Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1973)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

The Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased cost of natural gas, it is becoming more and more important to do a better job of measurement. The reduction or elimination of pulsation errors could result in the saving of millions of dollars in unaccounted-for gas. The problem of induced pulsation has long been recognized by the natural gas industry. However the cure has, from experience, proven to be much more difficult and expensive than the diagnosis of the problem. Today I would like to review with you what pulsation is, the types and sources of pulsation, what types of measurement devices are affected by pulsation, new devices for detecting pulsation, and possibly what can be done to correct the problem.
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Document ID: EF11EF3B

How To Determine When To Retire Distribution Meters
Author(s): Kenneth R. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters are the most tangible items of gas utility property visible to customers. Their performance determines the amount of gas delivered and billed. Customer confidence in their accuracy is of paramount importance. Sizable portion of the money invested in utility plant properties is represented by meters. They account for a significant part of the operation and maintenance cost of these properties. The approximately 40 million meters owned by companies of the gas industry represent close to one billion dollars of capital investment. Operation and maintenance of these 40 million meters cost companies in the neighborhood of over 60 million dollars annually. What Is even more lmportant, these meters are the guardian of accuracy to 40 million customers, payments totaling over 8 billion annually. Approximately 90 percent of the meters are domestic size. Seventy percent (70%) of the gas measured, howeveri Is measured by intermediate and large capacity meters for commercialt Industrial applications. Significantly, however, 50% of the revenue is derived from the domestic meter services.
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Document ID: 210FC6BD

New Methods Of Measurement
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many subjects that can be covered under the title of the paper New Methods of Measurement. It is the intention to pick some of the most pertinent to the present state of the art of measurement and give a short survey of the point of development in each area. The topics include equipment but also new areas of interest where approaches to measurement are as of as much importance as the equipment involved. Likewise, some of the fluids being measured are defining new uses to old equipment as well as requiring new equipment. There is a great deal of activity in the regulatory area of measurement that will be reviewed as they effect methods used. There is new thought concerning the value of measurement and its relation to initial cost and costs of inefficient practices. Increasing operating costs have led companies to go to complete automation or to reject automation altogether or some posittion in between. Because of the scope outlined above in depth coverage will be found only In the references listed at the end of this paper. To give some organization to the paper, the topics will be broken down into areas of interest of gas, liquids, and standards.
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Document ID: 5EBA07C0

Osha And Gas Transmission
Author(s): A. H. Sinclair, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) Is an integral part of the gas transmission business today. I personally became acquainted with this act In the fall of 1971 when I was appointed to a committee to inspect a portion of our properties and practices relative to compliance with the requirements of OSHA. OSHA came into being to regulate and standardize occupational safety and health practices in Industry. There were five target industries with accident records that focused attention on the possible need for such an act. These industries were (1) Longshoring, (2) Roofing and Sheetmetal, (3) Heat and Meat Products, (h) Mobile Home, and (5) Lumber and Wood Products. As you can see, the Gas Transmission Industry was not Included and we know that there was no need because our accident record, as an Industry, has always been one of the best. However, no industry is exempt and it has been necessary for all industries, large and small, to examine their facilities and practices in light of OSHAs requirements.
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Document ID: BDDE8E07

Digital Flow Measurement And Control
Author(s): A. W. Langill, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the essential of digital valves as applied to the accurate control of process fluid streams under cornnand of a digital computer or digital control system. In this context, digital valves function solely as control devices, responding directly to positioning commands originating in the control computer. However, with a few modifications in the digital valve design, and with the introduction of a small LSI-based Microcomputer-controller, a digital sub-system is formed that not only controls fluid flow rate, but also is capable of digitally measuring fluid flow. The resulting DigiCell system has the following general characteristics: (1). 0.5% accuracy over a turndown ratio of over 1000-to-l for a 10-bit unit. (2). Parallel or serial digital flow rate output. (3). Flow rate control accuracy of 0.1% for for a 10-bit unit. (4). Rapid dynamic response. The DigiCell can follow a step-function change in flow rate set point. The theory of operation of this new combined digital valve and digital flowmeter is presented. The paper concludes with descriptions of two typical applications of this new digital technique, both taken from the field of pipe line control. The first is an all-digital high-response Override Control System for liquid pipe line control - while the second is an all-digital Compressor Surge Control System for use in gas pipe lines.
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Document ID: 49FB7700

