline B. Dunckel
Abstract/Introduction:
As the 93rd Congress opened its deliberations, it seemed likely that 1973 would bring forth at least two. perhaps more, major pieces of consumer legislation. Congress seemed committed lo the idea that the consumer must be protected, not only from business, but from himself. Both Congress and the President, however, have been devoting most of their attention to inflation, federal expenditures, the energy crisis, foreign trade, and our continued mililarv involvement in Southeast Asia. Those major congressional concerns, plus a certain preoccupation with the Watergate matter, seem for the moment to have pushed consumer legislation on to the back burner.
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Document ID: F60295EB

Equation Of State Development Report
Author(s): m. A. Francis
Abstract/Introduction:
where P is absolute pressure, T is absolute temperature. Z is compressibility, and D is density. The gas constant. R. is selected for the appropriate units desired. To solve for the compressibility. the pressure, temperature and density must be known. Also the compressibility may be expressed as a complex function of temperature and pressure. this is taken into account when deriving more involved equations of slate. The virial form of equations of stale express the pressure as a power series of density.
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Document ID: 038C606A

New Methods And Developments
Author(s): John Siridis
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been recognized that a wealth of information exists in the gas industry throughout the country. The means must be-and in most cases has been-developed to harness this valuable information. 1 will cover the steps taken by the Distribution Metering Committee to alert the member companies of new methods and developments which have been successfully established in the industry. I will also cover some of the most recent new methods and developments submilted by the members of our committee.
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Document ID: 3A0737B2

Estimating Natural Gas Pipeline Friction Loss Parameters From Unsteady State Measurements
Author(s): m. A. Stoner, m. A. Karnitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Both transient and steady state pipeline models describing the flow of natural gas contain some form of a friction loss parameter, These parameters together with the pipeline diameter, length, and gas properties determine the pipeline capacity and the pressure loss incurred in moving gas through the pipeline. The experimental determination of the friction loss parameter provides information for determining when cleaning of a line is necessary and/or information for use in system models. Many other parameters can affect the accuracy of a transient or steady state model, but the correct estimation of the friction loss parameter is an essential item for obtaining a good correlation between the mathematical model and the prototype network.
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Document ID: D7BB4A94

A Reference Meter For Automatic Bell Provers
Author(s): Glenn H. Chamberlain
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the innovation of automatic bell provers, there has been a search in the industry for a standard reference meter. The reference meter is not intended as a primary standard. Rather it is intended to be used to determine that no change in accuracy has taken place in an individual prover and ihal all provers are within close accuracy limits from one to another. For a relerence meter to be effective obviously all provers must be operaling properly and be in close calibration both physically and electronically.
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Document ID: 51954A4F

Storeroom Planning By Computer And Subsequent Operation
Author(s): T. C. Stapleford
Abstract/Introduction:
Philadelphia Electric has utilized computers in warehousing and inventory management applications to lay out and operate its central stores facility, provide daily inventory management information, and prepare details of scrap sales for billing purposes. Facilities utilized include both consultant developed and in house programming, remote data transmission facilities, in house computers. and a time sharing computer service.
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Document ID: D55698E5

Training Field Personnel In Cathodic Protection
Author(s): Bryon L. Kusta
Abstract/Introduction:
Our companys distribution systems are comprized of many small systems. We operate a toial of 320 communities and many miles of rural pipeline. This covers an area of seven states from southwest Texas to upper Minnesota and from the Mississippi River to western Colorado. With this large an area to cover, it is necessary to train the individual field people in the art and science of corrosion and the application of cathodic protection. To accomplish this we have established a three-phase program.
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Document ID: D859FDB7

Quality Control-Raw Material To Finished Product At Perflex
Author(s): S. S. Elliot
Abstract/Introduction:
In the very progressive flux of the gas distribution industry, increasing emphasis is being placed on the quality of purchased products as they relate to safety, dependability, and performance. I therefore welcome the opportunity to show you some of the behind the scene activities which take place in the production of one of the most discussed products today-plastic pipe. Plastic pipe is in the limelight because to some it is a fairly new development in the gas industry. Hence it is new to some engineer designers, it would be new to installers, new to purchasing people. Well, it is not all that new.
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Document ID: 673AAF61

Suggested Criteria For Cathodic Protection In Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): John H. Fitzgerald
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. Department of Transportation Minimum Federal Standards for Transportation of Natural and Other Ga.s by Pipeline (Part 192-Title 49-Dockct No. OPS-5). commonly called Ihe DOT Code, lists several criteria for cathodic protection. In essence. these are: Steel, cast or ductile iron structures- 1. 0.85 volt to copper-copper sulfate half cell, 2. Negative voltage shift of at least 300 millivolts, 3. Minimum negative polarization shift of 100 millivolts. 4. A voltage at least as negative as that originally established at the beginning of Ihe Tafel segment of the E Log 1 Curve. 5. A net protective current as measured bv an earth current meter.
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Document ID: CF773325

Heat Actuated Heat Pumps As A New System Development In Gas Air Conditioning
Author(s): Ken Cuccinelli
Abstract/Introduction:
The unicorn is a fabulous animal. He is generally depicted with the body and head of a horse, the hind legs of a stag, the tail of a lion, and a single horn in the middle of his forehead. Although the animal sounds like the result of some promiscuiiv at the zoo it is actually a species that existed before the time of Noah. All unicorns had a devil-may- care attitude and just roamed the earth doing what thev pleased without anv concern for their environment or how it was being affected. As I understand it they are extinct today due to the fact that Noah could not find a proper combination who would or could adapt to 40 days on the ark with all the other animals looking down their backs. In essence all the social and functional scrutiny brought to bear during that period of crisis was just too much for this proud animal.
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Document ID: AF503B50

