Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1972)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulations
Author(s): E. L. Dekinder
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for properly designed equipment combined with safe operating and maintenance practices in all phases of natural gas handling cannot be over emphasized. Natural gas is being produced and transported at increasingly higher pressures and in greater quantities than ever before, and these factors increase the degree of the hazard when a failure does occur. All mishaps involving natural gas, regardless of how small they might be, are potentially dangerous. More care must be taken in our business of producing, controlling and transporting natural gas in order to minimize the number and seriousness of such accidents.
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Document ID: FBF9C201

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): John R. Stroder
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the intent of this paper to review with you those elements of good delivery station design. To be original in a presentation of this nature would be quite impossible considering the excellent papers that have been presented in this course in the past years. The primary goals that must be achieved by the design engineer are safety, continuity of acceptable service to the customer, accuracy, noise level abatement and cost and these are not necessarily in order of their importance. Basic equipment design considerations involve the orifice plate or meter, meter tube, regulators, valving, station piping, gas heaters, and relief valves.
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Document ID: 33E0A068

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): F. W. Sattler
Abstract/Introduction:
No one method of analysis has affected the natural gas industry as has gas chromatography. The method has or is replacing other methods of analysis in all phases of the industry-from well head settlements through preparation of L.P.G. to pipeline specification gas. The greatest advantage of the method is the short time of analysis with accuracy. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY is a technique for separating components of a gas stream by moving the stream over a stationary phase. If the stationary phase is solid, the proper name is GAS-SOLID CHROMATOGRAPHY. The common packings, silica gel or molecular sieve, adsorb different gases at different rates to separate the components. If the stationary phase is a liquid, GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY is the term. A thin liquid film is spread over an inert solid. The components of the gas stream go into solution at different rates to separate them.
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Document ID: 11B3271C

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
An up-to-date compilation of equipment and techniques for the measurement and regulation of natural gas. MEASUREMENT 1. Maximum Demand Indicator Instrument This is a very simple instrument where the positive displacement (diaphragm, rotary or turbine) meter turns a wriggler, which in turn, causes a hand to drive up a scale. The greater the volume of gas, the more the wriggler turns and the farther up the scale the hand goes. As this driving hand goes up the scale, it automatically pushes, with its finger arrangement, the final readout hand indicating pointer. At the end of each day or hour, the driving hand is cycled back to zero at the desired time you set on the time indicator at the top. The final readout hand remains at the maximum location. Thus, this Maximum Demand Indicator is driven by the meter and timed by the clock. This Demand Indicator is driven by a single battery and will wind the clock every eight minutes for six to twelve months.
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Document ID: 11EA91F6

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Problems in wet gas measurement have been discussed several times in this Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course, and no doubt they will be discussed in future Short Courses because as long as we have to measure wet gas, there will be problems. In some cases a gas is considered to be wet if it contains three (3) gallons or more of Pentanes + per MCF however, for our discussion a wet gas will be one that under operating conditions, the temperature and pressure reaches a point where free liquids or hydrates begin to appear. With this definition one can see that a particular gas can be dry under some conditions and wet under others. Frequently a gas is considered to be wet if it has not been processed for the removal of water and heavy hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: ADB0A383

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibiuty
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: CDAD3B8B

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
The manufacturer of the kinetic type gas gravitometers has completed a long-range program for developing improved portable and recording instruments. The objectives of this program were to: a) increase the readability, sensitivity, accuracy and operating convenience over any previous gas gravitometer, b) retain the simplicity, ruggedness and fast response of the original kinetic gravitometers, and c) incorporate the same basic operating mechanism and achieve maximum interchageability of components in portable and stationary instruments. The portable indicating type gravitometer, illustrated in Figure 1, was introduced at the 1968 Southwestern Gas
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Document ID: 9CA9B629

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): Fred Rodman
Abstract/Introduction:
The field meter man is a specialist in a special kind of job. He was selected to be a meter man because he demonstrated a combination of qualities which set him apart from the average employee. He possesses a mechanical ability which enables him to work with measurement and regulation equipment. He has a willingness to learn to keep up with the latest developments in his field of technology. A successful meter man is able to accept responsibility and exercise initiative to get things done. He must be able to plan his work well and work alone or with other people within his company and the public.
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Document ID: 2A9F756A

Specific Gravity Instruments-Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition - The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: D9F95D07

Turbine Meter And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Turbine Meter is a compact, ruggedly built device suitable for measuring large volumes of gas for production, transmission, distribution and industrial accounts. It is designed to maintain 1% accuracy throughout its recommended flow range.
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Document ID: 6460E836

Data Acquisition By Analog Computer
Author(s): G. D. Bogel
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically large volume flow measurement has been accomplished by orifice meter, with round chart gauges as recording devices. These charts are collected daily by the seller of the gas. The charts are examined for average pressure and temperature. The supercompressibility and gravity factors are obtained from tables, then the differential pressure chart is integrated and this integral multiplied by the various other factors. The information on gas sold by this method is historical, often derived days or weeks after the sale of the gas. This in contrast to real-time information which is derived as the sale of gas occurs.
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Document ID: E92AAC99

Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): L. C. Sullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plates have long been accepted by the Gas Industry as a reliable primary device to measure gas flow. Under the great majority of circumstances the repeatability and accuracy demonstrated by this device more than justified this confidence. Although reliable, under most circumstances, substantial error has been observed in orifices attempting to measure gas under non-steady flow conditions. This non-steady flow commonly referred to as pulsation, frequently occurs near a compressor and consists of rapidly cycling pressure with a frequency equal to gas compressor speed or a multiple thereof.
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Document ID: F3D6CBCB