Orifice Fittings Amd Meter Tubes
Author(s): William F. Weber
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 50 years, orifice meters have been the best method of measuring high pressure, large volume flows of natural gas. The basic orifice meter has not changed very much In this period. It still consists of a section of straight pipe with an orifice plate having a restrictive bore and a device for measuring the difference in pressures on each side of the plate. This pressure differential is caused by the change in velocity of gas flowing through the pipe as it passes through the restriction in the orifice plate. The higher the velocity, the greater the difference in pressure. This differential is usually measured by a U-tube manometer and expressed in terms of inches of water. One pound of gauge pressure will support a column of water 27.7 inches high. An orifice meter gauge recording 55 inches is measuring about two pounds of pressure drop across the orifice plate. To convert this 55 inches into a gas volume, we need to know the diameters of the meter run and orifice, the static pressure, flowing temperature, gravity and other factors of the Gas Flow Formula. In this discussion we will be concerned with only the first two: the meter run and the orifice plate. They are called the primary elements.
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Document ID: D3877762

Basic Electronics As Applied To Gas Measurement
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
A better, easier, more accurate way to measure Natural Gas amd other products is our goal. These factors are coupled with better operating economy and efficiency by automation of our measurement facilities with precision electronic equipment. To gain full value from these systems requires an understanding of the electrical systems being applied and how they equate to the measurement application.
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Document ID: 3E6A8200

Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers are designed to be utilized in recording instruments employing a circular chart. The need for such a device was likely realized the first time it became necessary to change a chart under adverse conditions. Since then many attempts have been made but it wasnt until January 1959, that the first commercial installation of an automatic chart changing device was completed. It was manufactured by Mullins Manufacturing Company (since incorporated) and installed at a city gate M & R station near Dallas, Texas. Since the early sixties several approaches toward automatic chart changing have been attempted, some of which were patented and marketed. Those the author is familiar with besides the Mullins Dial-0-Graph are the Maeder-Squier Automatic Meterman, the Barton Chart Changer and The Tejas Chart Changer. Of these, the Tejas and Mullins are currently available.
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Document ID: E11FCD86

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Dan W. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
Lets approach measurement of natural gas liquids from the time tested formula of answering the fundamental questions of what, why, and how. We will see that, just as in our school tests, the what and why questions are a lot easier to answer than the how of getting a problem solved.
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Document ID: 50371531

Theory Abb Operation Op Pilot Controls
Author(s): H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is important for gas men who work with pneumatic controllers on a day to day basis to really understand them. Not to understand the controller under these circumstances can be a continual burden to the operator in addition to presenting circumstances for an operation of lower quality than generally desired. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to try to help develop an understanding and attitude towards a device that is absolutely essential to gas control.
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Document ID: 8700C59B

Proper Selection Of Service Regulators
Author(s): Larry J. Wilkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Any consideration of the proper way to select 3 service regulator must first be preceded by a definition of a service regulator. For purposes of this discussion, a service regulator Is any regulator that Is used to reduce and control the pressure of gas delivered from a high pressure distribution system to a single gas consumer or customer. If a regulator controls the pressure of gas to two or more customers, it is a district regulator and is not going to be considered In this paper.
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Document ID: B7F59C39

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): H. P. Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase and sale of gas, due to its physical nature, is not simply an exchange of natural gas for money. The gas industry began over a hundred years ago when gas was first transported successfully and used effectively for domestic purposes. During the next several decades, no one deliberately searched for gas and even as late as 30 or 40 years ago, contracting for the sale of gas was often a matter of someone having gas to sell finding someone who would simply agree that the gas would be taken at some price, often less than two or three cents per MCF. In more recent years gas sales have been made under verbal agreements, but such sales have usually been short term transactions that were often confirmed later in writing. Some gas sales are currently made under terms of brief written agreements, sometimes in letter form and not more than two or three pages in length. Gas maintains a completely different position now than in these early days. It is, of course, a superior fuel. It is in great demand and it is in extremely short supply at this time. The sale of gas should therefore be made under terms of formal type contracts negotiated between purchasers and sellers wherein all of the terms covering conditions known or reasonably anticipated are clearly spelled out.
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Document ID: 34712E60

Operating Experience With Gravitometers
Author(s): E. J. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is not purposed to try to disqualify any gravitometer, but to point out limitations and sources of error so they can be avoided. Definition Of Specific Gravity: The determination of specific gravity is an important function in the work of gas measurement. In measuring gas by orifice meters, the specific gravity of the gas being measured is certainly one of the major variable factors in determining actual volumes measured, if not the greatest. Unless the coefficient is corrected to an accurately determined specific gravity of the gas being measured, the measurement will not be correct.
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Document ID: 90994A56