Steps Required To Cathodically Protect A Distribution Property
Author(s): E. H. Holland
Abstract/Introduction:
The first requirement in any cathodic protection program is to have people who are qualified to perform and understand the cathodic protection process. Without such people, it would be useless to undertake such a program. In attempting to achieve any degree of success, it is mandatory that the people doing the work must have the basic knowledge, ability, integrity, equipment, and authority to put into effect such a cathodic protection program. Before anv attempt is made to make field measurements and install any temporary or permanent equipment, an understanding of the property or system must be accomplished. You should have some sort of maps or drawings which show the location of all parts of the total system. If not, then someone must provide or create them.
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Document ID: 8E9AA80C

The Effects Of High Pressure On Diaphragm Meter Accuracy
Author(s): James R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Tests have been conducted using a 5OO cu. ft. Bell Prover to calibrate large capacity diaphragm meters. These same meters have then been operated under pressure and calibration checked by discharging into the same Bell Prover. The results confirm that meter proof is a function of meter differential pressure. Results also indicate and confirm that meters to be used under pressure should be proved at the maximum differential at which they will be used. The intent of this paper is to present the test data and show the relationship of meter proof to operating differential. The question of measurement accuracy of diaphragm meters when measurmg under pressure is not new. In fact, much work has been done to verify accuracies under varying conditions over the years. In 1939, extensive tests were conducted in Huntington, West Virginia. Some of the participants in this work were: Hope Natural Gas Company, now part of the Consolidated Gas Supply System, as well as other gas companies the West Virginia Public Service Commission: and Pittsburgh Equitable Meter, now Rockwell and American Meter Company.
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Document ID: D8D8AED6

Large Volume Commodity Exchange Utilizing Computerized Mass Measurement
Author(s): W. m. Moore, W. W. Moring, L. H. Reed, D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry in recent years has begun to recognize the advantages and desirability of mass flow measurement. The primary factors influencing the trend toward mass measurement are the potential for greater accuracy and the economic benefits that could result. An increased interest has emerged in the use of electronic flow computers for gas measurement, with particular emphasis on simplification of gas accounting procedures. Furthermore, there has been an acute need for closer comparison of gas volumes between custody exchange measurement and those measured for control and dispatching purposes. These needs have been magnified by the increasingly serious shortage of gas supply.
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Document ID: BDBE35AD

Studies Of Front-End Threshold Pressure Measurements
Author(s): G. N. Pandey, m. Rasin Tek, Donald L. Katz
Abstract/Introduction:
Continued studies on threshold pressure of caprocks were made beyond the A.G.A. monograph using gas pressure measurements at the front end of the core to detect the threshold event. A new technique was devised which consists of placing a limited supply of gas at the front of the core under high pressure followed by pressure reduction to a level value equal to the threshold pressure. In this technique, the gas-water interface is moved a short distance into the core, with the displacement arrested due (o the limited supply of the displacing fluid at a pressure differential high enough to overcome (he threshold pressure. Auxiliary measurements were made using a liquid hydrocarbon as the displacing fluid. Radioactive photography was used to show the arrested gas-water interface. The heterogeneous character of the caprocks were photographed on a scanning electron microscope.
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Document ID: 325EC7A6

Quality Control-If You Want A Quality Control Program
Author(s): N. Paul Hartleben
Abstract/Introduction:
If we want a quality control program, how should it be organized? What are the basic features of such a program? What are the costs involved and would the results justify the expense? These are some of the questions many of us are asking about quality control, particularly when the use of new materials with critical characteristics are being used at an ever-increasing rate. Since any company that does business has at least a rudimentary quality control program, the meaning behind these questions can best be summed up by asking one basic question: How does one introduce formal statistical controls to make assurance of quality more effective?
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Document ID: 7C9E016A

Training On Wheels
Author(s): Elmer E. Westerhof
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the major tasks facing management today is how to inform and constantly update the employee on all phases of his job, while training him for the next higher level. Since the time spent in training is not productive, it must be accomplished at the minimum of expense and still be complete and thorough. Our industry is being scrutinized by federal agencies, public service commissions, and by just about any group that wants to be heard. Some of the comments relate to training. Also, some of the reported incidents that have crossed my desk indicate lack of training has had some part in the cause of the incident. The task facing management is how to keep the employee informed and knowledgeable in all phases of his work.
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Document ID: BC749F36

Human Errors In Metering
Author(s): Patrick H. Loughran
Abstract/Introduction:
Long before humans ever created gas distribution metering, the philosophers and poets had recognized the natural tendency to errors in human thought and action. Alexander Pope in his famous Essay on Criticism said: To err is human, to forgive, divine. We gas distribution metering men, our utility colleagues, our suppliers. our customers, the regulatory commission personnel, and the general public are all very human. We make our share of human errors but we cannot expect divine forgiveness because our human errors transgress on and inconvenience other humans. John Locke in his Essay on Human Understanding was more specific when he said: All men are liable to error, and most men are, in many points, by possession or interest, under temptation to it. Well, old Johns thoughts still apply but I am sure he was using the words all men to mean all humans. Otherwise we could avoid errors in gas distribution metering by turning it over to womens lib. Well, I would have mixed feelings to this remedy. I would certainly have to admit we men have made our share of human errors but we are learning and improving all the time, I also still think the women are just as human and subject to error.
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Document ID: B5D5296E