Liquified Natural Gas Operations( Application)
Author(s): W. W. Cofield And R. G. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
By way of introduction of the subject of LNG, let me say that in the spring months of this year (1970), Transco completed its fourth annual sendout from its LNG plant located in the New York market area. This successful sendout follows several years of planning, design, construction and operation of this facility which dates back as far as 1959. After customer requirements were determined and after many economic feasibility studies were made, a contract was signed with Constock-Pritchard Liquefaction Corporation in 1963 for this plant. The contract provided that Constock-Pritchard would construct a plant in the New Jersey Meadows for Transcontinental. In July, 1963, FPC approval was received to construct and operate an LNG plant which would have a storage capacity of approximately 290,000 barrels of LNG and approximately equivalent to one billion cubic feet of natural gas at standard measurement conditions. Storage capacity was to be built which could be filled in approximately 200 days, and the plant was to provide a sendout facility with the capability of 200 MMcf per day.
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Document ID: 5BCE4E68

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
With new types of measuring systems being proposed so frequently, one might consider the orifice meter (because of the antiquity of its principle) as being something about to be relegated to the Smithsonian Institute. The fact that it persists and is still relied upon, for the majority of all large volume gas sales, would indicate that its performance is still suitable for commercial measurements
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Document ID: 69C26475

The Distribution Serviceman And Accurate Measurement
Author(s): Walter F. BOHLS,R. V. PATTERSON,HARRY P. Telle Weem
Abstract/Introduction:
The distribution serviceman has a great amount of influence on the accuracy of measurement of natural gas sold to customers. This fact may not be too frequently recognized, but the impact of this individual can be better recognized when, for example, a review of gas sales in one metropolitan area reveals that distribution servicemen handle and install the meters which measure 70% of the volume of gas sold, which in turn represents 84% of total gas revenues. This information emphasizes that a considerable amount of training effort is justifiable and necessary in order to assure the fact that servicemen are aware of the effect of their actions on the cash register. Some of the most frequently discussed subjects in this type of training are handling meters, installing meters, reading meters, communication, sizing meters, serving pressures, and defective meters. The most emphasized topic seems to be proper handling of meters.
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Document ID: 8086FD96

Roto-Seal Meters And Transfer Proving
Author(s): J. L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The original rotary meters, developed in the 1920s, consisted of two oppositely rotating impellers of two-lobe or figure 8 contour, operating within a rigid casing having inlet and outlet gas connections on opposite sides. Impeller contours were of a form which provides a continuous line seal between the impellers and the body wall at all positions during rotation. The impellers do not push against each other clearance between the impellers is maintained by timing gears.
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Document ID: DE953BBA

Application Of Densitometers In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Conway T. Sinclair
Abstract/Introduction:
As far back as the mid fifties several types of mass meters had been developed or were in the developmental stage. However, history reveals that other than being a conversation item among measurement people, little use was made of the equipment. In fact, only limited testing of the various devices in the measurement of natural gas had been done until the early sixties. Inherent, as with most experimental equipment, problems beset the would-be users. Hardware limitations and failures were not necessarily the most bothersome of these. Some of the questions arising were, What type of load should we experiment with? Where do we locate the mass meter on the meter tube? How do we calibrate and test the device? More discussions between the experimenters and manufacturers resulted more changes were made.
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Document ID: 7A04611A

System Of Transfer Testing
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
To field test meters there are presently three alternatives available for a gas company: 1) the low pressure prover, 2) the critical flow prover, and 3) the transfer prover. The first two methods involve the measurement of several variables which in turn can cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy is calculated. The transfer prover allows the sensing of temperature and pressure differences to be read directly on a console along with the uncorrected proof in percent. Therefore, results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and compare more favorable to the more accepted standards namely, piston or bell provers. Actual test results have shown this thinking to be true. Southern California Gas Company, one of the pioneers in transfer proving, found that transfer prover tests on several hundred meters indicated a standard deviation of 0.66 percent, as compared to 1.05 percent for the flow prover. Both the transfer prover results and the flow provei* results were referenced to their bell prover.
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Document ID: FF660E6F

Odorization
Author(s): Maurice E. CALAWAY,C. D. SMITH,G. E. Woolfall
Abstract/Introduction:
Probably only a small percentage of natural gas consumers are aware that the product is odorless without the addition of a gas odorant. Actually what is detected by smell is two to four and one-half cubic feet of odorant vapor mixed into one million cubic feet of natural gas. All of the legislation concerning the odorization of natural gas is on the state level at present. The wording varies widely from state to state, but generally the requirement is for a detectable odor at 1% gas in air. The fact that all gas distributors use from three to ten times as much gas odorant as that required by law, indicates that safety and leak detection is foremost in the minds of gas industry personnel. In fact, since Natural Gas Odorizing has been in business the average rate of odorization has increased over the years and it is still increasing.
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Document ID: 9A086B23

Implementation Of The Pipeline Safety Code Usas B31.8 Subsequent Requirements
Author(s): B. J. Whitley Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Federal Pipeline Safety Act and the accepted USAS B31.8 Code will improve each companys pipelining and profit if management implements these guide lines correctly. But receiving or losing the benefits depends entirely on the implementation. The new Federal law, which was enacted in August, 1968, gives the Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) the authority to prepare and enforce Code regulations for all interstate and intrastate gas pipeline companies involved in gathering, transmission and distribution. It replaces a multitude of State safety laws which often have not been uniform from State to State, thus requiring some interstate companies to operate under different rules along a single system.
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Document ID: F5D6949E

