Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1972)

Telemetering For Control Measurement
Author(s): Robert H. Buechner
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering may be defined as ihe process of measuring some physical quantity al one location and displaying this measured quantity at a remote location. Our particular concern is with the telemetering of gas flow information from remote locations to a control point where the information will be used either direclly or indirectly as the basis for the control of the gas system.
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Document ID: 9ACE0392

Criteria And Specifications For Selection Of A Data Acquisition And Computer Control System
Author(s): Alex L. Paul
Abstract/Introduction:
The contents of this paper on criteria and specifications of a data acquisition and supervisory system are intended to describe the process of an impartial analysis of what a user may acquire by utilizing the most recent developments in the data acquisition and computer industries, not necessarily as advertised but by a calculated study of what is available and what can feasibly and economically be applied to your particular requirements.
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Document ID: 0012E425

Communications As Applied To Customer Service
Author(s): John K. Dahlberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Answering customer calls is one of our biggest work loads and influences our customers image of us. Last year NI-Gas had over 1,000,000 times to influence the customer favorably. About six years ago NI-Gas customers who called for service had to wait sometimes as long as 80 seconds to reach one of our service clerks. The delays were caused by many different reasons, the most important being 1. Insufficient number of operators manning the switchboard during peak or phantom peak calling periods 2. Insufficient number of service clerks to handle the call load. We always had more important work for the clerks to do than answering the phone. For example, our service clerks handle all of the paper work associated with a customers account after his service had been turned on. This included Hi-bill complaints, order processing, correspondence, ordering parts, etc
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Document ID: 6E7783C9

Data Acquisition System Field Maintenance And Training
Author(s): William R. Loll
Abstract/Introduction:
The maintenance of gas data acquisition system field equipment involves a combination of electrical and pneumatic instrument knowledge. The primary signals originate in the gas stream, are converted to electrical signals and telemetered electrically from the field to the central master station. Along the way, many different groups of repair people get involved in the routine or nonroutine maintenance of the equipment. Management has the responsibility to each of these groups and itself to present the information required to enable these maintenance groups to perform as expected.
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Document ID: 5955EC33

Offshore Pipeline Construction Methods For Deep Water
Author(s): W. R. Rochelle
Abstract/Introduction:
Submarine pipelines are now being constructed in over 300 feet of water. The immediate challenge is in rough waters of 500 to 600 feet deep. The next goal could be in the depth range of 2,000 feet. The immediate challenge is being met by the development of new techniques both analytically and through experience, and through the design and construction of extended capability laying, burying, welding, underwater joining, inspection and navigation equipment. Concurrently, the development and design of more sophisticated equipment such as dynamically positioned and column stabilized barges for very deep and/or very rough water is continuing.
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Document ID: 0B301081

Extent Of Insect Problems And Results Of Tests On Gas Appliances
Author(s): Monte R. Edwards
Abstract/Introduction:
Spider infestations in our outdoors gas appliances have caused malfunctions in these units for several years. A pilot project to study the problem was initiated in 1968 by Washington Gas. The purpose of the project was to find a practical means of reducing service problems caused by spider infestation of burner orifices in gas appliances during periods when the appliances are not in operation. Infestations have been particularly noted in those appliances where spiders may enter the burner box directly from the outdoors, such as air conditioners, pool heaters, gas grills and through-the-wall heaters.
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Document ID: 8D866DED

Opening Up Your Organization For Innovation
Author(s): Grant A. Dove
Abstract/Introduction:
Do you have an open path for innovation in your organization? Are yon certain that you have swept out the institutulional obstacles that can suppress innovation in your company? For the past several years at TI, we have been using and evolving an approach deliberately conceived for managing innovation. We would be the last to claim that all obstacles have been swept away, but the systeni is working well for LIS and some of the principles in our approach are of general and fundamental value.
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Document ID: 6DD9AC49

Measurement Of Compressible Fluids
Author(s): Howard J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
Designing meters to measure compressible fluids accurately is complicated by the problem of not having an accurate and repeatable standard which can be used as a basic reference. This problem does not exist to the same degree when measuring liquids (incompressible fluids), since the fluid used in calibration can be easily collected in a tank and its volume determined directly by scaling or calculated from weight measurements along with density determination. It is true that other factors, such as viscosity and density changes, may change the meter accuracy in the meters flow range but in general, good reliable accuracy can be maintained because of the base or primary accuracy.
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Document ID: A1F21D63

Dont Give Us A Break-Dial Miss Dig
Author(s): George Kaston
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1969 Consumers Power Company witnessed underground damages which numbered 6.000. They realized thai in a rapidly expanding geographical area something other than repairs to the system had to be done. In southeastern Michigan there are four major utilities, namely. Michigan Consolidated Gas Company. Detroit Edison (electric), Michigan Bell Telephone Company and Consumers Power Company (gas). All four utilities had one common denominator: underground facility damages from outside contractors. We all recognized that progress in the form of road pavement projects, sanitary and storm sewer enlargements, and water main extensions into semiurban areas, must be dealt with, in southeastern Michigan there are over 2,000 excavating contractors who assist in constructing the progress that causes utilities, who have facilities underground, nightmares. Miss Dig is a communications method by which excavating contractors, with one telephone call, can be assured of having underground utilities located prior to excavation.
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Document ID: 4006A57F

Osha And Materials Management
Author(s): Raymond P. Benton
Abstract/Introduction:
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is with us. We are at the threshold of a new era of safety and health standards. We must comply with the rules and regulations as promulgated: at the same time, we must recognize changes are going to be made. OSHA is making changes in its standards. Soon the states will be submitting their standards to the Department of Labor. Upon approval, the state standards will apply and supersede the applicable OSHA standards.
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Document ID: 006D03C0

Standard Combustion Data For The Fuel Gas Industry
Author(s): George T. Armstrong, Eugene S. Domalski, James I. Minor Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Equity in the sale of natural gas or other gases for fuel purposes requires that the total calorific values be accurately known and that the same values be used throughout the industry for gases of identical properties. This paper gives the total calorific values gross heats of combustion at constant pressure) of gases.
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Document ID: C450A37A

Heat Capacity Functions For Natural Gas Using The Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation Of State
Author(s): Marcus A. Francis
Abstract/Introduction:
Heat capacity functions have a wide engineering application in several areas of the natural gas industry. Basic thermodynamic equations are reviewed and the Benedict-Webb- Rubin equation is discussed, A calculation sequence is given for the heat capacity functions and ideal constant pressure specific heat curve-fit coefficients are listed. Equations and numerical examples are given for gas compression and expansion paths.
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Document ID: B3322E2A

An Optimization Criterion For Underground Gas Storage
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last few years the importance of optimizing underground gas storage pressures has increased from both the safety and economic point of view. Research on this topic, which has been under way in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory at The Pennsylvania State University since 1966, is therefore assuming a position of increased importance. At present, this research involves both model and field studies: the latter were initialed in I97I and are still in their preliminary stages. The model studies, on the other hand, have been under way for a number of years, and a monograph (Hardy, et al., 1972) presenting the detailed results to date will be available June 1972.
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Document ID: EC2DEE82

Deepwater Drilling And Production
Author(s): C. A. Woolley
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a rapidly increasing demand for energy in the western world. Most of the near-term increase will continue to be met by oil and gas. As a result, we are extending our search for petroleum deposits into more hostile environments such as deeper horizons, remote locations, the Arctic and offshore. The move to the offshore is reflected by the upward trend in offshore oil production. Figure 1 shows that 20 years ago only about 5% of the free worlds total oil production came from offshore areas. Today, this figure is approaching 20% and is increasing at a rapid rate.
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Document ID: 966C1719

Computer Processing Problems For Control Measurement
Author(s): Leon R. Henry, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Before clarifying what is possible and what is not possible with computers in flow measurement, let mc briefly review the flow of information from the meter run to the reports which seem to cause so much difficulty. Figure I represents the typical data palhs and processing steps for meter stations where both control measurement and billing measurement are needed. A number of variations are possible in the details of the system and will be described later, but the typical arrangement shown here depicts the principles.
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Document ID: 86696A9A

New Approach To The Continuous Measurement Of Calorific Values Of Gaseous Fuels
Author(s): William H. Clingman, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A new method for measuring calorific value has been developed. The basis for the method is a proportional relationship between calorific value and the ratio of air to natural gas which maximizes the adiabatic flame temperature of mixtures of the two. This relationship is derived in the paper. An apparatus for measuring the air to gas ratio which maximizes flame temperature is described. The calorific values of several natural gas samples were measured using this apparatus and compared to calorimelric measurements,
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Document ID: 5A6B2D28

Gas Transportation System Modeling
Author(s): B. C. Sosinski, m. A. Stoner
Abstract/Introduction:
General concepts of gas transmission network models and model building and a description of gas transmission system analysis methods at Consumers Power Company are presented. Computer program execution and evaluation aids for network analysis are mentioned. Results of examples of the modeling programs are discussed in areas of steady-state and transient pressure flow problems.
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Document ID: 224E3C22