The Application Of Reverse Osmosis On Cooling Water Slowdown
Author(s): F. J. Jester
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the increasing costs of water and the ever-increasing limits on wastes from the water treatment plant and process plant in general, new water management approaches are being developed. These new approaches stress maximum water reuse with minimum waste waters and solids produced. With this intent in mind, reverse osmosis has been developed. Now, with the recent technological developments, reverse osmosis is a cost competitive water treatment tool with the advantage of adding very little additional waste solids to the final waste stream.
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Document ID: C0F9EC0B

Athabasca Tar Sands And Its Role In The North American Energy Crisis
Author(s): F. K. Spragins
Abstract/Introduction:
In choosing the words energy crisis in the title I was responding to the current press treatment of a situation of concern to North Americans. In my opinion it is not a crisis but instead a situation requiring change both as to source of energy supply and price structure-a situation where distinct alternatives can be identified. Because of this situation a growing interest in synthetic fuels is rapidly developing, whether they are derived from coal, shale, or tar sands. In this respect, I would like to focus attention on the Athabasca tar sands of Alberta.
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Document ID: B0BDEBE4

A Visual Guide To Gas Leak Classification
Author(s): Leon C. Berman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas leak classification has been an integral part of maintenance programs for distribution systems throughout the years. The subject of classification has been defined and redefined, has been reviewed and rereviewed, and has been resolved and re-resolved. With each approach, progress has been made toward establishing uniformity. applicable to all systems and geographic areas of the country. To a large measure, our professional and occupational affiliations are affected by ever-increasing regulations and directives. These demand compliance to many newly established codes at various levels of government. In recent vears the number of new regulations imposed upon our gas operations have created many problems of interpretation. The scope and intent covered in any given section of a code, can often times result in different conclusions. These problems have been compounded by the fact that agencies from different levels of government have established their own codes and sometimes offer divergent opinions.
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Document ID: 487ED4E4

Power And Free Conveyor System-A Requisite For Modern Meter Shop Design
Author(s): John F. Mcdevitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Philadelphia Electric Company has established a new meter shop that utilizes a Power and Free Conveyor System that automatically processes meters through several operaitions and accumulates work at various stations. When a full workload has accumulated at a station, personnel are shifted to clear the workload. The design concept and the economic factors that justified the use of a Power and Free Conveyor System and its applications are explained. The Philadelphia Electric Companv began operation of a new modern central giLs meier shop in 1972. The seleclion of a Power and Free Conveyor System and other automated equipment has permiiied a reduction in manpower requirements of nine men. Previously, three suburban division shops performed the necessary gius meter lesi and repair operations with a total of 21 men. The new central shop operates efficienliv with only 12 men which includes a shop supervisor and a working foreman.
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Document ID: 0A284A88

Process Control By Computer In A Synthetic Natural Gas Plant
Author(s): m. Asgari, B. Bergen, K. Berta
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to describe a computer control system Tor a synthetic natural gas (SNG) plant. Included are descriptions of the events leading to the application of a computer system-feasibility study, justification-and the scope, staffing and organization of a project, typically offered by The Lummus Company. Today most areas in the United States are affected by the shortage of natural gas. Several utility companies anticipated this situation and undertook the construction of synthetic natural gas plants. The first of these plants are expected to be fully operational in the 1973-74 period.
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Document ID: CA36DB06

Effects Of Stray Currents On Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): Charles W. Salmon, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Incorporated has a gas distribution system that, if not unique in the industry, is at least as complex as any other gas system relative to exposure to stray currents. It is the purpose of this paper, using this gas system as an example, to discuss the effects Consolidated Edison is having at this time from stray currents and to discuss some effects that will become a reality in the near future. We will also go over some factors that we at Consolidated Edison are applying which will keep these effects at a controllable level. We feel that the basic premise to be discussed here could apply to any gas distribution system.
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Document ID: 794BB051

New Tire Designs, Applications, And Effect Of Standards
Author(s): R. L. French, D. E. Schuster
Abstract/Introduction:
Many exciting changes are taking place in the tire industry with rapid growth in the types of tires available for the vehicles you use and in the way in which you use them. To understand the new developments in the tire industry you first must have in your mind the three basic types of tires being offered today and the differences between them. The first type of tire is the bias ply construction. This is the type of tire that has been the main-stay of the tire industry for many years. This construction uses alternating angled layers of fabric braced in opposite directions to give the tire its shape and strength. At least two plies arc necessary to form the body of the tire. Various fabrics. such as rayon, nylon, polyester, fiberglass. and wire are all possible materials that could be used in a bias ply tire.
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Document ID: 20F2FA66

Polyethylene Plastic Pipe Repair
Author(s): W. T. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Lone Star Gas Companys experience with various types of plastic piping in gas service dates to the early 1950s. Polyethylene plastic was adopted as our standard distribution piping material in 1968. We now have in service over seven million feet of polyethylene mains and over 86,000 polyethylene service lines. The mains range in size from 1 1/4 inches through 6 inches. Most of the service lines are 3/4-inch IPS. Distribution system operating pressures range up to 60 psi. Leaks in plastic piping are most often caused by damage from digging equipment. which can produce verv large openings or can completely sever the pipe. In these cases, gas flow must be controlled by the mosl expedient means availabie. Gas flow from damaged polyethylene pipe can be easily controlled because of the flexibiliiy of the material.
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Document ID: 496C14F6