Regulations, Controller And Related Equipment
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
From its early beginnings, not too many years ago, the Gas Industry has grown into one of todays multi-billion dollar giants. Its constant search for ways to deliver gas to the customer more dependably and more economically has stimulated equally spectacular growth in other industries such as equipment suppliers. A most vital piece of equipment is the gas pressure regulator. Pressure makes dependable, economical transportation of the gas possible. The regulator, available in such an amazing variety, performs one key job. It makes it possible to have the right pressure in the right place at the right time as the gas travels from well to customer. In spite of a profusion of available shapes, sizes, designs, and alternate extras, its basic principles of operation are quite simple. The purpose of this paper on fundamentals is to discuss these principles, and explain what the gas pressure regulator is and how it works.
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Document ID: 041E34C5

New Concepts In Service Regulators
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution systems in most metropolitan areas are, or will be, medium or high pressure systems. Many domestic, commercial, and industrial customers are now requesting gas to be delivered at elevated pressures. When gas is metered at elevated pressures, three methods are generally used in billing to determine the equivalent standard volume. The volume of gas metered is multiplied by a pressure factor to obtain the volume of gas at the base pressure, or the utilization of a base pressure correcting index, or a pressure compensated meter index geared to make the multiplication mechanically. When metering without a base pressure correcting device, accurate billing of gas measured at elevated pressures requires close regulation or control of the gas pressure.
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Document ID: 9E517E9C

Gas Service Regulators-Installation And Operation
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
For the duration of this class the subject of gas service regulators was covered for the many styles, types, construction, and application of such regulators. Actual operation of regulators was demonstrated by the use of a regulator test stand using compressed air and a manometer to show reduced pressure. Sectional regulators, their component parts, weather and bugproof vents and other allied items were used to assist in this demonstration.
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Document ID: 964568EF

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): J. L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to satisfy the requirements of a specific regulator installation, it is imperative that the proper regulator be selected to do the job. Before selecting a regulator for any application, the conditions at which the regulator will operate must be investigated. Optimum operation can be attained only by proper selection of regulation equipment and the use of an effective maintenance program to prolong the length of acceptable service.
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Document ID: 691E52F0

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheem
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussing the subject of High and Low Pressure Regulators, some definition should be given to distinguish between the two. Actually, when classifying Regulators as to pressure rating, it is sometimes a practice to include a third division identified as Intermediate Pressure. There basically is no distinct line of demarkation, the terms being relative depending upon operating practices. A general classification can be made that would be descriptive involving broad pressure terms. In other words, a Regulator can be reducing pressure levels of pounds to pounds, pounds to inches and inches to inches. These three divisions could be classified as High, Intermediate and Low Pressure, respectively however, we do find some encroachment of boundary areas.
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Document ID: EE365D25

Trouble Shooting In Metameter-Telemetering Systems
Abstract/Introduction:
The leakage between lines, especially in wet weather, may cause a pen to go to the top of the scale and remain there. This is due to a breakdown in insulation between the two conductors of the line, and allows a portion of the pulse current to flow continuously. This has the same effect as if the switch at the transmitter were continuously closed. This fault can be checked by inserting a milliammeter in series with the transmission and disconnecting the transmission line from the Metameter transmitter. A current of more than 15 milliamperes will indicate excessive leakage. In the case of open wires, the trouble may be due to a broken insulator, or, especially in a dusty climate,
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Document ID: 32F3E9B7

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity gas regulators will be generally defined herein as 2 and above in pipe size. Admittedly, there are many 2 regulators that could hardly be called large capacity. 2 pipe has become so standard that it is often used for applications not even approaching all its available capacity. And, therefore, many 2 regulators are designed for requirements other than large flow. Also, at high inlet pressures and large cuts, many regulators smaller than 2 can flow such huge quantities of gas that it would be unfair to arbitrarily ban them from the large capacity club simply because of pipe size.
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Document ID: A082FF7B

Flow Measurement With A Densitometer
Author(s): John R. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Density is calculated by dividing the mass of a substance by its volume. The UGC Industries Densitometer measures absolute density in terms of weight per unit volume. Why density measurement? Knowing only the density of a gas flowing within a pipeline and the differential pressure across the orifice plates the mass flow can be calculated.
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Document ID: 30892DCD

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): Michael P. Hogan
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Illinois Gas Company is the sixth largest natural gas distribution company in the United States. It presently serves approximately 1,050,000 customers in a 16,240 square mile area in northern and western Illinois. It employs 3,100 persons. NI-Gas presently has approximately 450 miles of major transmission mains and 17,200 miles of distribution main. This past winter we set a new maximum day sendout of 2.7 billion cubic feet of gas. To accomplish this sendout required the operation of approximately 300 regulator stations and 1,500 regulator vaults.
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Document ID: 88588856

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control
Author(s): Milton H. Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure regulation and flow control may be accomplished by any number of devices. We will deal only with the two types with which I am most familiar the expansible tube type valve and the ball valve.
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Document ID: 6F699412