Our Experience With Offshore Platform Automation
Author(s): Reece J. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Atlantic Richfields purpose for operating in the Gulf of Mexico is to produce oil and gas. To accomplish this objective, extreme precautions are required to protect personnel and the massive facility and well investments. We are concerned with environmental protection because all users of the sea resources have a responsibility to protect this environment so that we can achieve mutual beneficial use.
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Document ID: FB877842

The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety And Health Act Of 1970 And Its Implications
Author(s): Chain Robbins
Abstract/Introduction:
On December 29, 1970. President Nixon created a new and widely heralded partnership. Joined together were the safety engineering and occupational health professions the U.S. Department of Labor the Department of Health, FxJucation and Welfare the federal government and the states.
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Document ID: 23DF2B4E

Compressor Station Automatic Fire Control
Author(s): Arnold D. Domanus
Abstract/Introduction:
A unique fire and hazardous atmosphere alarm and control system has been designed and built by Northern Illinois Gas Company personnel at their Troy Grove underground storage station. By utilizing a centrally located 5- ton CO. tank, relay and annunciator panels, a fire can be detected, isolated and extinguished automatically within a few seconds while the unaffected remainder of the station continues in operation. On a very cold day last January, Northern Illinois Gas Company broke all previous company records with a 3.17 billion cubic feet of gas sendout over a 24-hour period. Of this sendout, 50% of the gas came from NI-Gas underground storage aquifers and 25% from the station whose fire control system we are describing here.
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Document ID: DBCC10A3

Development Of A Gas Load Limiting Device
Author(s): Norman R. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The words restriction, limiting or curtailment are chilling to the dedicated gas man whether he be in production, transmission, distribution or marketing. But those words are with us now. Will it result in personal panic and a give up attitude or motivation to be creative? The load limiting devices development is one step in making the most of what is available to us. It is relatively inexpensive, it is marketable, and it helps the consumer. But most important - it prods the imagination to think of what can be done, and there, quite possibly, lies the answer to todays challenges.
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Document ID: 96188D0F

Current Status Of National, State And Local LNG Codes And Standards
Author(s): W. Leonard Ball
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of todays standards pertaining to LNG facilities perhaps can best be approached through a brief history of standard writing activity over the past two decades and. in particular, following the development of NFPA No- 59A, Storage and Handling Liquefied Natural Gas. It is generally true that the writing of a code or standard occurs only after the need for one exists and emphasizes the special problems and responsibilities of being an innovator of a new process or concept. As a result of the failure in 1944 of the first commercial attempt to liquefy and store natural gas, the industry turned to LP-gas to meet its peak shaving needs. This resulted in the development and publishing in 1948 of NFPA No. 59. LP-Gases at Utility Gas Plants, which was followed in 1957 by API 2510, Design and Construction of Liquefied-Petroleuni Gas Installations at Marine and Pipeline Terminals, Natural-Gasoline Plants, Refineries, and Tank Farms. These standards covered atmospheric temperature storage. Provisions for refrigerated storage were added to NFPA No. 59 in 1962.
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Document ID: 7145B677

Computerized Meter Records System
Author(s): Robert T. Melvin
Abstract/Introduction:
The computerized meter record system operated by Philadelphia Electric Company handles gas and electric metering records. The heart of the system is a 28-reel magnetic tape master file. Transactions such as meter changes, tests and new purchases are posted to the master file twice each month. The meter record is maintained on computer output microfilm and is updated twice a month, The computer system produces reports which show how many meters are owned by the company, where they are located, when they are due for test, the number of meters tested and a complete analysis of every meter tested. The installation of the computer system has resulted in a 40% reduction in the meter records section clerical force and a comparable reduction in forms preparation and handling by shop and field personnel.
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Document ID: 09EEC8F3

The Sfg Meter-A New Concept In Gas Measurement
Author(s): H. R. Thieme
Abstract/Introduction:
The SFG servo gas flowmeter is a servo assisted positive displacement gas meter which operates with practically zero pressure loss. This unique feature permits a rangeability of up to 75:1 with an inherent accuracy of 0.2%. Outputs are mechanical, pneumatic and electrical, both analog and digital for local and remote indication. Pressure and temperature compensation is practical. Typical applications are in areas where high accuracy is required, i.e., primary standards, custody transfer, etc. Another area of interest is in flow system analysis where zero ?P meters are required, i.e., carburetor testing, etc.
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Document ID: 8C9E5F66

Quiet Pavement Breaking Research And Development At The Institute Of Gas Technology
Author(s): George m. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reports the institute of Gas Technologys research and development work on three nonconventional and quieter ways of breaking concrete pavement-namely, plasma torch cutting, microwave cracking and microwave cracking aided by a highpressure water jet. The work, done under the sponsorship of gas distribution utilities, covers a 10-year span from 1962 to 1972. The most recent method microwave cracking aided by a high-pressure water jet-has the potential of being quieter than conventional methods, of creating no shock to underlying or adjacent facilities and of raising no dust. Its water use is minimal, and its power consumption and production rates are estimated as equal or better than conventional large boom-mounted breakers.
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Document ID: A5D88039

Selection And Training Of Operators For The Baltimore Gas And Electric LNG Plant
Author(s): Edwin L. Poffenberger
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1950, natural gas was introduced to Baltimore and our Spring Gardens Station was changed from a base load supplier of carburetted water gas to an oil gas peak shaving plant. By 1968, the rising cost of labor and the increased restrictions on air and water pollution made it nece,ssary to find a new low-cost method of supplying supplemental gas. Extensive studies indicated the best solution to our problem was the installation of an LNG peak shaving plant to replace the oil gas manufacturing facility at Spring Gardens. Our company awarded a single-responsibility turnkey contract to Chicago Bridge and Iron Company in April of 1969 to design and construct our LNG plant. This plant was to be completed and on stream by May of 1971. Listed below are the general design specifications for this facility.
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Document ID: 691B2663

Discussion Of Paper 72-T-16A
Author(s): Jack A. Lock
Abstract/Introduction:
As stated in the abstract of the documentation report, the primary purpose of this effort is to evaluate compressor test data. From the point of view of someone using the Mark 2 Program for this purpose, the following questions seem uppermost: 1. Is the computational technique accurate? 2. Arc the input data requirements easily understandable and convenient? 3. Will the program handle most situations of interest to our company? 4. Does the printed output include all of the parameters of interest in evaluating a compressors performance? 5. Will the program work on our computer?
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Document ID: 72BBC405

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Systems: Interfacing End Element Equipment
Author(s): Robert J. Linville
Abstract/Introduction:
The installation of dependable end element equipment and the need to satisfactorily interface this equipment with a supervisory control and data acquisition system would appear to be a basic requirement of any modern gas transmission system which is automated to any degree. In order for the gas control division to control effectively the operation of a gas pipeline system, it requires considerable current system data from the numerous field locations along their pipeline system. This field data should be as reliable and accurate as is practically possible because many operating decisions and short range system forecasts are formulated by gas control personnel based on the reliability and accuracy of this information. Frequently, these decisions or forecasts regarding pipeline system operation are only as good as the end element information upon which they were based.
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Document ID: B85ADA00

Preparation Of Certified Standard Natural Gas For Calorimeter Calibration
Author(s): D. V. Kniebes
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1961 the Institute of Gas Technology has continued a program initiated by A.G.A. and the National Bureau of Standards to provide cylinders of natural gas for the calibration of calorimeters. The natural gas used for this purpose is purified with activated charcoal to remove heavy hydrocarbons and thereby assure a stable composition under normal conditions of use. The heating values of 200-scf samples of the purified gas are measured with reference to a National Bureau of Standards certified standard on a Cutler-Hammer calorimeter. Three measurements made over a period of a week and having a spread no greater than 1.0 Btu/scf are required before each cylinder of gas is considered acceptable for certification and shipment to a user. Heating values are certified to be accurate within 0.9 Btu/scf.
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Document ID: 16672ACB

Interfacing Data Acquisition To The Digital Computer
Author(s): Henry Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, state-of-the-art hardware to implement a remote digital data acquisition and supervisory control system for the pipeline industry has progressed through stepping switches, telephone type relays, reed relays, vacuum tubes, discreet solid stale components and integrated circuits. The digital computer, as a direct operating aid, entered the scene not much over 10 years ago. In the earlier version, the computer monitored the hardwired master station. It performed some calculations and was often little more than a sophisticated data logging system.
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Document ID: 01FA1A7D

Effects Of Stratification On Boil-Off Rates In LNG Tanks
Author(s): N. Chatterjee
Abstract/Introduction:
The addition of LNG to a partially filled tank containing liquid of a different density may lead to the temporary formation of stratified layers, The subsequent mixing of the stratified layers is accompanied by increases in vaporization rates which usually are insignificant but which sometimes are important. The physical phenomena associated with the mixing of stratified layers of LNG have been simulated on a computer. The calculated limes to reach peak vaporization rates agree satisfactorily with those which have been recorded for three different tanks. Operating criteria have been developed from simulations of the behavior of tanks filled from ships, trailers and liquefaction plants for various fill rates, layer heights and initial density and temperature differences between layers. One method for mitigating potential hazards associated with stratification is by limiting the density and the temperature differences belween fresh liquid and LNG in the tanks. In case of large density differences, mixing of tank contents during filling or after filling, may be required.
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Document ID: D2A402FB