An Integrated Material Management System
Author(s): Orion Fink
Abstract/Introduction:
Mv idea of an integrated material management system may differ from yours. This arises. I suppose, from consideration of the question: How integrated is integrated? The program described here is an effort to control the flow of materials from the time ihe line operations develop their budgets or projects until the products have been accepted for use and paid for. To achieve this degree of control requires integration by organization, integration by communication. and integration by data processing.
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Document ID: 41B241F2

Spills Of LNG On Water
Author(s): W. G. May, W Mcqueen, R. H. Whipp
Abstract/Introduction:
Early work by the Bureau of Mines showed that the vapor from an LNG spill does not disperse in ihe atmosphere in quite the same way as other materials which have been studied. The difference was attributed to the high density of the cold vapor arising from a spill the vertical mixing appeared to be suppressed.
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Document ID: 89F467C9

Large Diameter Cast Iron Replacement With High Pressure Steel Insert
Author(s): Richard C. Gaulin
Abstract/Introduction:
The major portion of Con Edisons New- York City distribution area consists of a low pressure (4 to 12-inch W.C.) system supplied through district regulators. The gas is carried to the district regulators through the New York City Supply System, formerly called the Gas Transfer System. This is the medium pressure (2-15 psi) system which formedv interconnected the various gas plants and holder stations in Manhattan, Bronx, and Queens. The holder stations were equipped with pumps whose function was the transfer of giis between holder stations. These holder stations also housed the regulators supplying the low pressure systems.
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Document ID: B1256754

Kill-A-Service
Author(s): John D. Cordone
Abstract/Introduction:
At Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation it was necessary for us to locate and retire all inactive gas services and stubs in order to comply with DOT 192.727 and the New- York State Public Service Commission 255 Code. The code slates, each service line that has remained inactive for a period of two years, and for which there is no planned use. is to be disconnected or effectively sealed-off from the gas system at the main. Appropriate records shall be maintained of surveys for planned use of inactive lines and under no condition may a service line remain inactive for a period of more than five years.
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Document ID: ACC12ED9

Plastic Pipe Institutes Fusion Joining Procedures For Polyethylene Pipe Systems
Author(s): Ivan K. Deblieu
Abstract/Introduction:
A slide training film on fusion of polyethylene pipe systems has been developed bv the Plastic Pipe Institute and applies only to the joining of polyethylene pipe to itself and to polyethylene fittings. The film, Fusion Joining Procedures for Polyethylene Pipe Systems, is intended to familiarize management and supervision with the techniques not to train operators completely. The types of fusion covered are socket, saddle, butt, and insert. We use both sketches and pictures of the equipment. The processing conditions will vary with the type and category of the pipe and fillings. Manufacturers instructions should be carefully followed in all cases.
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Document ID: 29807370

Internal Leak Testing Meters
Author(s): Ernest L. Greenhill
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of an acceptable internal leak in the 19th century obtained from a regulation published in England in 1859, titled An Act of Regulating Measures Used in Sales of Gas: A meter shall be tested for soundness or leakage with gas under pressure equal to a column of water three inches high, with a light or lights consuming not more than one twentieth part of its measuring capacity per hour marked thereon. The specifications have not changed much over the past 114 years. A recognized specification requires W CFH 5% as an acceptable internal leak. If a meter has an internal leak of % CFH. assuming 200,000 cubic feet of gas are consumed by a customer, the error would be 1% of the gas not registered. The standard present method of determining an internal leak requires the meter to rotate one revolution over a prescribed period of time.
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Document ID: 4D7F7F15

Where Reservoir Engineering Stops And Computer Technology Begins
Author(s): m. Rasin Tek, Donald L. Katz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines the problems, applications, and models where reservoir engineering is interfaced with computer technology. The concept of Problem-Cycle, where technically relevant problems are identihed and defined in field operations through perception and judgment is discussed. Major elements of this cycle, from the initiation of the study through selection of suitable model, development of computer program, and execution of the algorithm for desired runs are described. Once meaningful numerical answers are obtained and results interpreted, considerations of economic constraints and optimum recommendations to the management terminates the problem cycle where it all started in the field. Examples in support of the ideas advanced are cited and described.
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Document ID: 21A3037C

Downhole Gas Leak Detection Via Blrdwells Wellbore Sibilation Survey
Author(s): R. K. Ault
Abstract/Introduction:
As the energy crisis becomes more obvious and as concern for ecology readies all levels of operations in the companies involved in natural gas storage, service companies are being pressed to develop services which will provide answers to the multitude of problems encountered in underground containment. Underground leakages, which not long ago were considered too minimal to cause companies concern, have recently become economically and/or ecologically important. Methods to delect the large underground leaks have suddenly become insufficient to locate and analyze minute leaks. Thus new techniques have been and are being developed to pinpoint these now important small leakages and make possible the correction of the problems.
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Document ID: E391A813

Use Of Water Cannon For Trenching
Author(s): Louis L. Clipp
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems constantly facing todays gas utilities is how to economicaliy install underground facilities while having to excavate through materials ranging from concrete lo permafrost. Last year, the White House expressed its concern with the problem of placing utilities underground and announced that it would attempt to stimulate new lechnologies for underground excavation due to the virtual disappearance of land available for aqueducts, power and utility lines, highways and transportation lines. The White House announcement left little doubt that all utilities, not just gas. would soon be encouraged to go underground. For city planning, the concept of central underground corridors, where all utilities would be carried, is gaining speed. In addition to lessened environmental impact, maintenance of these lines is simpler, as the climate does not interfere.
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Document ID: D90EE7E4