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity gas regulators will be generally defined herein as 2 and above in pipe size. Admittedly, there are many 2 regulators that could hardly be called large capacity. 2 pipe has become so standard that it is often used for applications not even approaching all its available capacity. And, therefore, many 2 regulators are designed for requirements other than large flow. Also, at high inlet pressures and large cuts, many regulators smaller than 2 can flow such huge quantities of gas that it would be unfair to arbitrarily ban them from the large capacity club simply because of pipe size.
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Document ID: 7F3C2DAA

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussing the subject of High and Low Pressure Regulators, some definition should be given to distinguish between the two. Actually, when classifying Regulators as to pressure rating, it is sometimes a practice to include a third division identified as Intermediate Pressure. There basically is no distinct line of demarkation, the terms being relative depending upon operating practices. A general classification can be made that would be descriptive involving broad pressure terms. In other words, a Regulator can be reducing pressure levels of pounds to pounds, pounds to inches and inches to inches. These three divisions could be classified as High, Intermediate and Low Pressure, respectively however, we do find some encroachment of boundary areas.
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Document ID: 8B1277F6

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): S. H. Van Wambeck
Abstract/Introduction:
One generation of man has witnessed several generations of evolution in many of the activities of man in the last 20 year span. For example, electronics, air travel and space exploration are major areas which have moved forward at unbelievable pace. Much of this would not have been possible without the digital computer and the services it is capable of rendering. The computer itself has advanced through several generations of upgrading and has motivated parallel advances in a number of related fields.
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Document ID: F1A27885

Instruments For Automation
Author(s): E. N. Hayes, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Automation is one of the most important factors leading to profits in the oil and gas production and pipeline industries. There is a wide variety of ways in which instrumentation may be utilized on various applications. The instrument industry offers pneumatic and electronic analog equipment, as well as digital equipment for control and measuring systems. Making use of these tools is a technical challenge crucial to some of the long-range goals of the industries involved.
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Document ID: B05AC28E

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators-Flow Measurement
Author(s): E. S. Messer T. m. Sarin
Abstract/Introduction:
The FMCO Integrator has been used for many years by all the gas companies to calculate the volume of gas passing through an orifice meter for a definite period of time. The orifice meter, being the most practical of head metering devices, is used because of its simplicity of structure and ease of duplication of the flat orifice plate. From the physical laws of flow, for either gas or liquid, involved in the orifice meter measurement, calculation of a volumetric quantity can be obtained from the differential and static pressure of the fluid stream as it passes through the orifice. A continuous recording on a circular chart of the two variables, differential and static pressure by a pressure recorder permits this volumetric calculation for any period of time.
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Document ID: 0AA950E9

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): H. P. Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase and sale of most commodities occur after terms of the transaction are fully agreed upon and complied with. The terms might include such factors as price per unit, quantity, color, size, and how payment is to be made. Some of these particular considerations are not applicable to the purchase and sale of natural gas. Some of them, however, and other factors are applicable to gas but unlike the purchase and sale of most commodities, the purchase and sale of gas, due to its physical nature, is not a simple exchange of the commodity for money.
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Document ID: 9B18120E

Application Of Electronic Computers For Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): H. L. Morris, m. J. Tucker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement factor calculation using a computer is well suited for a company such as Northern Natural Gas since we process a large number of meter charts each day. We are processing daily approximately the equivalent of twenty-one hundred orifice meter charts and seventeen hundred positive charts. Considering first the orifice meter chart calculation, about twelve thousand factors are computed daily. Positive meter chart calculation adds about five thousand more factors per day.
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Document ID: 3A2286A4

Electronic: Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Charles F. TAYLOR,J. Lee FULKS,M. L. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the Electro Scanner came into existence we have had to make many adjustments in the office and in the field so that we can fully utilize the scanner in our chart calculations. Our first operation was to reach our measurement engineers in the field and explain the necessary part that they had to perform for the scanner to be a success in the chart department. There had to be cooperation on everyones part as the chart requirements were changed drastically when we converted to a scanner, and the field man needed to know why. Many of the changes that were required are listed below, and we will attempt to explain why some of these adjustments were necessary.
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Document ID: BAD0129C

Operations And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Glenn D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
In this industry, there is no single place where accuracy is so much a must as it is in the measurement of natural gas. Basically, the orifice meter is the cash register of the gas industry. Money is made or lost depending on the time and effort devoted to the maintenance and operation of the orifice meter. To be sure, the orifice is not the ultimate in measuring devices, but at the present it is the most adaptable and flexible instrument for the purpose it serves. Both the buyer and seller are dependent upon the accuracy of orifice meter measurement. To obtain this accuracy, the following policy should be adhered to. Calibrated equipment must be properly installed, serviced and operated. It is recognized that there may be exceptions to many of the statements made here in reference to maintenance and operation because of different personnel and different ways in which the job is accomplished. However, all methods are correct.
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Document ID: 36EC20C3

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): James R. Cummings
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1946, just a few months after the close of World War II, we were told that we were on the threshold of a new era in energy. We had progressed from wood in the 17th century, to coal in the 18th and to gas in the 19th. Now gas would become a thing of the past as our generating plants produced electricity so cheaply and so abundantly that every home owner in American would use electricity for every domestic purpose. We would even be driving automobiles with motors powered by an atomic battery no bigger than the size of a tobacco can. What happened?
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Document ID: B1EAB9E8