Mechanics Of Lng-Water Interaction
Author(s): Thorlief Enger, David E. Hartman
Abstract/Introduction:
Research has been in progress since October 1970 at the Shell Pipe Line Laboratory concerning the rapid phase transformation which can occur when liquefied gas is spilled on water. Three unexplained explosions were observed at the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, in 1969, during LNG spillage tests being carried out to determine spreading and vaporization rates of LNG on water. No fire or ignition of the vapor was observed, just the mechanical release of energy in the form of pressure waves. Since the U.S. Coast Guard was concerned with the possibility of large-scale explosions occurring with LNG spills from tankers. Shell initiated the research program to determine the mechanism of the observed explosions.
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Document ID: C06BDFDB

LNG Stratification And Rollover
Author(s): J. A. Sarsten
Abstract/Introduction:
This report covers an incident where LNG was stratified in an LNG storage tank during filling and how that stratification subsequently resulted in a rollover of the tank contents and the release of a large quantity of gas. On August 21, 1971, LNG storage tank S-1 of the Esso-designed, SNAM LNG Terminal in La Spezia, Italy, experienced a sudden increase in pressure causing a discharge from the tank safety valves and tank vent. The safety valves discharged for about 1 hour and 15 minutes and the vent released at high rates for about 3 hours and 15 minutes. The pressure rose to about 710 mm. of water at its peak which is 210 mm, of water above the nominal lank design pressure of 500 mm. of water.
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Document ID: A22112D9

Modification At Hopkinton LNG Plant
Author(s): Mortimer P. Griffith
Abstract/Introduction:
The Hopkinton LNG plant is located in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, about 25 miles west of Boston and 20 miles east of Worcester. Massachusetts. It is the largest natural gas liquefaction plant in the lower 48 states, having a net capacity of 14.5 million cubic feet/day. The plant is owned jointly by New England Gas and Electric Association and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. under the name of Hopkinton LNG Corporation. In addition to the plant located at Hopkinton, Mass., the company owns a satellite plant at Acushnet, Mass.
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Document ID: 72D4207E

Methods And Training Available For Customer Service Work
Author(s): William T. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
At Michigan Consolidated Gas Company two types of training are used to help develop servicemen in the service and meter reading department. One type is formal training at our training center. The training center is staffed to handle the training of approximately 550 servicemen and 60 foremen each year. The staff is headed by a supervisor of training, an administrative assistant, a technical assistant, a clerk and six instructors. The training center has five classrooms, a supervisors office, a general office, a stockroom and the laboratory. where appliances for repair and training are set tip. There also is an area termed the outside training facility.
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Document ID: 6212DC43

Field Transfer Testing Domestic Meters
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
Since February of 1967, Peoples Natural Gas Division has been involved in the development of a field transfer domestic prover. In December of 1967, we received a prototype domestic transfer testing device from Adaplrol, Inc. From this dale to the present. Peoples Natural Gas Division has been involved in the testing of the device for applicable use in the gas industry. The original model has since been subject to numerous changes and modifications. One of the most pleasant modifications has been the change in price. It was though that the prover would cost approximately 3,200 per test unit, for the complete outfit. Very recently, the manufacturers have advised us that the market price for a complete unit would be under 1,500.
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Document ID: EA3BEF69

Testing Vehicle Exhaust Emissions
Author(s): W. B. Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
The State of California embarked recently on a program of vehicle exhaust emissions testing at roadside vehicle inspection lanes. The state highway patrol, as a part of its vehicle safely inspection program, is conducting the emissions tests under standards set by the State Air Resources Board (the states policy arm on all air pollution matters). Static tests arc made for both unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) at idle speeds. Under federal law periodic inspections of used vehicles by states will be encouraged. These in California and a program currently starling in New Jersey are the first of such tests. The instruments chosen for these tests, from early indications, have proven very successful in most respects. The selection of these instruments took place after a series of tests conducted by the Air Resources Board.
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Document ID: B5046844

An Overview Of Gas Supply-1972
Author(s): Richard J. Murdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Like beauty, an overview of the 1972 gas supply situation is a view seen in the eye of the beholder. The views vary, as they naturally would, as to the vested interest of the viewer. For example, the producer looks at the domestic situation, is of the opinion that field prices are too low and regulation too restrictive. Diversification and foreign drilling and exploration, where investment return is greater, becomes more attractive. The pipeliner, because of the declining production effort, looks at a market in which he is unable to purchase significant quantities of long-term supply.
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Document ID: 339085BC

Automatics-The Trend In Utility Trucks
Author(s): Virgil A. Telfer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
September 1970 marked the beginning of a new era in trucking. U was at this time that Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors introduced the first of a new family of three heavy-duty automatic transmissions for the truck and bus markets- the AT-540, MT-600 and HT-700 series. Transmission configuration and general specifications are presented. The background leading up to the development of these new products is then described, and considerations of the various vocations in which they will be applied are discussed with specific emphasis on the requirements of the utility industry. This includes power takeoff requirements, vehicle performance and installation. Significant areas of verification of product compatibility are discussed. The basic concept of automatics has proven to be extremely beneficial for vehicles in the utility industry.
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Document ID: 63F2B4AE

Special Features Of Philadelphia Electric Companys LNG Plant
Author(s): C. D. Buchholz, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The most significant special feature of Philadelphia Electric Companys LNG plant is the 63-foot high prestressed. post-tensioned circular concrete dike. The high dike is intended to improve safety through a reduction in the vaporization rate of the LNG in the event of a spill, thereby decreasing the distance of downwind flammable vapor travel. Vapor formation was further reduced by insulating the dike floor with cryogenic insulation (polyurethane foam). The dike walls were insulated on the inside surfaces with a mineral insulation primarily to shield the con* crete from flame in the event of ignition after a spill. Other unusual features of the plant are internal shut-off valves in the tank discharge lines, horizontal submergedmotor sendout pumps and electrical boil-off heaters.
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Document ID: 502AD223

Engineering Preplanning To Prevent Third-Party Construction Damage
Author(s): Erich Golke
Abstract/Introduction:
Despite considerable field and footwork to prevent or deal with third-party construction damage, the gas industry continues to be plagued by costly and hazardous interruptions of its service lines from this source. The frenzied building activity surrounding our metropolitan areas has overloaded normal needs for improvements in the areas of water, sewer and roads. Add to this the on-again, off-again nature of public improvement projects dependent upon the will of local governments (or authorities) and we vacillate between delays caused from unpopularity, indecision or lack of funds, to abrupt and vigorous attacks which seem to have some entire cities under a cloud of dust during the construction season.
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Document ID: AF0CD8C0

Galvanic Anode Renewal Programs In Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): B. Husock
Abstract/Introduction:
A cathodic protection program designed to protect gas distribution piping with galvanic anodes must consider the need for anode replacement. Because of the need for prelection in perpetuity, the economics of anode size selection becomes particularly important. A method using present worth techniques for evaluating the cost per anode per year is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing programs to assure protection and to minimize costs.
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Document ID: AF56EE92

Production Of High Heating Value LNG In Algeria For The U.S.
Author(s): James P. Lister
Abstract/Introduction:
The author describes the Algerian facilities planned for the production of LNG for the El Paso/Sonatrach project and presents typical gas analyses at the field, pipeline and liquefaction plant. Some of the factors bearing on the decision of the production of high Btu/LNG are considered.
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Document ID: 610CF955

Simulation Of A Natural Gas Gathering System: A Case History
Author(s): Keith L. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
A case history is presented showing a difftcult facilities planning and design problem which was solved using a steady-slate gathering system simulator. This new approach to facilities planning and design resulted in the installation of some 12,000 horsepower at a cost of approximately 3.5 million. Comparing simulator predictions with two years of actual data indicates that additional facilities were properly timed, located, and sized. Predictions were within satisfactory tolerances and deviation of predicted well and compressor rates from actual rates is shown, A new study, conducted two years after he first, repealed original predictions within the tolerances established by actual operations.
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Document ID: E80C0C56

Sulfinol* Process For Gas Treating
Author(s): E. J. Fisch, E. S. Hill, R. W. Van Scoy
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of the Sulfinol process for gas treating to remove acidic compounds and organic sulfur compounds is reviewed briefly. Emphasis is placed on commercial applications illustrative of the unique combination of properties of the Sulfinol solvent and on operating problems which have arisen in eight years of commercial plant experience, together with their solutions. Design techniques for achieving selective absorption of HiS relative to CO2 have been applied to five plants and are being further developed and refined.
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Document ID: 48B6BC23