Use Of Edp Service Performance Data
Author(s): Robert H. Reinauer
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Electronic Data Processing Equipment, as a means of measuring performance of servicemen, has become an indispensible part of the operation of many gas utility service departments. While improving the performance of individual servicemen is the primary purpose of most EDP programs. there are many add-on benefits that can be obtained ai little or no additional cost by applying a little imagination and a iot of careful planning. I will cover a Service Performance Program and various other programs that have been developed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company. Public Service first entered the field of EDP for Service Department Operations 15 years ago. Initially, a series of programs were developed that provided performance data on individual, district, and company levels statistical data concerning completed service orders to eliminate manual couniing accounting information for distribution of labor charges and statistical information concerning appliance performance.
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Document ID: 2A840026

Determining Bolt Tension, Torque, And Application
Author(s): F. J. Allen, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Several years ago, when I was in the drilling contracting business, running several large rigs inland and offshore Louisiana, an associate and I undertook lo design our way out of ihe problem of nippling up and down-assembly and disassembly of blowout preventers. For the uninitiated, blowout preventers are large flanged closures whose purpose is to prevent wells from blowing out should thev kick. Some of these stacks are tremendous, and have a number of large high pressure flanges with studs and nuts, some requiring up to several thousand foot pounds of torque to impart the proper tension to effect a proper and sure seal. Flange ratings of 5,000 psi are common up to sizes of 1314 inches with occasional application of 10,000 psi in sizes up to 16% inches. 15,000 psi in sizes up to 13% inches. and 20,000 psi in 7 1/16 inches nominal API size. These ratings refer to API std 6A and extensions industry has found necessary.
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Document ID: EC3C7E45

The Use Of Sonic Nozzles In Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): Harry R. Schroyer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper gives the background supporting the choice of flow (sonic) nozzles as secondary flow standards for gas meter calibration. It describes why nozzles are useful for this purpose and details a preferred nozzle design. Three typical applications are given. Tests on a 12 inch turbine meter, on rotary meters and on diaphragm meters are described. Several years ago, it became evident that some form of secondary flow standard was required for work with natural gas flow meters. smce meter development was being extended into areas of high flow rates and high pressures. It was felt that the accuracy required in testing these new designs could not be met by using orifice meters or other differential meters and the time-tested, bell-prover standard was not suitable at high pressures.
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Document ID: B8CBAC52

Main Replacement By Direct Burial Overlay
Author(s): Ronald V. Tollefsrud
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the development of the gas system rehabilitation program of the Minneapolis Gas Company. In an attempt to respond to the request to comment on the major issues mentioned in the Task Group Report on Planned Replacement. I have developed this paper under the major headings of that report. In recent years at Minnegasco, the reasons for the replacement program are falling into the following order of importance (1) public improvement, (2) code compliance, (3) interference, and (4) performance. Minnegasco has always replaced mains and services where evidence could be assembled to show that they had become hazardous or uneconomical to maintain. In the early 1960s Minnegasco went through the growing pains that accompany a major modification of policy.
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Document ID: BFBB0138

Techniques For Sampling Natural Gas, Sng And LNG
Author(s): A. J. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling methods for hydrocarbon gases have been given attention for at least two decades because of increasing needs in various phases of the gas industry. Because of the varied types of gases, conditions, and objectives involved, many techniques have been devised. ASTM D 1145. Methods of Sampling Natural Gas. was first published in 1950 and describes a variety of procedures and types of containers from small glasi bottles lo large water-filled holders, as do several other industry publications of the 1950s (References 2 and 3). During the 1960s NGPA Publication 2166 resulted from committee work because of sampling needs of the natural gas processing industry for plant design, control, etc., and API RP 44 similarly resulted because of the sampling needs for reservoir studies. This paper will supplement these publications by briefly discussing causes and minimization of errors that have been uncovered bv experiences and data obtained in field sampling programs, and from cooperative testing by the NGPA Analytical Committee.
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Document ID: 9C1F2BA6

Replacement Of Low Pressure Systems With Special Diameter Plastic Inserts
Author(s): Stephen G. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company is ihe oldest gas company in the United States. Its 4,100-mile disiribution system includes about 1,600 miles of cast-iron pipe ranging in size from 3 inches to 48 inches. Our cast iron is found in two distinct operating systems: one low pressure 7 inch WC and the other medium pressure, 1 to 10 psig. The distribution network is built around an old gas manufacturing plant with a few large medium-pressure lines acting as feeders for the very extensive low-pressure system, in the suburban areas we have a steel-pipe system operating at 99 psig fed from a 300 psig system. In Baltimore, we have had no chronic. aggravating problem with the cast iron pipe which demands its replacemeni. Instead, we recognized that nothing lasts forever: therefore. some kind of replacement program is necessary.
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Document ID: A2974948

Construction Problems-Canadian Arctic Pipeline
Author(s): William Gant
Abstract/Introduction:
The prolonged uncertainties and frustrations surrounding the Alyeska Pipeline Project-with which you are all familiar I am certain-provide ample evidence of the special engineering, environmental, ecological, and sociological considerations associated with an Arctic pipeline. I would like to discuss these and other practical problems facing those engaged to construct such a facility. Taken together, the problems of manpower availability and training, accommodation. equipment, financial resources, logistics. access, terrain, specialized design, climate, and government regulations, represent bv far the greatest challenge ever faced by the pipeline construciion industry: At the present lime, the pipeline proposed by the Canadian Arctic Gas Study Group to deliver gas from northern Canadian fields as well as Prudhoe Bay appears to be the most likely first project in northern Canada. However, because they have not yet finalized route or design parameters and because the problems I have mentioned will be die same no matter what the route, my comments are made without specific reference to any individual gas pipeline proposal.
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Document ID: A055F203