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): T. H. Oakes
Abstract/Introduction:
Problem is defined as a question raised for inquiry, consideration or solution. Problems involved in offshore gas measurement bring these three aspects-inquiry, consideration, and solution-into sharp focus when we, the interested people, get together. What do we mean by offshore? Offshore to some is a stones throw from land, while to others it may mean a distance of thirty or sixty miles. We will attempt in this session to get from the experience of this group the solution to some of our problems.
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Document ID: A5967BB2

Trouble Shooting In Metameter-Telemetering Systems
Author(s): W. R. Grime
Abstract/Introduction:
In dealing with trouble-shooting in Telemetering Systems we must first discuss briefly what Telemetering is and how it works. Telemetering is measuring at a distance. In Figure 1 we have a simple analogy of what Telemetering is. As the man who picks up the desired information or measurement, opens and closes the circuit with a telegraph key, the opens and closures are transmitted along the wires to the coil or sounder at the receiving end, and these, in turn, are transformed or decoded into meaningful intelligence.
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Document ID: 6BCBB493

Telemetering-Advance Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
We all realize that the Gas Industry has been rapidly changing, and effective gas dispatching requires that more information be available to the dispatcher than ever before. This information has become so voluminous that the mere presentation of raw data is no longer an acceptable method of providing this information. We must keep in mind that the primary function of the dispatcher is to make decisions to insure that an adequate supply of gas is available at minimum cost to meet the load requirements of the system. This means that the information presented to the dispatcher must be in a form that is ready to be used so that he can effectively perform his primary function of decision making.
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Document ID: B91D4892

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
When looking at the regulator that utilizes a solid rubber plug for the first time, it is not quickly apparent how it operates. In the case of the regulator herein described, the rubber plug makes up the inner valve which is secured in the regulator body in such a way as to perform several important functions. A point to consider is that the rubber plug regulator was designed, within the Gas Industry, to eliminate certain regulation problems and it has been found that the rubber plug and the way that it can be worked have combined to give an operation heretofore unavailable in a single regulator design. A few of the main assets that may be attributed to the regulator using a rubber plug for the controlling element are:
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Document ID: B76CD811

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
The principal forms of primary devices, or differential producers, are the thin plate concentric orifice, the flow nozzle, and the venturi tube. The use of the venturi tube can be justified when low head loss is essential and sometimes when the measured field is carrying solids which would collect in front of an orifice plate or flow nozzle. The flow nozzle has a high coefficient, about equal to that of a venturi tube. It is useful on high velocity flows such as frequently encountered in steam lines. It will accommodate a greater flow than an orifice plate for a given differential and throat diameter.
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Document ID: 30C558E5

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement accuracy today is of greater concern than ever before and is a direct result of regulator accuracy or performance. Even if a meter is 100% accurate and the upstream regulator is incorrectly sized, misapplied or inaccurate, the resulting measurement accuracy is affected. Before discussing the selecting and sizing aspects of spring loaded domestic regulators, a brief review of regulator terminology and fundamental principles of operations must be covered.
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Document ID: 2E6183AF

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The first point to clarify is the type of flow computer to be discussed. The term computer is one which is drastically overworked in our language and implies some mysterious and marvelous device to solve all of our problems. The Chinese had computers centuries ago, and their term was abacus. All of us utilized computers in our college engineering courses, but our term at that time was slide rule. Many of us, after college, advanced to a more elaborate computer known as a calculator, and today, even the calculators are more marvelous and silent since electrons are doing the counting
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Document ID: 4FCB3037

Theory And Operation Of Pilot Controls
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
Before entering into the subject of Pilot Controls, some attention should first be given to Regulator Fundamentals. A clear understanding of the principles of regulation will assist greatly in the discussion of pilots and their method of operation. Consider first, a simple Regulator having just the basic elements necessary for operation. These components would consist of a diaphragm, a variable restriction and some reference standard that will provide the desired force for the pressure being controlled. For this example, a spring would serve best, as the applied force. Assume that these elements are so arranged that the spring force opposes a gas pressure across the diaphragm. Also that the variable restriction or valve is attached to the diaphragm by means of a stem in such a manner that movement of the diaphragm will cause the valve to open or close an orifice. This movement controls the amount of flow of gas through the orifice and is governed by the force balance at the diaphragm.
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Document ID: 0E8B1C04

Telemetering-Tone Generators And Discriminators
Author(s): Merle C. Peiffer
Abstract/Introduction:
Using tones in telemetering systems requires specific equipment to generate and separate a precise frequency tone over a wide variety of environmental conditions. These pieces of equipment derive their names from the function required of each and are used in conjunction with various transducers and a communication link. In many cases this link is a voice grade telephone pair. This paper is not to describe the technical details of such equipment, but to give a general description in language a layman can understand and use.
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Document ID: 6D0A93B7

Overpressure Protection-Monitor Systems, Relief Valves And Shutoff Valves
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
BASIC REQUIREMENT FOR PROTECTION AGAINST ACCIDENTAL OVERPRESSURING Every pipeline, main, distribution system, customers meter, and connected facilities, if connected to a gas source where the failure of pressure control or other causes might result in a pressure which would exceed the maximum allowable operating pressure of the facility, shall be equipped with suitable pressure relieving or pressure limiting devices
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Document ID: FAECC350

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design Engineers and Fieldmen alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. The Design Engineer is thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise whereas, Fieldmen will be interested in locating the best possible sense point for control. We should also be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: 5E3B0286