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Floyd D. Jury
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familial items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 11C1EB87

Determination Of Sulfur
Author(s): Joseph B. Bissmeyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of analyzing sulfur compounds in natural gas accurately Is significant because of the problems related to sulfur compounds in the natural gas industry. Traces of sulfur compounds are detrimental to catalytic beds used in industrial chemical processes. Customer contracts place acceptable imitations on the amount of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in a natural gas supply. Federal safety standards require a measurement of sulfur compounds in natural gas to control internal corrosion of pipe and to maintain odorant levels for distribution.
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Document ID: 025CCC52

The Mini-Stinker
Author(s): R. m. Watson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Mini-Stinker (Figure l) is a miniature bypass odorizer that has proven successful for odorizing domestic use gas at pipe line compressor stations. Most large compressor stations, treating plants, processing plants, gas conditioning plants, chemical plants, refineries, etc. will have a small distribution system serving offices, laboratories, warehouses, shops, storage bldgs., washrooms, etc. These distribution systems are vital to any plant operation, and the gas used is primEirily for domestic purposes. It should be odorized the same as any other distribution system. You may tend to be a little casual in the odorization practices of these systems, since the personnel maintaining,, operating, and using gas from these systems are company personnel. This being the case, you may assume they are knowledgeable of natural gas and odorization. However, if you make a close check of your company use gas, you may find it is not being odorized or is being odorized with a wick-type odorizer.
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Document ID: 09F7C31C

Modernizing A Chart Office
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas Industry has experienced vast operational changes in the past seventy years with, perhaps, the greatest technological advances being made in the past ten years. The advancement In electronic chart processing equipment and computer technology has recently caused an enormous transformation in chart processing techniques. Let us examine the transistion of chart processing techniques and equipment, effectuated by research and economics. The development of the orifice meter necessitated the calculation of the chart record to determine the exact volume of gas that passed for any interval of time.
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Document ID: 33906C1E

Processes For Gas Treating
Author(s): J. P. Herrin
Abstract/Introduction:
A person attempting today to list all of the processes for treating gas would need a long sheet of paper. Five years ago there were three or four processes for cleaning H2S, SO2, and other sulfur compounds frcm Glaus plant tail gas, boiler and heater stack gases, and other effluent gas streams. Today there are over 50 identifiable processes using some 20 different techniques for treating these gases. Only a few ou these have been proven commercially feasible. This paper will not attempt to cover these new processes, but will discuss the existing commercially proven processes being used in our natural gas industry for removing CO2, H2S, and other trace sulfur compounds from natural gas streams. Even here, we have some 15 processes in three categories: (a) Those that extract the acid gas by chemical reaction (b) those that extract the acid gas by physical absorption in a solvent and (c) those that extract by adsorption on a solid bed. Some processes, such as sulfinol, use a combination of both chemical reaction and physical absorption.
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Document ID: 5C8B3B9F

Ways To Improve Meter Shop Efficiency And Reduce Repair Costs
Author(s): Walter R. Griffith
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a pleasure for me to participate this panel discussion on Ways to Improve Meter Shop efficiency and Reduce Repair Costs, It is not my intention to leave with you the idea that we have the most efficient shop operation at San Antonio. However, we do feel that we are doing an efficient job under our present conditions. It is my intention to explain to you our operation and the type of equipment we use with the hope that it will give you some ideas that you might consider in your shops. The San Antonio City Public Service is a city owned combined gas and electric utility. We serve Bexar County and a small area outside the county. However, most of our gas customers are within San Antonio and the adjoining suburban areas Since we serve such a small area, we do not have the shipping problems that I am sure a large number of you do have.
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Document ID: D4FAD506

Ways To Improve Meter Shop Efficiency And Reiuce Repair Costs
Author(s): Errell Hornsby
Abstract/Introduction:
Lone Star Gas Company has been in operation since 1909 and, after extensive study, closed all of their meter repair shops and combined all repair in the current location in Dallas, Texas. The Central Meter Shop began processing meters for all company service areas on January 1, 1968. Since then ve have made use of automated processes that could not have been economically justified at any one of the small regional shops prior to 1968. We are using the assembly line system to make meter maintenarice and repair faster and more efficient. In 1972, the Central Meter Shop cleaned, tested, repaired and painted 86,900 meters with an average of 27 employees. These include medium and large indusrial meters as well as smell residential meters.
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Document ID: C9C42868