An Updating Of The Hygas Process
Author(s): F. C. Schora, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the achievements to date and recounts the current status of the HYGAS pilot plant program. We cannot generally describe the pilot plant more than has been published already elsewhere. The HYGAS Process represents in some respects an extreme of the various new processes under development by the joint A.G.A.-U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Coal Research, gasification program and other private groups. Because it is designed to maximize the direct formation of methane in the gasifier and therefore minimize demands on the gas cleanup and catalytic methanation system, it has been under development in the laboratory for a longer period than any other coal-to-gas conversion process. Numerous other papers give a good general description and a more detailed review of the process concept and pilot plant configurations. (References 1, 2, 3. and 4).
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Document ID: 232BCFB5

Break Detecting-A Newer Concept
Author(s): Morris T. Covington
Abstract/Introduction:
A pipeline break control system is by definition a system that detects the fact that a product pipeline has had an abnormal loss of product and takes the action necessary to prevent further loss of product. Ultimately, a break control system would be a system that would instantaneously react to a break and take immediate action that would prevent funher loss of product. Ultimately, the system would not require pipeline operating personnel to become involved in controlling the break. Ultimately, Ihe system would not require maintenance, and ultimately, the system could be purchased at a price that is economically justified by the prevention of product loss alone.
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Document ID: 56D39E64

Some Aspects Of Long And Short Range Temperature Forecasting
Author(s): Peter R. Leavitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperatures are universally recognized as the principle external variable in the forecasting of gas send-out. Other meteorological parameters such as wind velocity. humidity, cloud cover, and precipitation also have to be considered. The relative importance of some of these vary considerably depending upon such things as the time of the year. hour of the day and most important, the nature of the load requirement. Most of these requirements, i.e., commercial. cooking, drying, and hot water are relatively independent of daily weather variations although there are definite changes on a seasonal basis. As a result, much of this type of activity appears as a contribution to the relatively constant base load. But. this is quite obviously not the case with the heating load, and it is also quite obvious that the single most important meteorological variable relating to this load is air temperature. Next in importance is ihe wind speed.
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Document ID: A75D7FF4

Thermoplastics-Design, Use, And Limitations In Reciprocating Compressors
Author(s): William R. Spitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
The main objective of this paper is to present the present state of the art of reinforced and internally lubricated thermoplastics for use in reciprocating compressors. All plastics are divided into two classes, thermoplastics and thermosets, depending on the way each reacts under repeated conditions of heating and cooling. The name plastics is applied to a large and varied group of synthetic materials that are processed by molding or forming them to shape. Chemically, plastics are composed of chain-like molecules of high molecular weight, called polymers, that usually have been built up from simpler chemicals called monomers. A different monomer or combination of monomers is used to manufacture each different type or family of plastics.
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Document ID: AD4DE759

Plastic Pipe Performance Survey (1972)
Author(s): Keith A. Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association Plastic Pipe Committee of the Distribution Division formed a Task Group in 1970 to conduct a survey of gas companies to update the committees information on plastic pipe. The main objective was to provide the Plastic Pipe Committee a continuing measure of performance of existing plastic pipe systems. The task group sent out a three part confidential questionnaire. Part one asked for ihe name of the company, the respondent, the footage installed and kind of plastic used in the system. Five time categories were lised for footage and kind installed. They were for the period prior to 1968. and for each of the vears 1968, 1969. 1970. and 1971. Pan two included all instances of failure of plastic piping systems occurring during 1969 through 1971 irrespective of installation date. Part three requested each company to list or comment on unusual occurrences.
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Document ID: 80E1C4A0

Legislative Strategies Behind Todays Headline Decisions
Author(s): Gerald R. Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
For the last quarter of a century Ihe American people have been plagued by many problems-World War II, Korea, and Vietnam racial strife and political upheaval balance of payments and world monetary dislocations strikes inflation and environmental and ecology issues. In spite of all of our troubles we have improved our standard of living and the United States has grown at an unprecedented rale. We now are moving through a period when some Americans would like lo halt the wheels of progress. They would like to stop all growth. There is no question that many of our problems are a result of growth. But in a free-enterprise democratic society, growth is essential.
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Document ID: 9BB65C67

Noise-A Costly And Unnecessary Pollutant
Author(s): Lyle F. Verges
Abstract/Introduction:
It is ironic that during a period of an alleged energy crisis, a form of waste energy associated with the production, transmission, and use of gas should become a pollutant. We are referring, of course, to noise-unwanted sound. As most of us know, sound is a form of mechanical energy, a vibration in an elastic medium. Sound exists objectively, without regard to any observer or receiver. What turns sound into noise is its becoming unwanted. That makes noise a subjective thing -a form of unwanted energy. Unfortunately, there is no economical or practical means of amverting noise into useful energy. Furthermore, the energy involved in even very loud noises is quite trivial the level of loud, shouting speech (just above the OSHA 90 dBA limit) is only about 0.001 W. Even a relatively large reciprocating engine produces less than iOO W of acoustic power under normal conditions of operation. Why, then, should we be at all concerned about noise?
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Document ID: 6D511E61