Prediction And Abatement Of Control Valve Noise
Author(s): Larry Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
An increasing awareness of the physical and mental stresses that the human body is subjected to as a result of exposure to excessive noise levels has prompted man to demand that more effort be expended in noise control. Demands have come in the form of: compensation granted workmen for loss of hearing, labor grievances, and a rash of anti-noise legislation by local, state and federal governments. These demands have provided the impetus for the acute interest prevalent throughout the gas industry concerning the abatement of noise. The objective of this presentation is to present general information that will facilitate the comprehension and solution of acoustical problems inherent to gas meter and regulation stations.
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Document ID: 5BFE39D9

Overpressure Protection For Gas Systems
Author(s): G. F. Bright
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past three to four years there has been noticeably increasing activity in companies engaged in the transmission and distribution of natural gas in the analysis of the overpressure protection methods that they use in order to make sure that the provisions of USAS B31.8 are being met. Studies are being made to insure that requirements of general design, component selection, capacity and periodic testing are in accordance with the Code for Pressure Piping. In view of this it would seem appropriate to discuss the requirements of USAS B31.8 generally, and some of the available devices permitted to limit overpressure in more specific terms.
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Document ID: 813FE421

Differential Pressure And Pressure Transmitters
Author(s): John Boynton
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in data processing and reduction techniques have created interest in new methods of data gathering. Automation of field measurements is a fact today, not a dream for tomorrow. Transmission of field measuremments direct to a central data processing center is a reality.
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Document ID: 878C9A15

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The Displacement Gas Meter is frequently referred to as a Positive Displacement Meter, not because measurement with this device is any more definite or accurate than the measurement which might be obtained with another typo meter, but because the measurement that it affords is a positive volumetric quantity in cubic feet at flowing conditions - regardless of the temperature, gravity or pressure of the flowing gas. There are three basic types of gas meters which are generally considered as falling into this category: 1-wet (rotating drum) meters 2-rotary (impeller type) meters and, 3-slide-valve dry type meters.
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Document ID: 5C83BB48

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Darais
Abstract/Introduction:
The Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube are the main components which make up the primary element of an orifice metering installation with the orifice meter or flow computer as the sscondary device. Since in many cases these installations might be considered the cash registers, too much emphasis cannot be placed on the correct selection, manufacture, and use of the different components which make up the primary element. The secondary element can only record the signal it receives from the primary element, whether it be correct or incorrect.
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Document ID: 7B49CAE5

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Most volume measuring devices in current use utilize the positive displacement principle of measurement. In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released, and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. According to this definition, a grocer measuring a pound of jelly beans is utilizing positive displacement measurement. A dairy filling quart milk bottles is also utilizing the same basic principle. Over forty million gas meters in current use in the United States also are based on a positive displacement principle.
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Document ID: 11916E5A

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters have been used for many years in the United States as the cash register to sell a measured volume of gas to the most numerous ultimate consumer. Although I know of no classical definition for a domestic meter, industry practice has dictated that any meter having a rated capacity of less than 500 cubic feet per hour is designated a domestic meter. This meter is inevitably a positive displacement device using two flexible diaphragms and either three or four measurement compartments. This paper will deal strictly with the two-diaphragm, four-compartment, positive displacement, domestic gas meter. See Figure 1.
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Document ID: 85681555

Domestic Meters
Author(s): K. G. Agosti
Abstract/Introduction:
Most volume measuring devices in current use utilize the Positive Displacement principle of measurement. In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released, and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. According to this definition, a grocer measuring a pound of jelly beans is utilizing positive displacement measurement. A dairy filling quart milk bottles is also utilizing the same basic principle. Over forty million gas meters in current use in the United States also are based on a positive displacement principle.
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Document ID: 1031984B

Latest Proving Room Innovations
Author(s): Woodford A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The meter proving facilities set up by both manufacturers and utilities are extremely important to operating costs of these companies. It is here that the decision is made to accept or reject, rework or repair gas meters. These decisions involve very real costs and are based primarily upon the results of proving the meters. Utility companies depend upon their meters for billing. It is paramount then that the meters have a known accuracy before installation to insure both the utility and its customers fair value. To underscore this importance, all gas utilities are required to file meter accuracies with appropriate regulatory commissions. The necessary data is provided by the proving facilities.
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Document ID: 19C7DB67

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Emil Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the Gas Company is to a great extent dependent on the accuracy of its meters. Meter testing is one of the more important functions of the meter shop. Accuracy and efficiency can be maintained by the use of the three tests we are going to cover. The Tank Test-A Low Light Test-and an Accuracy Test. 1-KIND OF TESTS
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Document ID: F8BCD624

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): H. L. Dehart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the basic principles of gas measurement with rotary meters and discusses selection, calibration and test methods it reviews the basic sizes and models available. Additional information on maintenance and meter construction is also presented along with the meter accuracy data
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Document ID: C2DA59E7

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Thomas B. Davis R. H. Pestotndx
Abstract/Introduction:
Why field test large capacity displacement meters? The * question is asked quite often, and two of the major reasons are: ACCURACY AND ECONOMY Accuracy 1. Test made on location implies greater accuracy as the test is made at or very near, the actual operating conditions, of pressure, temperature and rate of flow. 2. A field test immediately after meter is installed eliminates any inaccuracies caused by improper handling during shipment to location.
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Document ID: 195B6F27

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): Raymond J. CRAWFORD,H. F. LEE,P. E. Opp, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the reasons for continuing to up-date meter shop operations is that the gas meter will leave the shop in the best condition possible, not only internally, but externally as well. Also, this must be done at the lowest possible cost per meter. By achieving this, not only will the cash register of your company do a better job but when the meter is returned to the shop, it will require a minimum of work.
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Document ID: 1AA3081C