New Developments In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Ron Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Offshore gas is now being sought world wide, and offshore production of both oil and gas may well be the key to solving our nations energy crisis. In view of increased offshore activity, we in measurement are confronted with new and sometimes difficult problems. Things such as transportation, communication, station design, and meter testing can no longer be considered routine matters when were offshore. We must constantly be aware of new developments and techniques in offshore measurement. Today, I would like to discuss one of these new developments the use of turbine meters for offshore measurement. Available in 2 thru 12 sizes, the turbine meter has several advantages over other methods of measurement offshore. Before discussing these advantages, lets take a look at the turbine meter itself.
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Document ID: 3A5D2090

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): E. J. Burgln
Abstract/Introduction:
Unlike the positive displacement meter, the orifice meter does not measure volume. Instead it measures physical characteristics of a fluid such as pressure and pressure differential which can be converted into flowing volumes by use of a basic equation developed by a Swiss scientist, Daniel Bernoulli, in 1738. Since volume is obtained with an orifice meter after a determination of the physical characteristics, it can be termed an inferentialtype meter that is, measurement is by inference or deduction.
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Document ID: D6C505D3

Ops And Transmission Measurement
Author(s): Douglas W. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Part 192, Chapter 1 of Title U9, Code of Federal Regulations consists of rules governing transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline. Part 192 is officially entitled Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline: Minimum Federal Safety Standards. In a discussion of the effect of these rules on transmission measurertient, it is important to note that these are safety standards. These standards do not, and we would not expect them to, contain specific references or provisions relating to the actual measurement of fluid flow. This by no means, however, relieves the measurement engineer from numerous specific and stringent standards obligations in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the physical facilities necessary to provide accurate gas measurement. While the regulations do not contain standards governing the accuracy of measurement, every subpart exercises effective control of the design, construction, operation and maintenance of measurement equipment.
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Document ID: EB9DFEF6

Fundamentals Of Densitometers
Author(s): Bruce Shrake
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past few years, more and more coKfianies are showing an interest in the use of Densitometers. Therefore, this paper will he devoted to trying to explain the fundamentals of the Densitometers and their use in the natural gas industry. Densitometers are used to measure the density of the fluid flowing down the pipeline and to relay this measurement onto some form of flow chart or into one of the flow computers now available. With this measurement, a very accurate volume of fluid can be calculated. Since the price of gas is increasing and the natural gas reserves are decreasing, this accuracy is receiving top priority.
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Document ID: 9BCBA93E

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
Sound is what we hear. Sound is produced by the transfer of mechanical vibration or disturbance to air. When an object moves or vibrates, it disturbs the air particles near the object producing a variation in normal atmospheric pressure. As this pressure variation reaches our eardrums, they too are set to vibrating and this is translated by our hearing mechanism into the sensation called sound. Sound is a passing transient disturbance of particles, either in a gas, liquid, or solid. Noise is disagreeable or undesired sound as compared to speech or music which are usually desired sounds. In addition to being annoying or irritating, long exposure to excessive noise will cause permanent loss of hearing.
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Document ID: 1409FE15

Water Vapor Content And Its Effect On Gas Volume Determination
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
Water in both liquid and vapor phases Is norlaally present in the production of natural gas. If the water vapor content is lowered such that it can be maintained in a vapor state under all operating conditions, the problems would be minor concerning Its effect on transmission equipment and volume measurement for custody transfer of natural gas. Operations have indicated that less than seven pounds of water per million cubic feet of gas is relatively harmless, thus resulting in attainment of maximum efficiency. In the current period of greater demands for gas, short supplies, decreasing reserves. Increased environmental protection requirements and high capital costs, a big problem of the natural gas industry has become one of making available to the market as efficiently as possible every cubic foot of gas obtainable, Water can Impose severe penalties to be suffered by the gas industry due to its detrimental effects on operations beginning at the wellhead and throughout the transmission system to its final destination at the market. Water is probably the most common undesirable and detrimental injurlty contained in a gas stream. Yet, those involved in the production and transportation of gas cannot satisfactorily agree on how, where and to what degree this Water should be removed.
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Document ID: 6C711EE1