New And Improved Instruments For Corrosion And Cathodic Protection Testing
Author(s): m. C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
New developments in electronic instruments- now available-will help reduce costs of corrosion control of underground metallic structures, pipe lines, cables, etc. There has long been a need for simple, easy-to-use but accurate and rugged meters for taking structure-to-earlh potentials and current flow measurements- meters suitable for use by nontechnical employees, but suitable also for the highly trained engineers and laboratory technicians. Basic direct-current meters were greatly improved about 10 years ago when the taut-band suspension instruments became available--thereby eliminating the pivots, jewels and delicate hair springs which were a source of trouble and failures. Taut-band suspension provides better accuracy, improved ruggedness, and higher sensitivity. But the sensitivity was still far too low to eliminate inaccurate structure-to-earth potential readings-errors which can be very cosily. Also, even with this taut-band .suspension, these high-sensitivity instruments were still not as rugged as desired.
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Document ID: 94D1251C

Survey Of Offshore Platform Automation
Author(s): R. S. Grettum
Abstract/Introduction:
The Automation Committee of the American Gas Association created the Platform Automation Task Group in 1971, in response to a gas industry need that has affected a large segment of the industry. The problem that induced the committee to look into the matter of platform automation was the considerable impact that hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico have had on the continuity of gas supply to customers throughout the central and eastern part of the United States. As soon as a hurricane entered the Gulf, all of the gas and oil production facilities would be closed down. It would take two or three days to shut in the wells and shutdown the offshore and onshore facilities and another couple of days to get things back in operation after the passing of the storm.
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Document ID: 778A4087

Model Gas Emergency Plan
Author(s): Randolph B. Large, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
I have been asked, as chairman of my committee, to give a report on a proposed model gas emergency plan which we have drafted. If it is approved by the management of A.G.A,, it will most likely be available in a booklet form at a nominal cost. The idea of forming a task group to undertake the writing of a model emergency plan was conceived when the first proposals for D.O.T. Part 192 were published. The task group study was well under way when D.O.T. Part 192 became law on November 12, 1970.
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Document ID: A5AC825F

Economics Of Underground Storage
Author(s): Harold E. Schwalm
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper shows the need for underground gas storage as well as the economics of aquifer storage and dry gas storage when compared to pipeline flow gas, the use of interruptible sales, the use of LNG peak shaving facilities and the use of LPG peak shaving facilities.
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Document ID: F0577FD4

Fiberglass Rocks And Buildings
Author(s): Everett m. Koark
Abstract/Introduction:
In these days of environmental consciousness, there creeps into our industry a factor, not new, but with growing prominence-it is the physical image of our plant as seen by our neighbors and customers. We are confronted with the need for new design concepts for utility structures namely, in this case, with housings and structures to protect our equipment. The ordinary functional utility building with a low personality appeal is in trouble in most of the newer developing neighborhoods. In fact, the kinds of structures that we propose are becoming a sizeable factor that the residential developer considers in negotiating a station site with the gas company.
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Document ID: 68825AF7

Documentation Of The Benedict-Webb-Rubin Mark 2 Program
Author(s): J. B. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This program is a continuation of work begun under the supervision of the Compression Energy Task Group, formerly of the Computer Committee. The Mark 2 Computer program is an expansion and modification of the B-W-R Mark 1 program.
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Document ID: D8D12435

Insulating/Isolating Joints-Corrosion Engineers Biggest Headache
Author(s): Robert E. Rudman
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the intention of this paper to familiarize the various people concerned with gas distribution systems with insulation. Included in this group of people are those responsible for design, construction, maintenance, operation and corrosion control. Various sections covered will include the need for, methods of accomplishing, and fittings available for isolation through insulation. In addition, certain methods and procedures which can be used to correct faulty insulation when discovered are also discussed.
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Document ID: F1DD0A77

Variation In LNG Heating Value During Ocean Transportation
Author(s): Harold E. Seaward
Abstract/Introduction:
The variation in LNG heating value during ocean transportation is directly related to the boil-off which in turn results from the heat leak to the stored liquid. It is possible to estimate the amount of boil-off expected based on previous experience, but the heat leak can vary considerably, depending on the roughness of the seas during the transport. A common LNG demonstration utilizes a clear Dewar flask of LNG fitted with a stopper drilled for a burner tip. At a becalmed state, the LNG vapor burns quite nicely but, when the Dewar flask is shaken slightly, the burner flame shoots up dramatically. This demonstrates the variation in boil-ofF possible with a vessel in continuous motion, constantly changing the area of the wetted tank Walls available for the heat leak.
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Document ID: 84586CE5

Comparison Of Calculated And Measured Heating Value Of Natural Gas
Author(s): D. C. Melrose
Abstract/Introduction:
Analytical data for 879 samples of natural gas were studied to correlate the difference in calorimeter heating value and calculated heating value, with parameters of specific gravity, range of heating value, concentrations of various inert gases and classification of gases. The differences in instrument and calculated specific gravities were similar in magnitude and algebraic sign to the corresponding differences in heating values. The similarities may be a result of the resolution characteristics of both the higher hydrocarbons and the water that are present in the chromatographic back-flush.
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Document ID: 920AF163

Computer Directed Control For Compressor Stations
Author(s): Toney Terreo
Abstract/Introduction:
In this discussion about computer directed control of compressor stations, I will be treating the subject from an operating viewpoint. Before we go any further. I think it would be helpful to describe briefly Natural Gas Pipeline Company of Americas system. Our system is comprised of two major transmission lines and several market area storage fields which are geared to serving a major part of the Midwest, including the Chicago metropolitan area. The Amarillo Line has a certificated daily delivery capacity of 1.635 Mmcf and the Gulf Coast Line 1.579 Mmcf. Added to this is storage peak-day capacity of just over 1,500 Mmcf. This system contains approximately 10,000 miles of pipeline and 1,000,000 installed horsepower.
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Document ID: 65905F0A

Gas Measurement With On-Line Computers
Author(s): Gordon Swinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Fulfillment of the measurement requirement for delivery of natural gas from the Hewitt Field located in the British Sector of the North Sea brought about the use of a completely computerized measurement system. The measurement station was designed for an initial delivery of 600 Mmscfd. with the ultimate expansion to 1.2 Mm scfd. Delivery pressure is approximately 1000 psig.
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Document ID: 8DD90368

The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety And Health Act Of 1970
Author(s): Basil Needham
Abstract/Introduction:
When President Richard Nixon signed into law the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, he called it one of the most important pieces of legislation . . . ever passed by the Congress of the United States. On the same occasion. Secretary of Labor J. D. Hodgson called the Williams- Steiger Act another piece of landmark legislation in the area of worker protection. Few other laws in recent years have stirred so much interest or inspired so much discussion. There are many reasons for all of this attention. The Act is the most comprehensive law ever designed for insuring safe and healthful conditions in the American workplace. From the point of view of the 57 million working Americans covered by the Act. it is indeed a landmark. Aside from their homes, the workplace is primarily where they spend their time. This Act provides the federal government with an instrument to support, encourage and carry forward into new areas the safety and health activities which American industry has been pioneering for nearly 60 years.
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Document ID: 95A26F2A

Transducer Selection For A Gas Pipeline Control Application
Author(s): G. R. Mceathron
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1970, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company management authorized the installation of a telemetering and control system as a dispatching aid for operation of the pipeline system. The control system would provide a means to monitor 58 compressor stations and to measure and control flows at 200 meter stations on the pipeline. Economic justification for the control system was based on improved utilization of the pipeline facilities as a result of faster, more accurate data acquisition and the ability of the dispatcher to directly control gas flow at major sales points. As a part of the equipment selection program for the system, it was decided that transducers should be selected on the basis of competitive performance tests. Several factors entered into the decision.
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Document ID: 27642A05

Corrosion Control Techniques To Comply With OPS-5 Protection Requirements
Author(s): Frank E. Castonzo
Abstract/Introduction:
The Office of Pipeline Safety, Docket No. OPS-5, Subpart I-Requirements for Corrosion Control has been extensively reviewed in the literature however, with the exception of the cathodic protection criteria, only scattered and incomplete mention is made of the technological use of criteria for preventing and controlling the corrosion of underground piping systems. The years of successful industry experience in controlling corrosion were documented by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers in a recommended practice titled NACE, RP-OI-09, Recommended Practice-Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping System. The procedures presented in this recoitimended practice provided the bases for the criteria and methods of measurement which were adopted by OPS. To fulfill the requirements of the technical community, however, the document has to be broad in its scope and still meet the safety requirement of the act.
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Document ID: F064B9C7

Wheel Type Concrete Cutter
Author(s): C. Larry Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
A relatively new tool for cutting concrete is the carbide-tipped concrete cutting wheel (Fig. 1). This concrete cutting wheel is manufactured by Ditch Witch and as shown here is mounted on a Model R-65 Ditch Witch trencher. The wheel is 7 feet in diameter and has 100 carbide-tipped cutting teeth. It revolves at approximately 90 revolutions per minute in cutting gear and excavates to a depth of 30 inches, 4 inches wide. Excavated material is discharged from a chute in the upper right corner of the wheel enclosure. Discharge is based on centrifugal force and a rubber baffle which deflects the moving spoil to the chute. The wheel is screen enclosed for protection against possible projectile discharge of excavated material that bypasses the chute.
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Document ID: 8024452C