Applications Of A Mini-Computer In Performance Testing Of Reciprocating And Centrifugal Compressors
Author(s): Charles J. Germany
Abstract/Introduction:
An MIT engine indicator has been moditied to provide a digital input of pressure and crankangle to a mini-computer. This input provides data for coordinates of 400 points which go to make up a pressure versus volume diagram and from which an analysis of the performance can be made. The mini-computer is used to process data at the test site for both reciprocating and centrifugal compressor performance. Prompted by the need for an on-the-site evaluation of performance for reciprocating engine-compressor units, we have taken what we consider to be the best part of the old reliable MIT indicator and interfaced it to a mini-computer. The equipment which we have selecled and assembled, along with the necessary software, allows us to automatically acquire rpm of the engine and sufficient data from the compressor cylinders for a set of coordinates that will describe a pressure-volume diagram.
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Document ID: D808632E

Upgrade Your Records Without Dig Ups
Author(s): George R. Dugovic
Abstract/Introduction:
In our present urbanized society locating our existing facilities prior to others excavating near these facilities is the standard job assignment for a growing percentage of our employees. The public rights-of-way are thoroughly laced with a wide variety of utilities. New construction within existing rightsof way generated by the Pure Waters Act, Urban Renewal, highway construction or by commercial, industrial and residential building construction, or the installation of new utility lines is an ever present situation. So locate our lines we must. If we do not or cannot locate our facilities we can be assured that the universal pipe locator. otherwise known as the back-hoe is not known as one of the major non-destructive tests for pipe location.)
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Document ID: AFB60307

Look At Remote Meter Reading And Automatic Data Handling
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
It was back in 1967 that Brooklyn Union Gas found itself facing a situation that is all too familiar to most utilities serving cities. both large and small, Skips or cant get ins or whatever they are called in your company were already exceeding a yearly average of 13%. The indications were also clear that this trend was headed in only one direction and that was up. The factors contributing to this trend are basic. The ever spiraling inflationary trend of the economy, coupled with the typically American desire for the better life has resulted in an increasing number of situations where both the husband and wife are working, thus leaving no one at home when the meter reader makes his call.
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Document ID: 2D137864

Automated Automotive And Equipment Information Systems
Author(s): D. J. Postl
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of computers as a tool in controlling automotive and equipment fleets in the utility industry has been discussed numerous times. Representatives from my own company have presented papers dealing with the subject in 1964 and 1966 however, the overall interest shown in this subject at our fall planning meeting would indicate that not everyone has a computer centered system or is not completely satisfied with the system they have in operation. We installed our original automated data gathering system about 10 years ago. In our initial thoughts we visualized the computer cranking out reams and reams of valuable information that would be quickly absorbed by all levels of supervision, and within months every decision involving our fleet operation and maintenance, would be based strictly on logic, arrived at by the analysis of exacting information.
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Document ID: A7215740

Quality Control-Raw Material To Finished Product At Mueller
Author(s): Frank C. Hackman
Abstract/Introduction:
It is evident that inspection of incoming materials is vitally important to the production of a quality hnished product. Mueller Co., at its various plants, receives raw materials in many ways. Some methods of delivery are difficult to control. In Decatur, Ill., and Brea, Calif, steel scrap is received by truck from local merchants, while in Chattanooga, the scrap is delivered by rail. The methods vary primarily because of the extreme variation in the size of the operations. We do receive nodular iron scrap by rail in Decatur. We normally buy scrap steel of known chemical analysis such as cropped steel rail, hot rolled steel trimmings of a minimum of %-inch thickness and nodular iron scrap of a known analysis.
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Document ID: 46D5F080

Planned Replacement Programs
Author(s): Rex J. Lysinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Planned replacement programs certainly do not have the popular appeal of subjects like The Energy Crisis or Balance of Payment Deficits or National Security, but their increasing importance is compounded by the tremendous requirement for capital to provide additional energy. There is an increasing need to replace or renew existing facilities as well as to construct new ones, and the limited capital available makes it imperative that every dollar is put to maximum use. The first phase of the Task Groups study of these programs centered on the development of a set of guidelines which could assist in organizing the various elements that must be considered when planning a large system replacement program. The second phase was to review the current replacement program activity among the committee members.
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Document ID: FE629DF7

The Energy Crisis And The 93rd Congress-An Appraisal
Author(s): Thomas P. Oneill, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to share with you some insights into the mood and agenda of the 93rd Congress. Over the past several years, when federal expenditures had begun to outstrip revenues, taxing the fiscal structure of the economy, a word has entered our vocabulary which has become a topic of great debate. that word is-priorities-the importance which we assign to programs of the hierarchy of economic and social needs. As the elected representatives of the people, vested with all legislative power under the Constitution, it is responsibility to determine the priorities of this nation. This is not an easy job. With over 200 million people. the social and economic needs of this nation are enormous and increasing. In addition, there are a variety of mailers concerning individual rights, equal employment opportunity, and government regulations which require remedial legislation.
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Document ID: 00470C5F

Industry Operating Experience Of Pipelines Tested To 90% And Above Smys
Author(s): Stephen A. Bergman
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1950s it become apparent to builders of natural gas pipelines that there had to be a better way to test after construction was completed than to use gas as the testing media. When a pipe failure was initiated it was found that the stored energy in gas compressed to 50 or 60 atmospheres could cause long brittle type pipe fractures that industry had not heretofore experienced. The three ingredients present in early 1950 that precipitated long fractures were: (1) large diameter. (2) solid welded (no couplings), and (3) high steel transition temperatures.
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Document ID: 3A64A495