The Measurement Mans Role In Planning For And Coping With Gas Curtailment Situations
Author(s): J. 0. Ross
Abstract/Introduction:
We were informed in the late fall of 1970 that our gas supplier vould specify the maximum daily quantity we would be allowed for each delivery point from Sellers transmission line. Maximum Daily Quantity means the maximum volume of gas which Seller is obligated to deliver to us in any one day. Day means a period of twenty four consecutive hours beginning at 7:00 A. M. and ending at 7:00 A. M. This advance notice of a possible gas curtailment situation allowed one winters operation for collecting essential data, including gas volume determination for both gas purchases and sales during days of extrenely cold weather, for future use in making predictions in periods of possible curtailment of gas.
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Document ID: 29A89820

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Charles Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
In gas measurement, the pressure-volume-temperature relationships of a gas are usually used to obtain the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure and temperature base. These relationships between P, V, and T are called gas laws. Before discussing these laws, some of the terms most used will be defined.
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Document ID: 126B9F55

Orifice Meter Testing
Author(s): Glenn D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, there is a general agreement throughout the entire gas industry that the orifice meter is a very fine precision measuring Instrument which will measure gas with consistent accuracy. The acceptance of this method of measurement by all major gas companies has been further enhanced by the American Gas Association Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3. However there are minimum requirements of testing, checking and maintenance which should be met to guarantee the accuracy of the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 309FD255

Curtailment Data For A Metropolitan Area
Author(s): Louis Lehr
Abstract/Introduction:
When we were faced with a possible curtailment and an overcharge penalty, the Measurement Department was asked to supply information which we did not have. My initial experience with gas curtailment came on a chilly morning three winters ago when we were unable to maintain our normal system pressures. The weather was not severe enough to warrent problems of this nature. After some fast checking, we determined that the inlet pressure from our supplier and to our regulators had fallen below contract pressure. I called the supplier and was astounded to learn that they were short of gas but pressure would be raised as soon as it was available. We requested a meeting with the supplier to discuss this unheard of situation and soon learned that there was indeed a gas shortage, they could not guarantee contract pressure and we would soon be placed on a demand commodity rate with a ten dollar charge for gas used above our daily dememd. At this time it was our responsibility to set our maximum demand.
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Document ID: 94FA4CA5

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Richard Mantla
Abstract/Introduction:
For reasons of safety, profits and conservation of natural resources, the gas industry has always shown a keen concern over leakage and unaccounted for gas. Because of the natural hazards involved In the production, transmission and distribution of natural gas, a high degree of safety awareness has been demanded of the industry in order to reassure the public that its product is a manageable commodity. In this day of diminishing gas reservoirs, leakage and unaccounted for gas not only represents lost revenue but also a lessening of our ability to meet a demanding market.
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Document ID: ABE9163D

Design And Operation Of A Mobile Gas Laboratory
Author(s): Frank m. Kurtz
Abstract/Introduction:
Forty years ago natural gas was sold by producers for five cents per thousand cubic feet, and only the lucky ones were able to negotiate a contract at all. Gas was so cheap and plentiful that old timers say the countryside near Hobbs, New Mexico was so lighted by burning flares that you could read a newspaper at midnight. In the intervening years, natural gas has assumed an ever- increasing importance as an energy source. The comsumption of this fuel of the 1930s has increased so greatly that the demand now exceeds the available supply. It has truly become a sellers market and the price of wellhead gas, in many instances, exceeds fifty cents per thousand cubic feet. The gas transmission and gas distribution companies have been forced to re-evaluate and refine their methods of measurement of both gas volume and gas quality. The margins of error that have been tolerated in the past are no longer acceptable.
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Document ID: A3C2E2AE

Fundamentals Of Vane Type Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard 0. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary type gas meters have been In use since the early 1920s In the United States. Earlier versions of the two lobe Impeller design were used In Europe in the late 1800s. Rotary meters fall into two basic classifications. One Is the design utilizing two oppositely rotating Impellers of a dual lobe - figure 8 contour. The other design employs rotating vanes and gate. The contours of the dual lobe Impeller design form a continuous line seal between the impellers and the meter body wall at all positions during rotation. Clearance between the impellers Is maintained by very precise timing gears. Since the Impellers will trap a known volume of gas between themselves and the meter housing, revolutions of the impellers can be transmitted via gearing to an output shaft for Indication of volume displacement on a standard Index or pressure and/or temperature correcting devices.
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Document ID: 6203CA0D

Experience With Digital Data Aquisition System In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Joe Powell
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss experience in converting a dispatching system installed in 1953 to & computer based system, A description of the dispatching system operation and the computer is included but the main emphasis is on Mississippi Valley Gas experience in the subject area from the decision to make the installation to actual operating experience with the new system. It is hoped that this approach to the subject will be helpful to those who may face a similar problem.
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Document ID: 47921EDE

