Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1972)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Removal Of H2S And Sulfur From Natural Gas
Author(s): Bill E. Greenfield
Abstract/Introduction:
Not many years ago there were very few processes from which to choose for sweetening of high pressure natural gas streams. Today this situation has changed and there are numerous suitable processes available. This means that the designer, who is faced with a gas treating problem, must give consideration to a number of variables before he chooses the most economical process. There are at least five premises that he must establish while selection is being made. These are as follows: 1. Environmental regulations, with regard to air and water pollution. 2. Impurities in the natural gas stream. 3. Impurity concentration. 4. Degree of removal required to meet the users specifications. 5. Feasibility of a sulfur recovery unit. Sweetening of gas can be grouped in two basic categories: (1) Processes involving chemical reaction and (2) Processes involving physical sorption only.
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Document ID: EBC0A85B

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instrumenob For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
The kinetic type gas gravitometer is manufactured as a portable indicating type instrument illustrated in Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type instrument illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism is Identical for both types but the case J motive power and linkage are modified to adapt the instruments to either portable service or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: 3C26B25F

Theory And Operation Of The Chromatograph
Author(s): Donald E. Steen
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatographs are part of the instrumentation of virtually all academic and industrial laboratories engaged in analysis of organic compounds yet, 20 years ago this technique was virtually unknown. This remarkable growth in the use of this technique is due to several of its inherent advantages:
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Document ID: B74971B8

Gas-Well Testing
Author(s): R. L. Harned
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic elements of back-pressure testing involves the measurement of: a. Shut-in Pressure b. Flow-Rate or Series of Flow-Rates c. Well-head Pressure taken at the end of each flow-rate. Using these data it is possible to calculate the deliverability at any specific pressure and the open-flow potential the open-flow potential being the flow expected when the well is open to the atmosphere. ON MULTIPLE COMPLETIONS, EACH ZONE IS CONSIDERED A DIFFERENT WELL AND MUST BE TESTED INDEPENDTLY.
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Document ID: EC51D064

Calibration And Maintenance Of Integrating Indexes
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Integrating indexes are used on large volume gas meters diaphragm, rotary and turbine, to automatically apply the compensating factors for pressure, temperature and supercompressibilxty to the metered volume. This paper is devoted to the Mercor III volume integrator, a low torque integrating index.
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Document ID: BED43FEE

Volume Computation Using A Densitometer And Electronic Computer
Author(s): N. B. Alpers
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been numerous papers presented on the application of densitometers in the natural gas industry. The normal installation identified in these papers has been t o measure gas in weight units by the following equation, as found in A.G.A. Report # 3 . Wh C Electronic gas flow computers have been utilized previously to the extent of calculating flow in pounds per cubic foot rather than a volumetric flow.
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Document ID: 53D401B9

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Douglas Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Noise in the meter station is produced by noise generators within the piping system. These noise generators can be swages, headers, compressors, gate valves, heaters , regulators , control valves or any other device capable of transforining potential and kinetic energy into sound energy. Technical advances have made it possible to measure this sound accurately. What is more important, however, is that empirical testing and data gathering has produced a technique for forecasting a majority of the noises generated at a meter station. Meter station noise forecasting with accuracy poses unusual problems because of the numerous noise generators within any given piping system. The forecasting problem, however, can be minimized and solved If the predominant noise generators (pressure regulators and control valves) can be examined individually.
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Document ID: F36C59B9

Dehydration
Author(s): Bill B. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
Water, in whatever form conditions dictate, is probably the most common, undesirable compound found in hydrocarbons as the exist in their natural state. The vapor phase can be tolerated and is usually no concern to oil and gas production. However,the liquid and solid phase do create a multitude of problems for the processing, transportation and storage of hydrocarbons, Liquid water almost always aids and abets corrosion, and combines with Hydrocarbons to form Hydrates that plug valves, process equipment and pipe lines. Water, sometimes referred to as the Universal Solvent, carries in solution a great number of dissolved solid and when converted to the vapor state or under temperature and pressure changes deposits these solids. This deposition can and does create sundry problems for the hydrocarbon. producer, transportor, and processor.
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Document ID: D9E9E8F0