Compatibility Of Plastic Pipe Systems For Gas Distribution
Author(s): Peter Paul Petro
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing the use of plastic pipe for gas distribution, one of the important questions that arises is, Is the plastic piping system I am planning to put in the ground compatible with what I already have there? This can be a very complex problem since a variety of materials are used for gas piping systems. For radically different materials, such as steel and plastic or different plastic materials, there are obvious steps to take which should insure a realiable system. These steps most probably include the use of a mechanical transition fitting. However, when considering different systems of the same material, the answer to the compatibility problem is more difficult, because here it may be possible to intermingle the systems without the use of expensive transition fittings.
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Document ID: C4670DC8

Four-Day Workweek For Servicemen?
Author(s): Thomas J. Gannon
Abstract/Introduction:
We at Boston Gas have not as yet adopted the rearranged workweek in our service department. But we are close to it. Our research is complete, our plan has been developed and approved by management, and we are at present finalizing negotiations with our union. I would first like to present a brief history of the present 5-day, 40-hour workweek in the United States, Then I will relate some known facts regarding the effects of the compressed or 4-day workweek on both company and employees. The compressed workweek has been hailed by prominent sociologists and economists as one of the major business innovations of the 1970s. It may be a major innovation, but it certainly should not have been unexpected. The workweek, as we know it, has been in a process of gradual change since the late 18th century. Back in the 1700s, the average workweek consisted of six 12-hour days. (Now only management continues to work that schedule.) In the 19th century there was a gradual reduction to six 10-hour days and finally in the early 1900s, during the depression and recovery periods, the 5-day 40-hour workweek took form and has prevailed to date.
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Document ID: 4EFB2E24

Construction Design To Facilitate Corrosion Control Compressor Stations
Author(s): Robert E. Hodge
Abstract/Introduction:
Considerations for corrosion control in the design of compressor stations are covered, including coatings, grounding systems, insulating fittings, shielding, water systems, material selections and retirements. General references are included for design engineers. To put this subject in proper perspective, 1 vi-ould like to quote, out of context, from Dr. Mars G. Fontanas 1970 Edward DeMille Campbell Memorial Lecture. This lecture should be required reading for design engineers.
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Document ID: E0501D7A

Why A Base Load LNG Plant
Author(s): Henry R. Meyers
Abstract/Introduction:
Unlike other owners of LNG plants. The Union Light, Heat and Power Company developed an LNG facility solely for the purpose of supplying company needs, other than peak shaving, and to develop commercial markets. The Union Light, Heat and Power Company and its parent organization. The Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company, had previously developed substantial propane gas peak shaving facilities. Therefore, we had no interest in adding additional peak shaving capacity.
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Document ID: 8444F062

How Does Third-Party Certification Work?
Author(s): E. J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
Description of an industry-wide third-party plastic piping certification program, its purpose, necessity and answers to some typical questions which have been raised.
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Document ID: BB92A654

Status Of LNG Imports To The U.S.
Author(s): W. H. Smith, P. J. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
To establish the role than LNG imports will play in meeting our domestic gas demand, three national energy consumption forecasts are compared and IGTs forecast of gas supply by source is reviewed. Next. the status of planned LNG projects is discussed along with the prospective and the more speculative projects. The gas reserves and proximity of each potential supply source are also reviewed.
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Document ID: 82E04339

Automatic Meter Reading-An Overview
Author(s): Isaac Pallas
Abstract/Introduction:
It is no secret that the concept of automatic meter reading has fired the imagination of utilities and the ingenuity of manufacturers all over the country. As far as the utilities are concerned. here is a way to eliminate a growing number of public relations problems such as the image of the meter reader with muddy shoes or boots walking through Mrs. Customers house that she just spent several hours cleaning-while to the manufacturer, it opens up a vast market for the sale of AMR devices with a subsequent boost in the economy.
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Document ID: 8DEC1CAD

Need And Problems Of LNG Base Load Projects
Author(s): Barry Hunsaker
Abstract/Introduction:
If there is any group in the United States that knows there is a natural gas shortage in our country it is the natural gas industry people. And if I can gauge their feelings on the shortage, there is one question paramount: When do we get more gas? Various energy studies have been undertaken to determine the extent of the shortage. The time has come (in fact, it is long overdue) that we begin to utilize the information from these studies to take the positive action steps necessary to alleviate the problem.
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Document ID: F49B4BBB

Instruments For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters, in recent years, have brought a new dimension to gas measurement. Their relatively small size and low weight combined with good rangeability have made ihem an excellent meter for many applications that were formerly confined to other types. For instance, the rangeability of the turbine meter gives it a decided advantage over the orifice meter in those instances where wide flow variation is encountered. The ability to mount turbine meters directly into the piping without foundation or support under the meter puts a plus mark in the turbine column when comparing it with large rotaries and diaphragm meters.
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Document ID: 5B579538

Understanding Roll-Over And Thermal Overfill In Flat Bottom LNG Tanks
Author(s): J. B. Maher
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent months there have been reports of sudden venting occurring in two or three flat bottom LNG tanks. In each case a warmer and more dense liquid had been filled into the bottom of the tank and venting occurred before the filling refrigeration requirements had been fulfilled. Evaporation sustained by the vapor withdrawal system provided the refrigeration.
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Document ID: E5287CA0

Solid State Systems In Meter Proving
Author(s): Woodford Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Solid state systems are electronic circuits used in place of other types of electronic or electro-mechanical devices to accomplish a particular function. The basic active components of solid state circuits are a variety of devices (amplifiers and switches) resulting from advances in semiconductor technology. There are many reasons why solid state systems are finding wide application. Their comparatively small size requires less space than other devices the lack of moving or fragile parts results in greater reliability and simpler packaging. Operating from low voltage supplies and with low power consumption, semiconductors are used extensively in portable equipment.
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Document ID: 3C470EA1

Economic Evaluation Of Reciprocating Engine Versus Turbine Driven Gas Compressor Units
Author(s): Gene E. Foulke
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate economically the installation and operation of reciprocal engines versus turbines for driving gas compressors. More specifically the study compares reciprocal engines driving reciprocal compressors with aircraft and industrial gas turbines driving centrifugal compressors.
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Document ID: 4D408246

Development Of A Programmable Torque Control System
Author(s): James R. Caperton, Gerald W. Hutton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper covers the significant points in the theory, development and operation of a torque control system for two-cycle ambient rated gas engines recently installed by Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation. This syslem utilizes a Hewlett Packard 9100-B programmable desk top calculator as the primary controller. The inputs are: suction and discharge pressures from each of three units, site ambient temperature and a feedback from the current drawn by the output solenoids which acts as the existing clearance status inputs to the system. It functions by calculating the actual BHP at any operating point, compares this with the allowable BHP which is computed as a function of ambient temperature and sets the clearance conditions accordingly.
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Document ID: 590C922B

The Cutler-Hammer Calorimeter Accuracy And Maintenance Requirements
Author(s): C. W. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a review of the accuracy attainable with the Cutler- Hammer recording calorimeter and outlines specific maintenance requirements related to establishing this accuracy. Various parts of the instrument are examined to show the impact on the overall result. A brief description of the principle of operation is included together with definitions of related terms. The fundamental accuracy tests are reviewed in detail. Various aspects of the recording unit and tank unit are examined to show their relationship to accuracy. Finally, the required maintenance to insure the most accurate results is outlined.
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Document ID: 6735A13E

Meter Calibration In A Horizontal Laminar Flow Environment
Author(s): Ernest L. Greenhill
Abstract/Introduction:
Proving rooms in relation to meter proof accuracy have been under study for many years. We, at Sprague, believed that any significant improvement in proving room quality would necessitate a completely new operational concept or an entirely new technology, not only in environmental control but also in the calibrating system itself. With this thought a program was outlined for investigation of the various factors. Simply stated, we wanted a means for bringing the meters, proving bells and test air to precisely the same temperature at a predetermined known temperature level. We began our investigation by visiting metrology laboratories, clean room facilities, and by evaluating accurate temperature measurement and control systems.
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Document ID: A6D1B3EA

Our System Of Automatic Meter Reading
Author(s): Dennis Martell
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic meter reading with its promise of reducing meter reading problems has been a dream of utility management for more than a half-century and an imminent reality for the last decade. Northern Illinois Gas Company has been actively pursuing an automatic meter reading system since 1957 and is currently testing the accurate automatic information retrieval system (AAIR), which reads meters via radio signals and records them on a paper tape in a roving van.
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Document ID: 498DA7EC