Large Capacity Displacement Meters And Auxiliary Devices
Author(s): Richard 0. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The large capacity displacement meter is a device which by definition has the following characteristics measurement chambers with a known or fixed volume displacement, valves and/or channels to alternately fill and discharge the contents of each chamber, and a counting mechanism to record the cycles of the measurement. By application this same device is also called upon to:
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Document ID: 9AC77A24

Operations And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meter And Regulator
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
Well directed cooperation often brings about accomplishments of great value and many of the most impressive achievements in the gas industry have come from close cooperation between the manufacturer and engineers who use thier products. The situation, particularly in this instance with a survey conducted by the Sprague Meter Company and gas distributor companies, has resulted in bringing to the gas industry, after five years of experimental research and actual practice, a pressure control and measurement instrument well advanced in modern design as the new 747. This new development is a 175RM Regulator/ Meter. This meter is not new to the gas industry, but what makes it unique is the increased size of the service regulator and the vertical position of the regulator unit concealed in the back of the meter unit and out of sight of meter installation. See Figure No. 3. Compare Figure #1 with Figure #2 -you can see that this new class 175RM is truly the new look set for the 70s. Note the bottom inlet, the back outlet features which was industrys response to the survey, indicating a basic desire to simplify this use of piping with the outlet concealed. Figure #3.
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Document ID: 4759CD7E

Fundamentals Of Turbine Type Meter Measurement
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 1963, the Rockwell Manufacturing Company culminated fifteen years of Engineering research and development with the introduction of the 6 T-30 (30,000 cfh @ 4 oz.) Rockwell Turbo Meter. The subsequent expansion of the high working pressures has extensively broadened the applications on which Turbo Meters can be used. Several thousand Turbo Meters are currently in use by gas distribution utilities on services ranging from industrial boilers to large power plants and city gate stations. Market preferences for the Turbine type of gas meter have necessitated even more extensive broadening of the Turbo Meter product line.
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Document ID: DC07F5EA

Direct Driven Integrators
Author(s): Ivan Gulick
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of volumes of natural gas flowing through positive displacement meters can be accomplished by the use of various instruments. One instrument, the direct driven integrator, automatically provides gas volumes corrected for temperature, pressure, pressure - temperature, or pressure - temperature - supercompressibility. This instrument is designated direct driven because it is driven directly by the wriggler of the meter on which it is mounted. The cams, gears, linkage and counters are operated by the force provided by gas flowing through the meter.
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Document ID: 74AB8BB3

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): R. D. Roach
Abstract/Introduction:
When evaluating or selecting the components of an A.G.A. qualifying Meter Tube, individual attention is, of course, focused on the three basic components. That is, the orifice plate itself, the approach and discharge tubing and the plate holding device. The selection of the proper orifice plate is relatively simple as well as being easily procured. This is also true of the upstream and downstream piping, which can easily be selected to meet A.G.A. minimum requirements. The A.G.A. Committee Report number 3 spells out the minimum upstream and downstream lengths, as well as internal diameter tolerance.
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Document ID: 05D92D12

New Applications Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of current equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve differential gauges, both Dri-FIo bellows and mercury type, pneumatic control with or without telemetering, pressure recorders, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators.
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Document ID: A523AEF1

A Comparative Review Of Bellows Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Charles F. Buerhaus
Abstract/Introduction:
Space age technology has produced a remarkable amount of beneficial fallout. In the field of bellows-type orifice meters, the last five years has shown significant use of new technology in bellows materials, welding processes, and in other component parts associated with contemporary bellows meters.
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Document ID: CD5A5FB6

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of automatic chart changers has become so widespread since the first units were installed in 1959 that they are now accepted as standard equipment in measurement stations. In the interest of good automatic chart changer performance, this manual has been prepared for our users. Various problems that occur will be examined and corrective procedures will be recommended.
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Document ID: 06E6500D

Field Experience With Turbo Metering
Author(s): George W. Reich
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters have been in use a relatively short time as compared to the other three standard metering devices used in the gas industry, these being the diaphragm, rotary, and orifice meters. As with any innovation in the utility industry a thorough investigation is normally made to insure that both the customer and the utility receive accurate and dependable service. It is planned to point out areas where the turbo meter excels and pit-falls to watch for in its use so that this goal can be accomplished more readily throughout the industry.
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Document ID: B03BC4F3

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair
Author(s): Emil Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the gas company is, to a great extent, dependent on the accuracy of its meters. The improvements in the meter shops and meter shop practices have been a major factor in improving meter accuracies as well as life expectancies. Meetings, such as this one, help us attain a better understanding not only of meter design and repair but it gives a closer relationship between the men who design and make meters and the men who repair and make them work.
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Document ID: FD6C996D