A Model For Optimum Vehicle Replacement
Author(s): William B. Withers
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of minimizing the overall costs of vehicle ownership is basically one of finding the optimum tune span for the life of the itypical vehicle. As the vehicle ages, stationary costs (loss in trade-in value, insurance, licenses, etc.) per unit time decrease, but rolling costs (fuel, repairs, supplies, etc.) per unit of use increase. These costs, together with the first cost of the vehicle, comprise the total cost of vehicle ownership, itself a variable dependent on vehicle life. At some optimum life span, therefore, this total cost can be bought to a minimum per unit of use (or per unit of time). Any utility having a fleet of similar vehicles already has a large bodv of statistical information with which to describe these cost curves from its own accounts. This paper describes a mathematical model which computes such optimum ownership times and costs.
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Document ID: CAEED29E

Main Replacement By Direct Burial Overlay
Author(s): Ronald V. Tollefsrud
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the development of the gas system rehabilitation program of the Minneapolis Gas Company. In an attempt to respond to the request to comment on the major issues mentioned in the Task Group Report on Planned Replacement. I have developed this paper under the major headings of that report. In recent years at Minnegasco, the reasons for the replacement program are falling into the following order of importance I) public improvement, (2) code compliance, (3) interference, and (4) performance. Minnegasco has always replaced mains and services where evidence could be assembled to show that they had become hazardous or uneconomical to maintain. In the early 1960s Minnegasco went through the growing pains that acatmpany a major modification of policy. Henceforth in any street that was to have high quality permanent paving installed.
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Document ID: BD6E9B5A

Operation Of Gas Pipelines Adjacent To Electric Facilities
Author(s): A. W. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
This report discusses mutual interference problems that resuh when electric and gas facilities operate in close proximity and summarizes Consumers Power Company Gas P&T departments approach to analysis and control of these problems, during construction and operation of gas transmission lines. Although electric and gas operations are not compatible, situations where they must coexist are becoming a normal rather than a unique occurrence. It is. therefore, necessary to have a basic understanding of the electrical interference problems that can result and of corrective measures which can be taken during design, construction, and operation of a gas pipeline facility to minimize these interference effects.
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Document ID: 8CACC008

A Technology Survey Of High-Priority Distribution Needs In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): James Grimm, Earl Yeager
Abstract/Introduction:
Investigation of the present state of technology in the gas industry was accomplished mainly through in-depth interviews of operating and engineering people in a 35- company sample. Other resources normally expected to be current in technology which should be applicable to the gas industry were also used. These include: Major equipment suppliers to the industry Literature reviews Other research institutes Selected members of Battelles Columbus Laboratories staff. The 35-company sample selected was demonstrated to be representative of the gas industry. Therefore, solutions for the seven problem areas which are applicable to the sample companies could likely be considered applicable to the gas industry in the United States.
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Document ID: B6CAD988

Soft-Pedaling Distribution Operations Noise
Author(s): Wayne C. Gracey
Abstract/Introduction:
On April 28. 1971, the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act became the law of the land. What does this mean to us as gas men? Just one heck of a lot! Among the many standards that one must comply with-or else-is one on noise. This noise standard states that eight hours is the maximum time that a worker may be exposed to noise levels of 90dBA or more. If it reaches 1l5dBA the time falls off to 1/4 or less. Before going any farther, lets make a couple of observations about sound measurement: 1. Sound pressure level is measured in dB (decibels). Of the three scales used, the A scale is recognized as being closest to simulating the human ear. Consequently. the readings used are the dBA readings. 2. Decibels are logarithmic, that is, 10 decibels are 10 times the power of 1: 20 are 1(X) times the power of 1 and 30 are 1000 limes the power of 1. 3. A relatively small decrease in decibel readings on the A scale can reduce the strength of the sound considerably i.e. a sound of 83 decibels has twice the strength of a sound of 80 decibels.
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Document ID: BB0EC713

A.G.A. Plastic Pipe Project ID-3-l-Whats New
Author(s): Fritz Wolter
Abstract/Introduction:
Battelle Columbus Laboratories, under the auspices of the American Gas Association, is conducting investigations in three areas of more than passing interest to the gas distribution industry. These areas of investigation are: 1. The performance of plastic piping systems. 2. The effect of outdoor exposure on the performance of plastic pipe. 3. The effect of gases other than methane on the long-term strength of plastic pipe, All of these investigations are continuing programs and the observations reported should not be construed as final.
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Document ID: 83FF8078

Upgrade Your Records Without Dig Dps
Author(s): George R. Dugovic
Abstract/Introduction:
In our present urbanized society locating our existing facilities prior to others excavating near these facilities is the standard job assignment for a growing percentage of our employees. The public rights-of-way are thoroughly laced with a wide variety of utilities. New construction within existing rightsof way generated by the Pure Waters Act, Urban Renewal, highway construction or by commercial, industrial and residential building construction, or the installation of new utility lines is an ever present situation. So locate our lines we must. If we do not or cannot locate our facilities we can be assured that the universal pipe locator. otherwise known as the back-hoe is not known as one of the major non-destructive tests for pipe location.
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Document ID: C8F66B81

Arctic Pipelining
Author(s): V. L. Hohte
Abstract/Introduction:
The 5 billion pipeline proposed by Arctic CJas to transport natural gas from the North Slope of Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta region of northern Canada will require an international effort. Moreover, this project illustrates belter than any other example I can think of how the interests of each of our two nations can best be served by a co-operative effort and a recognition of mutual interests. Belated though it may seem, both of our nations now appear determined to al last come to grips with todays energy crisis. Or perhaps. I should more accurately say that we are coming to grip.s today with yesterdays problem, for the concern about energy supply has been long recognized by our industry and particularly by the American Gas Association.
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Document ID: 1FBE8DFF


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