Corrosion Control By Design At Meters And Regulator Stations
Author(s): N. C. Schuessler
Abstract/Introduction:
Design for corrosion control prior to actual construction is always the most efficient and economical approach to control corrosion. During the design stage, new products such as coatings and fittings can be evaluated with a definite known use in mind. Testing of new products under conditions similar to their actual use will at times save considerable expenditures of lime and money in the future.
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Document ID: 3F71A7D8

Sonic Testing For Broken Bolts In Compressor Stations And Associated Piping
Author(s): Guynn Kuglar
Abstract/Introduction:
Although much has been written about ihe theory of ultrasonic testing, very little has been done to present the practical problems of bolt testing and iheir solutions. This is a report of the ultrasonic testing program being conducted by Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation. The selection of testing equipment, training of personnel, testing techniques, practical problems and the results of these tests are discussed.
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Document ID: 339B08D7

Grid Coordinate Mapping For Distribution Systems
Author(s): James E. Hargis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines the contents and usage of maps in gas distribution utilities relative to the characteristics of grid coordinate mapping. A functional description of gas utility maps and the features of maps based on a plane coordinate system are summarized. Some of the applications of grid coordinates which have actually been implemented by various distribution utilities are presented. The technology used to produce grid coordinate maps and the problems involved with using alternative methods to obtain coordinate- referenced information are discussed. The conclusion of this paper provides a practical guide to determining when grid coordinate mapping, or other alternatives, should be seriously considered by a distribution utility company.
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Document ID: AB1B8127

A-Ga Coordinating Group For Occupational Safety And Health
Author(s): Ashby B. Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. Coordinating Group for Occupational Safety and Health is comprised of 14 members representing operating staff people, operations management, legal, personnel, labor relations. insurance, claims and safety. This group v/as formed to function as a coordinating group to have the preliminary responsibility of representing the various interests of the natural gas industry during the development of the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations.
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Document ID: 2C9C71DF

Terrestrial Radar For Survey Of Underground Structures
Author(s): James E. Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
I am very pleased to report on our experience with a new method of subsurface investigation. The method is called electromagnetic subsurface profiling, and it is a service offered by Geophysical Survey Systems of North Billerica, Massachusetts. Briefly, this new technique penetrates the ground with radar and produces an accurate profile showing the location and depth of subsurface structures and features, In most cases utilities can be identified, as well as located. The radar probing technique is completely nondestructive and is carried out quickly and quietly. It seems to be cost-competitive with test pit excavation, and it can give more information over a wider area, at much less inconvenience and in less time.
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Document ID: D55D7CED

Today And Tomorrow: Where Now?
Author(s): Leroy J. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
Serious operating problems are being caused for some companies because the measurement produced by todays control or operating metering does not match after-the-fact billing measurement with sufficient proficiency. The present gas shortages, the spectre of higher gas prices and considerably more Frequent plus wider variability of supply gas mixtures in the future will greatly proliferate problems of this nature. Abundant evidence that the reasons for the problem are not simple has been shown. The solutions are also not going to be simple.
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Document ID: 92545F49

Solving Gas Supply Shortage With Liquids And Solids
Author(s): Dr. Robert L. Purvin
Abstract/Introduction:
In the next decade the gas supply shortage cannot be solved by the use of liquids and solids. We will find help, little or no help for the next three to five years, limited help prior to 1980. but some hope thereafter if we are given the tools to work with. However, we must strive for a solution to the shortage and therefore it is essential to understand the nature of the shortage ilself. It is not yet apparent thai evejyone in our industry Or government really understands its true nature or extent and there are a few who still question ils existence. Even many of the more enlightened are unfortunately still struggling with considerable wishful thinking and very doubtful forecasting.
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Document ID: 7D2BA045

Methods Utilized And Training Available In Customer Service
Author(s): Robert S. Custer
Abstract/Introduction:
As manager of Training Services for the American Gas Association, my function is to provide manpower development programs to member companies, as requested and as sponsored by the various A.G.A. committees which make up the sections of the Association structure. In 1972 Training Services will administer 20 different training sessions for members to attend away from their home base, as well as 9 different programs for in-company training-that is to say, training done by member company personnel with their own people. These 29 sessions and programs have been requested by and are sponsored by 7 different A.G.A. committees.
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Document ID: 33FE9BFE

Our Experience With Thin-Film Coating
Author(s): James O. King
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to give a better idea of our operating conditions, I would first like to introduce our system. The Texas Gas pipeline system consists of 5,760 miles of pipeline and 475,000 horsepower of compressor station facilities. Our system extends into seven stales, including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas. Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. The Texas Gas system is probably no different from others in ihat some of our major coating problems, from an operating standpoint, have been caused by temperatures on the discharge of compressor stations or high soil stresses in certain locations and combinations of these two conditions.
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Document ID: 20E7C6B4

Electric Vehicles-Today And Tomorrow
Author(s): H. J. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Electric vehicle development in the United States has begun to move forward at an accelerating rale during the past few years. The sense of pace which one who is involved in this new industry feels today is exhilarating and is being shared by a growing number of people. The purpose of this paper is to outline the major reasons for the revival of interest in electric road vehicles, to describe the stage of development at present and to comment on possibilities for the nearterm future. It is well known that transportation in the U. S. today is built around the internal combustion engine. The size of the country, the willingness of public bodies to build highways, the ability of manufacturers to produce vehicles within the price range of a large numbei of people and the availabliity and low cost of the fuel required to operate the vehicle have all contributed to this picture.
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Document ID: 8F68084A

Recruiting And Training Automobile Mechanics
Author(s): F. F. Ferrara
Abstract/Introduction:
Its no secret that transportation departments are big business-not only in capital investments, which are substantial, but in the many complex problems that must be solved and the decisions that must be made on a daily basis. Among these problems is the responsibility of recruiting and training mechanics, a responsibility that personnel departments share. The increased need by the natural gas industry for up-to-date, highly complex equipment such as derricks, diggers, aerial buckets and the like not only demands a better and a more comprehensive understanding of the equipment by us btit also cries for a reliable supply of qualified mechanics. Our equipment must not only be operated efficiently but must also be properly maintained. Only when these are done can our expenses be justified by effective production. The purchase and acceptance of any new piece of equipment does not justify its being pressed into service until proper training and maintenance procedures have been incorporated.
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Document ID: F990DB73

The Gas Industrys Role In Air Pollutants
Author(s): Irving Deutsch
Abstract/Introduction:
In April 1971 the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency published National Air Quality Standards as required under the provisions of the Clean Air Act. These included primary and secondary standards for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. Even after distillate fuel oils have been reduced to 0.3% sulfur content. for example, in New York City 67% of the residual fuel oil burners would have lo be converted to natural gas to meet the area standard. Approximately 50 billion cubic feet of gas would be required over the present consumption. This demand is more than can be supplied to the NYC area, but it points up the critical need for gas in the fight to reduce pollutants thai threaten the health of millions of people.
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Document ID: 81F3BAE8

Installation Costs: Plastic Versus Steel
Author(s): David L. Pickel
Abstract/Introduction:
This report is a comparison of installation cost for 2-inch and 4-inch steel and plastic gas mains, and 3/4- inch steel and plastic service lines. The figures are the result of a sampling of recent construction in two areas of our operating territory northwestern Arizona and southeastern New Mexico. The installation areas reported are rural and suburban where the interference from other utilities is limited. There is also a discussion on maintenance costs of plastic versus steel systems with the conclusion that the plastic systems are less expensive to maintain when the areas of installation of plastic is restricted to rural and suburban locations.
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Document ID: A2151048

Computer Programs And Their Use In Gas Control Decision-Making
Author(s): Thomas E. De Loyht
Abstract/Introduction:
Computer programs are continually expanding our ability to make decisions. The capability to process realtime information rapidly and arrange output information in a manner of our choice, makes the information more easily digested and understood, With this current and relevant information, we are better equipped to assess existing conditions and increase the accuracy of our evaluations. The increasing capabilities of modern computers suggest that a more direct partnership between man and machine would be an effective way to enable technology to adapt to human diversity. The ultimate effects of this partnership would be a profound expansion of human reasoning and understanding.
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Document ID: 319F4B33

Turnkey Compressor Station Construction
Author(s): John D. Kobasa
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years, Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line Company has completed its rather extensive horsepower expansion programs via the turnkey method. As a result of this experience, we have developed a number of opinions in regards to the concept and a procedure for its satisfactory implementation. Prior to 1967, Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line Companys usual practice in any horsepower expansion program was to select and purchase engines, acquire the services of a design contractor and, more likely than not, have the design contractor either perform or manage the installation work. In 1967 Michigan Wisconsin constructed its first compressor station under the turnkey concept. Since that initial installation of 9,000 horsepower, we have installed more than 317,000 horsepower via the turnkey method. Of this total, 249,000 horsepower were installed as additions to existing facilities and 68,000 horsepower as new stations. As a part of our 1972 expansion program. we are adding 32.600 horsepower at three locations on a turnkey basis.
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Document ID: A4FD499B