Application Of Statistical Sampling To Meter Testing
Author(s): Ralph C. Stanford
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling is the means of determining the nature or makeup of something by looking at a few things of many or a portion of the whole. In order to properly consider sampling and all of its modern ramifications, the word statistical must be added. This word is derived from statistics which has two quite different meanings. As a plural noun it refers to any facts stated in terms of numbers. In the other sense it is used as a singular noun and refers to a body of methods by which useful conclusions can be drawn from numerical data. One may say, Statistics is based in large part on the law of large numbers and the mathematical theory of probater repair procedures, we should have the meter brought to the shop as near as possible in the same condition as it was when removed from service. Transportation and the manner the meter is handled can be a factor on any of these tests. 9. AUTOMATIC EQUIPMENT This type of equipment can be utilized in all shops regardless of size. Such tools are not expensive and will materially reduce the cost as well as the effort required for repair work. Air tools are generally preferred to electric power tools for the reason they are more flexible in their operating characteristics. In choosing a tool, such as a pneumatic screwdriver, flexible operating characteristics such as starting, stopping, reversing, variable speeds, interchangeability, variable torque and sizes of driver bits it will take, as well as sockets, should be considered. Also, it should have a counter balance that will pull the tool out of the way whenever the operator releases it, yet it is at hand when he requires it for use again. This is far better than the practice of laying it down on the workbench. For long life, a high pressure oil lubricator should be placed in the line ahead of the tool in order to carry proper lubrication to the working parts. This type of tool should be operated at the pressure recommended by the manufacturer. If your air pressure is too high, a suitable regulator should be provided to deliver the desired pressure to the tool. SUMMARY Remember, a meter must be accurate when tested and remain accurate while in service if it is to accomplish its purpose, to assure your company of its full income and guarantee the customer full value for his money. SAMPLING TO METER TESTING bility. The latter usage is accurate in the term statistical sampling.
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Document ID: D005EDB2

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Q, C X VHwPr where G is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, super-compressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: 43C8EBA4

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): James R. Bowers
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer. Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For this reason, the manometer is of prime importance to the gas measurement industry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration, trouble shooting, and meter maintenance leak testing.
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Document ID: BED95720

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording calorimeter is the most commonly used device for measuring the B.T.U content of gas. This device continuously samples, indicates, and records B.T.U. per cubic foot of gas. The B.T.U. is the basis of existence of the gas industry. Your companies are paid for the total B.T.U.s they deliver. You who are involved with installation and operation of B.T.U. measurement equipment are performing a vital job for your company. Successful performance of your job means your company gets paid for every B.T.U. it delivers.
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Document ID: BDE7973D

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): W. C. Mellor
Abstract/Introduction:
In considering the subject of this talk and trying to arrange my words to offer something constructive, I immediately found myself with mixed emotions and conflicting ideas. It is quite easy for us in field operations to excuse and possibly blame many of our problems on omissions of our office groups. Quite often this may be true, but sometimes we make omissions too. We expect information to be fed to us from the office which is necessary for the performance of our field jobs, but do we always make our office personnel aware of the information we need? This is sometimes an easy point to miss and we must not overlook the fact that we are on a two-way street. In other words, we expect, and it is very essential that we get, assistance from our office groups. However, we also have an obligation to satisfy their needs, and only when we supply these can we fully enjoy the mutual satisfaction of cooperative team work so important to all operations.
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Document ID: 0B02BA35

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): C. BEAN,ANDREW B. McCURDY,HOWARD S. Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
This report is not intended to be of a technical nature it is merely intended to outline some of the problems of leakage and unaccounted for gas. This is normally one of the most frustrating problems confronting the industry today. It not only requires a high labor investment, but it also requires a high investment of materials.
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Document ID: A2363328

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the greatest problems encountered in determining the specific gravity of a gas is a functional definition of the term. For the purpose of this paper, the specific gravity of a gas is defined as a unitless number which denotes the ratio of the weight of a gas to the weight of an equal volume of carbon dioxide free, dried air, with both measured at the same temperature and pressure. The terms density and specific weight can be interchanged with weight in the definition.
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Document ID: 5306EE6A

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of the heating value of gas is now of major importance to the gas industry, while at one time the cubic foot was the standard used, and heating value was a minor thing. To determine the efficiency of gas burning equipment, heating value must be known. Prices of the cubic foot of gas also vary with its quality. Measurement of heating value must now be accurate and reliable. The Recording Calorimeter is a precision instrument designed to measure and record heating value in B.T.U. per standard cubic foot. One B.T.U. (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of pure water 1 degree Fahrenheit (from 58.5 to 59.5 degrees). In order for the Recording Calorimeter to maintain accuracy, proper installation and subsequent testing by qualified technicians cannot be over emphasized.
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Document ID: 0315E593

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydro-Carbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): A. C. Selman
Abstract/Introduction:
As we all know the natural gas industry often has problems which must be solved. One of these problems is the water vapor in natural gas. The gas that is produced from gas wells is often saturated. If an excessive amount of water vapor is carried in the gas stream, it can condense out as a free liquid and fill the lines. If hydrocarbons are present, ice-like hydrates can form and shut off the stream of gas.
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Document ID: BBBFC0C1

Methods Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): A. F. Bertuzzi
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas wells are rated on the basis of their ability to produce. This ability to produce is determined by back pressure tests and expressed on log-log paper as a plot of the difference in shut in pressure squared and flowing pressure squared on the vertical axis against flow rate corresponding to the flowing pressure on the horizontal axis. The pressure information may be based on well head conditions or bottom hole conditions. If it is bottom hole conditions, the pressures may be measured or calculated from well head conditions. Figure 1 is an example of such a plot. This concept in testing gas wells is based on the work of E. L. Rawlings and M. A. Schellhardt which appeared in their 1935 Bureau of Mines Monograph 7 publication entitled Back-Pressure Data on Natural Gas Wells and Their Application to Production Practices.1
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Document ID: 532DAA09


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