Ways To Improve Meter Shop Efficiency And Reduce Repair Costs
Author(s): Raymond L. Caballero
Abstract/Introduction:
All of us, I feel sure, are familiar with the expression there is nothing we do today that cannot be done a better way. This better way we speak of is the main reason for continuing to improve meter shop operations so that the meter will leave the shop in the best condition possible, both Internally and externally. At the same time, these improved operations must be performed at the lowest possible coat per meter. As meter shop supervisors, we all want to turn out the best meter, but too often we have found ourselves in a rut. We tend to believe that the way things are done in our shop Is the only way it can be done. In all probability, your operations are the beat for your particular type and size of shop. However, it can be helpful to know what other shops are doing and why some of their operations are different.
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Document ID: FE6C2334

Ocs Regulations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Outer Continental Shelf Regulations are a relatively new phase of operations to the offshore industry, and especially to gas measurement personnel. Recently, all offshore personnel have been learning to live, understand and administer the new set of rules. These are Federal Regulations established to control, monitor, and protect the individual and the environment. It is each measurement mans responsibility to know and understand these rules, and assist his own company in administering and keeping the required reports. If any doubt arises, an individual should seek proper counsel through his own company channels that handle these problems.
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Document ID: 6CC2B64C

Communicate Now
Author(s): R. R. Van Kerrebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is about comnunications. I want to make It clear that It will not cover such things as telephones and radios. Therefore, if you came in expecting to hear about diodes and oscillating circuits, you are In the wrong class, The communicating we are talking about is the moving of thoughts or ideas from one person to another. There are many ways of moving these ideas or thoughts. The Art of Communicating is mostly deciding on how is the best way of moving the idea or thought. Then, after deciding how to communicate, the thing is to do the commincating.
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Document ID: D20B5C62

High And Low Pressure Large Volume Relief Devices
Author(s): Henry J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of a relief valve is back-pressure control. In essence, a relief valve is a back-pressure regulator. Since the down stream of this regulator is open to the atmosphere, any gas all owed to pass through the regulator is lost. Wit IT this In mind, it is very important for a relief device to have the utmost accuracy in control and tight shutoff. Many years ago the valve regulator was developed for large capacity pressure and flow control. Over the years this type of regulator has been refined to the point that excellent pressure, flow, surge, and relief valve control Is now being experienced by the many users of ball val regulators. Since the capacity of the ba valve regulator is the largest of any control device, and since it can give excellent control it is ideally suited for large volume relief valve service.
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Document ID: 0A9B74BB

High Pressure Field Measurement
Author(s): Thomas J. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
For this discussion the term Field Measurement at High Pressure shall be defined as the measurement of gas at a specific point in a gas producing area at a pressure higher than that of your contract base pressure. The rapidly increasing value of natural gas due to the increasing scarcity of natural gas supplies, along with rising operating costs, have made accurate gas measurement a vital necessity for the natural gas industry. Any error made in the measurement of gas at high pressure and large volumes magnifies itself, so that there can be either a considerable gain or loss in revenue.
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Document ID: 0B6FE816

Experience In Administration Of Federal Pipelime Safety Standards
Author(s): Joe K. Wells, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
At the conclusion of I968 the nations gas operations had 862,000 miles of transmission lines, mains, and gathering lines in service to provide energy for 39.9 million customers who consumed 31.1 of the total energy used in the United States. The gas industry employee accident frequency rate was iB less than the all industry average, and the gas industry accident severity rate was 20 below the national average. With a record of less than one tenth of a percent of the transportation fatalities attributable to the gas industry, Congress approved on August 12, 1968, the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968. The apparant mood of Congress at that time was considerably influenced by Ralph Nader and the consumerism philosopy propounded by Nader and his supporters.
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Document ID: B91B7F61

The Effect Of Entrained Liquids On The Measurement Of Natural Gas In Field Operations
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case In field measurements. The A.6.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurements by the orifice and rotary positive displacement meters. It was in these areas of gas measurement that graduate engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas, have conducted research operations in the laboratory and In the field. Schuster,, (2), has conducted full range field tests of gas-liquid mixtures at 600 and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter. In these tests a 4-Inch meter run was used to measure the dry gas. After this measurement, water and/or distillate in varying amounts was introduced and the two-phase stream was then measured first through a 4-inch meter run and then by a 3-inch meter. These tests covered liquidgas ratios up to 600 barrels of liquid per million cubic feet of gas.
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Document ID: FF38E1F8


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