Low-Cost Distribution Design With Computers
Author(s): Ralph I. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past decade, the use of electronic computers to simulate distribution networks and to analyze piping configurations has become a reasonably standard technique. Most gas companies, especially those with low-pressure distribution systems or fast growing demands, have used this procedure. However, the design of gas distribution networks has been an art dependent upon the ingenuity and aptitude of the design engineer. Recently, several organizations have developed computer programs capable of designing a least cost distribution system within the constraints placed upon it.
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Document ID: 60370E3F

Production System Optimization
Author(s): Henry A. Hain
Abstract/Introduction:
Optimization of a production system at a given point in time can be accomplished using a wide range of methods. However, unless the effect of lime is considered, the results are subject to question. Production system optimization signifies a procedure that will determine the optimum facilities needed to produce gas from a production area. Good engineering design also signifies optimization to satisfy a set of design criteria so this could also be considered as engineering design of a production system.
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Document ID: 2A61F329

Challenges And Opportunities Of 1972
Author(s): William P. Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
It seems to me that it would be useful for all of us to step back and to take a look at the total pictures of our industry. In that way, the detailed technical deliberations which follow may be in a somewhat better perspective. Ours is a great industry and we are joined in a great association. Im always impressed to realize that A.G.A. represents some 300 distribution and transmission member companies. A.G.A. is representing an industry which likewise has impressive statistics: Natural gas provides over one-third of our nations energy requirements. Natural gas powers 43% of the industry of the United Slates. Natural gas presently is served at more than 42 million meters through more than 900 thousand miles of pipeline in all 50 states. Natural gas with a total of some 46 billion serves some 150 million of our population. The natural gas industry, in terms of investment, is the sixth largest industry in our country.
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Document ID: 5A08A28E

Utilization Of High-Btu Imported LNG-A Distributors Viewpoint
Author(s): John T. Mckenna, Jr., Charles P. Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
The large-scale importation of liquid natural gas from overseas can present difficulties for the distributing companies in the U.S.A. As a distribution company having four winters of experience with the utilization of such high-Btu LNG, I would like to relate some of the experiences of Boston Gas. The use of a high-Btu LNG poses both financial as well as utilization problems to those companies who receive and use the product. To understand the problem better, it will be necessary to discuss the varying Btu and chemical composition of the gases that are being imported, exported or being contemplated for use. Let us look at Table I. This is the analysis of a typical product of the Arzew Plant in Algeria. The analysis shown is typical for Arzew but our experience has shown variations in both Btu and specific gravity.
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Document ID: 40DC45AD

Calculation Of Gas Heating Value From Composition
Author(s): D. m. Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
The experimental basis for the IGT method of calculating the compressibility factor, heating value and specific gravity of fuel gas mixtures is reviewed. The method has been adopted by ASTM Committee D-3 for calculation of specific gravity and is in the process of being adopted by NGPA for both heating value and specific gravity. A study group of the International Gas Union has compared several methods and recommends the IGT method for adoption as the standard. A method for calculating heating value and specific gravity, with a revised table of component constants, is being prepared for submission to ASTM D-3. Simpler methods of calculation developed by Bruce J. Caldwell appear accurate for natural gas but do not retain such high accuracy over as wide a range of fuel gas composition.
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Document ID: E0E92AF9

Experience With Plastic Distribution Systems
Author(s): Edward P. Krause
Abstract/Introduction:
Although we are the oldest gas company in the United States, having been founded in 1816, we are a newcomer in the field of plastic distribution systems. Our present distribution system consists of 4,005 miles of main piping of which 2,409 miles or approximately 60.1% is steel and 39.9% is cast iron. Of this amount of steel mains 2,149 miles or 89.2% is in our H.P. (i.e.. 99 psig) system which constitutes 53.6% of our total main distribution system. The mains in our system cover an area of 560 square miles and provide service to 480.630 customers.
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Document ID: CBA07F6E

Practical Approach To Information Systems
Author(s): Edward Dussinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Integrated information systems are necessary to provide the information flow through the various functions of the corporation. These systems require intensive planning in their development and implementation to make them adaptable to change and at the same time be integrated into the utilitys evolving master plan in a changing environment. The most practical approach to designing and installing these information systems now appears lo be through joint effort with other utilities. Joint effort provides a wide experience of highly skilled and professional users and EDP systems designers who can design and install a system in a shorter time frame and at a fraction of the cost required by an individual utilitys efforts alone.
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Document ID: 933CAC87

What To Do Before The Plastic Arrives
Author(s): Joseph Costanzo
Abstract/Introduction:
Mechanical Joints are widely used in the gas distribution industry for all kinds of plastic piping, particularly as a transition fitting for joining one kind of piping to another, i.e., steel to plastic, cast iron to plastic, copper or steel tubing to plastic, and even plastic to plastic. For a mechanical joint supplier, the major area of opportunity and responsibility to the customer prior to the customers evaluation and acceptance of a new plastic piping system, whether it be in the area of plastic mains, new plastic services or plastic service renewals, is to recommend to the customer new products and new installation methods that will replace his existing products and existing methods -new products and methods that must meet the performance standards covered by DOT regulations. Also with emphasis on costs and economics, new products and methods that will produce cost savings to the customer without sacrificing safety, reliability and dependability.
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Document ID: B5C86761

What To Do When The Plastic Arrives
Author(s): William T. Ochsenwald
Abstract/Introduction:
During the year 1971. the Columbus Group of the Columbia Gas System purchased 2.355,000 feet of plastic pipe. This figure only represents sizes 1-inch CTS through 4-inch IPS. It does not include the purchase of over 136,000 feet of small diameter tubing such as 3/8-inch, 1/2-inch or 5/8-inch. Perhaps we should briefly review Columbia Gas Systems program for the evaluation and qualification of suppliers. In the early 1960s, the use of plastic was limited to plastic tubing for lining company- owned service lines. At that lime, there was no need for a formal evaluation and selection program. In 1966, the system use of plastic was expanded to direct buried plastic pipe and fittings for distribution mains and company-owned service lines. However, it was not until 1969 that a formal program was established for evaluation and selection. This was because of the number of plastic extruders that announced the introduction of complete piping systems and the experiences we had gained with plastic pipe in distribution mains and company services suggested that it could be safely installed in customer service lines and buried house piping.
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Document ID: 2A1697DC

Corrosion Recordkeeping Systems
Author(s): John E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971, the Department of Transportation published the Requirements for Corrosion Control. Section 192.465 of this law requires that electrical measurements be taken on each pipeline under cathodic protection. When an extensive system is involved, recordkeeping to assure compliance with this order can best be done by utilizing electronic data processing. In addition to recording test and repair results, the computer can be programmed to provide management information with regard to effectiveness of the corrosion control program. The system described herein has proven extremely reliable and useful.
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Document ID: 20630E15

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas In Salt Caverns
Author(s): Kermit Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of storing natural gas in underground caverns created by solution mining in salt deposits to supply peak consumer demands is still considered new but is no tonger unproved. A record of experience is now available on the three such major facilities. Two of these facilities are in the United States, while the third is in Canada, These storage caverns are operated brine free, that is. natural gas is injected into the caverns under pressure. This pressure then causes the gas to flow from the caverns as needed. This differs from the operation of liquid hydrocarbon storage caverns where the product is driven from the cavern by injected brine. Experience now indicates no major problems in these brine-free natural gas storage caverns. Their operation has been so successful that all such facilities have been expanded or expansion is being considered.
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Document ID: C53D86C0

Problems Of Installation And Effects Of Outer Continental Shelf Orders 8 & 9 On Offshore Operations
Author(s): E. E. Holden, F. D. Musson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the many problems of securing information, interpretations of regulations, installations, operations, malfunctions and reporting of Outer Coniinenlal Shelf Orders 8 and 9. The paper suggests that: 1. Regulation be written by knowledgable people from the industry that is to be controlled 2. More time be given to conform to regulations 3. Better interpretations of regulations.
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Document ID: C4F7C0A2

Discussion Of Paper 72-T-19A
Author(s): James E. Fowler
Abstract/Introduction:
The authors are to be commended for their fine work shown in this paper. This paper describes TransCanada PipeLines Economic Design Program which consists of three main modules-the economic analysis module, the pipeline system module with algorithms to produce feasible designs and a case generator which automatically guides the program in the search for optimum designs. Pages 109 to 112 are devoted to a discussion of the economic analysis module of the design program. The approach used to select the optimum incremental facilities is to determine the alternative which has the smallest minimum revenue requirements. This writer agrees in principle with this approach. However, due to other considerations, could this module of the program be made to optimize or he expanded so that other criteria besides minimum revenue requirements are used? An example of other criteria could be minimum capital costs or possibly minimum cost of compressor fuel. It should be pointed out that economic calculations performed in the economic analysis module recognize the time value of money. This module contains some interesting and desirable features, i.e., the ability to escalate capital costs both pipeline and compression, fuel costs, municipal taxes, and operating and maintenance expenses, all at different rates.
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Document ID: 42F32979

A Computerized Automated Drafting Program
Author(s): Lester m. Kase
Abstract/Introduction:
A computerized automated drafting system is in operation in our drafting and design division. It consists of the preparation of isometric piping drawings with a bill of material. These drawings are used for our piping fabrication requirements. To produce these drawings a draftsman prepares a freehand isometric sketch of the segment of piping to be drawn on a preprinted tracing sheet. Some standard data is filled in longhand, the sketch is traced with a cursor on the digitizer and a set of punched cards is derived, which is processed by a computer whose output is used to drive a plotter which produces the finished drawing and bill of material.
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Document ID: 7CE70137

Standardizing Pressure Tap Locations For Turbine Meters
Author(s): Walter H. Browning
Abstract/Introduction:
Use of the turbine type meter has now reached the stage where the growing pains have passed and some refinements in practices can be made to improve accuracy. Choosing the proper location of pressure taps for testing meters for accuracy and for correcting to base pressure conditions is a step in that direction. Since turbine meters are generally designed to limit capacity to flow rates which will only cause a 2-inch pressure drop on 0.6 gravity gas at low pressure, it is not likely that any design turbine meter could introduce more than one half to 1% error due to measuring the static pressure at the inlet, outlet or in the annular area. However, even errors of this magnitude should not be disregarded.
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Document ID: 02736F2D

Asme Guidelines-A Bridge To The Dot Code
Author(s): William L. Clayton
Abstract/Introduction:
On August 12, 1968, the Natural Gas Safety Act became effective. It required the Secretary of Transportation to establish minimum federal safety standards within 24 months. Therefore, in August 1970, the Office of Pipeline Safety issued the federal regulations, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipelines: Minimum Safety Standards, to become effective on November 12, 1970. For many years the safety standard of the gas industry was the ANSI B31.8 Code. The issuance of the federal standard effectively preempted the existing code and it appeared that the work of the B31.8 Code Committee was finished. Many people in the industry were concerned that the expertise and experience of this group would be lost. However. it soon became apparent that the intent of OPS was to provide performance standards rather than detailed specifications.
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Document ID: 7D390DC3

Operating Experiences At The Distrigas Project
Author(s): Harold A. Grobey, Paul C. Johnson, Robert G. Norton
Abstract/Introduction:
Distrigas Corporation was founded in the fall of 1969 by the Cabot Corporation of Boston and Gazocean of Paris for the purpose of importing liquefied natural gas to the northeastern United States peak shaving market. Cabot Corporation is a diversified company which has been in the energy business for many years while Gazocean is a French shipping company dealing primarily in hydrocarbon transportation. These two corporations formed a natural combine to make the necessary contacts with the Algerians for gas supply and with the U.S. East Coast gas companies for marketing the imported fuel.
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Document ID: 8BB3F9BD

Discussion Of A.G.A. Report No. 3 Revised
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A, Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3, Revised September, 1969, is the result of many years of practical experience, supervised testing and advances in the physics of a flowing fluid and manufacturing procedures for orifice metering devices. It meets the original assignment of the first Gas Measurement Committee which was: 1. To determine the correct methods of installing orifice meters for measuring natural gas 2. To determine the necessary corrective factors and operative requirements in the use of orifice meters. using natural gas in all experimental work.
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Document ID: DD4C9DDC

Design For Emergency Control
Author(s): Earle Traub
Abstract/Introduction:
Man-operated machines rip into gas facilities unexpectedly and create uncontrolled situations that threaten public safety, as well as destroy large areas of real estate. Bulldozers, trenchers, road boarers, plows, backhoes, post hole augers and other machines are all too frequently misguided, and these powerful machines will release dangerous volumes of gas from a buried gas main or service into a structure or congested area. These man-operated machines can have a near miss and only scrape or dent the pipe but cause a stress point an exposed corrosion spot on steel pipe that may precipitate a spectacular gas emergency in the future.
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Document ID: A8F76FAA

Developing Compressor Technicians
Author(s): Lloyd A. Hightower
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first installation of unattended compressor equipment in the late 1950s, there has been a dramatic change in the technology needed for efficient maintenance. The typical compressor engine has changed greatly with the development of the highspeed, high-compression engine and the adoption of the gas turbine. The high-speed engine required some additional maintenance procedures, while continuing those for the slow- and medium-speed types. The gas turbine presented a completely new area of technology, beginning with nomenclature. Also, changes have occurred in control modes, from pneumatic, to electro-mechanical to radio-controlled electro-mechanical to digital-electronic radio-controlled electro-mechanical configurations.
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Document ID: A138B1A4

Problems Defeating Matching Measurement In Existing Systems
Author(s): Kenneth C. Yost
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of items which prohibit matching custody transfer measurement with remote control telemetering measurement is best confined to specific systems and installations. As an example of one area of difficulty, the practice in some control-telemetering systems is to disregard flowing temperature when calculating volumes. Certainly, if flowing temperature is considered in the custody transfer measurement, the agreement between custody transfer and the system would be poor at best. It is, therefore, apparent that the same variables must be applied in both techniques if agreement between systems is to be achieved.
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Document ID: E225D99F

Advanced Computer Operations In Gas Systems Analysis
Author(s): Ronald m. Dumas, Michael A. Stoner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an overview of gas distribution network analysis methods and programs used for distribution system studies at Consumers Power Company. It presents a generalized discussion of modeling and modeling techniques with emphasis on steady and unsteady pressure flow models of gas systems. Specific examples of the use of these models are cited. The job of many natural gas engineers is to design facilities for use in situations which have not yet occurred. In an effort to predict how a particular system will respond in these situations, the engineer resorts to constructing and experimenting with a model of the system.
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Document ID: 68F2FDE7

Comparative Cost Of Plastic And Steel Distribution Systems
Author(s): William R. Mazotti
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years, plastic pipe has played an increasingly important role in the design and construction of gas distribution systems. Gas companies throughout the nation have turned to plastic pipe in the hope that it would reduce the skyrocketing cost of installation and maintenance of gas distribution systems. For similar reasons, our company has turned to plastic. Now, after several years of experience with plastic systems, we would like to share our experience with companies not yet using any plastic pipe to enable them to decide on its applicability, and with companies who are using plastic pipe to compare their related experiences.
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Document ID: 8356D7D4

Gas Well Test Analysis Under Water-Driven Conditions
Author(s): Henry J. Ramey, Jr., Anil Kumar, m. Gulati
Abstract/Introduction:
For some 35 years, groundwater hydrologists and natural gas and oil reservoir engineers have studied the pressure-time response of a well to a change in production rale, Analysis of this information can lead to information on well and reservoir condition not available in any other way. Surprisingly, well test analysis for reservoirs which contact active water has been a subject of only limited study. Gas storage in aquifers and old gas or oil reservoirs in aquifers, as well as conventional gas and oil reservoirs studies have made this information of immediate importance.
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Document ID: F503543A

Atomic Stimulation
Author(s): C. Wardell Leisk
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is recognized as the cheapest, safest, cleanest and most convenient energy in the history of human endeavor. Nevertheless, countless barriers are thrown in the path of explorers for gas by puzzling and emotional changes and interpretations of the law and incomprehensible decisions of the federal judiciary, including the Supreme Court. I do not believe that the threats to our domestic gas supply are sufficiently clear to the public. I think that many people who have favored the unrealistic control of natural gas prices ignore the way our economic system works. One point they overlook is that the law of supply and demand governs. If we put a floor under prices, we create a surplus if we put a ceiling on prices, we create a shortage. This is simply what has happened to our supply of natural gas.
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Document ID: 1693879A

New Testing Services Improve Vehicle Safety
Author(s): W. E. Swain
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilities and other operators of man lift trucks have rapidly been adopling the Dow Industrial Service safely inspection service as part of their regular maintenance and safety programs. When their trucks are shut down after regular hours, D.I.S. technicians begin on-site inspection. By morning a full report and complete record on critical structural parts will be obtained. Using a combination of services, D.I.S, can dielectric test, x-ray, gammaray. and ultrasonically inspect an entire fleet on a scheduled basis or work with a customer to provide the services when needed to develop a complete program. Line truck operators feel confident that this program is an invaluable aid in discovering unseen deterioration in fiberglass, stress cracks, crystallized pins, defective castings and welding imperfections that could lead to tragic results.
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Document ID: AD2E4ABD

There Is A Place For Grouting In Underground Storage Caverns
Author(s): T. Lenahan
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 20 years, several pipelines companies have utilized underground mined caverns for storage of large volumes of liquefied petroleum gases. For economic reasons, the caverns are mined large enough to hold several hundred thousand barrels of the product. The caverns are located using stratigraphic and lithologic studies in order to place them in impermeable formations. Even with this preparation, it is almost impossible to have an entire cavern in the impermeable formation due to the size involved. Since the rock is not completely impermeable, the depth of the cavern is critical. Sufficient pressure must be maintained On the petroleum gas to keep it in a liquid slate, so the hydrostatic head of the ground water is utilized to maintain this pressure. Therefore, the cavern must be sufficiently below the water table to provide the required pressure on the product.
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Document ID: ADEE04D5


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