Operation And Control Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
When consideri ng the regulator that utiIi zes a solid rubber plug for the main working part (i.e. inner valve) it is interesting to note that it is one of the few regulators that was designed within the gas industry and specifically for that industry. If the question of whether the gas industry requi res spec!a 1 des igns for its own use comes up, the answer is an emphatic yes. Features required in a practical gas regulator would be 1) Positive shutoff, 2) very wide rangeability, 3) quiet operation, 4) high capacity, 5) high recovery, 6) simple construction for easy inspection, 7) ability to control on setpoint and, 8) no pressure drop limitations. Many regulators have been designed specifically to incorporate only one or two of these features but by using a solid rubber plug as our inner valve we are able to come up with a regulator that has every one of the assets mentioned above. Before going into the details covering the operation of our rubber plug regulator we might keep in mind that it is a design that has been in use since 1958.
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Document ID: B23259BB

Opeeation Am) Maihtenawce Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Bruce J, Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Once upon a time there was only one type of chart changer, a living, breathing model whose mode of operation was something short of automatic. It follows that the man-powered chart changer did not always discharge his functions on schedule or to accord with contract-stipulated accounting time. His chart changing functions were tempered by rain and snow, freeway traffic density, sickness, priority work assignments and faulty time pieces. Yet, It is unlikely that a second generation of chart changers would have found a niche in the field of instrumentation due to these shortcomings save for economic justification. Where once semi-skilled labor was relatively inexpensive, wage and hour laws, competition for employees in an expanding economy, decreasing productivity and politically stimulated wage-leveling processes have led management to restrict manpower to areas where wages are commensurate with skills. Repetitive and menial tasks, found boring to many, are motivating factors that lead manufacturers to produce devices with human capability. Yet, their devices must be priced at levels to compete favorably with labor cost to acheive a renumerative market. The automatic chart changer Is a case in point.
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Document ID: D3501832

Orifice Meter Gauge Testing
Author(s): Henry J. Hendrix
Abstract/Introduction:
It would be well to first distinguish the difference in orifice meter and this subject of orifice meter gauge. The orifice meter is normally referred to as a complete measurement unit, comparable to the turbine or displacement meter setting. The orifice meter then actually includes the orifice meter run, straightening vanesi orifice plate and holder, meter gauge piping and the orifice meter gauge. In order to arrive at a volume of gas passing, other instruments, if used, are also included as a part of the orifice meter. This could include the temperature recording gauge and gravitometer, if recording the gravity of that specific stream of gas. This discussion will cover what is usually referred to as the secondary element of the orifice meter. This is the gauge piping, the gauge manifold, the orifice meter gauge, and the temperature gauge.
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Document ID: 84B06181

Odorant Handling In The New Environment
Author(s): Seth T. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past two or three years environmentalists in almost every locale have been able to pass legislation against flaring, burning, venting, etc, In many cases our time honored methods of handling gas odorant are no longer legal. There may come a time in the near future when a standard gas odorant will be dispensed from bulk tanks to gas company owned portable high pressure tanks. That would be one way to achieve a closed system loading method. Another way would be to use a portable compressor to depressure storage tanks into the gas line. All of the above sounds expensive compared to simply emptying a drum into a tank, but in extreme cases in the past, several gas companies have built vapor tight buildings, and used other quite expensive methods of odor control. In our environment on the Texas Gulf Coast we have a heavy industrial complex. As a result we have county, state, city and federal inspectors who may drop in at any time at all. The combinaatlon of all of these forces have brought about some changes in methods of handling smelly compounds. In the following paper we will explore some of the methods now employed in trouble areas, and some of the methods that may be employed in the future.
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Document ID: E4EEEAB7

The Recording Calorimeter
Author(s): R, L. Lindaraood
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising demand for natural gas has brought about an increased number of gas sales contracts negotiated on a Btu basis. It is, therefore, important that the gas measurement engineer or technician be familiar with the recording calorimeter. Total Calorific Value of a gas is defined1 as the number of British thermal units (Btu) evolved by the complete combustion, at constant pressure, of one standard cubic foot of gas with air, the temperature of the gas, air and products of combustion being 60 F and all the water formed by the combustion reaction being condensed to the liquid state. Standard temperature is 60 F and standard pressure is 30 in. Hg. at 32 F and under standard gravity (32,174 ft. per sec. per s e c ) A standard cubic foot of gas is the quantity of any gas that at standard temperature and pressure will fill a space of one cubic foot when in equilibrium with water. Saturated basis is the expressed total calorific value of a gas when it is saturated with water vapor at standard temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 70B39269

Measurement By Displacement Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The Displacement Gas Meter is frequently referred to as a Positive Displacement Meter, not because measurement with this device is any more definite or accurate than the measurement which might be obtained with another type meter, but because the measurement that it affords is a positive volumetric quantity in cubic feet at flowing conditions - regardless of the temperature, gravity or pressure of the flowing gas. There are three basic types of gas meters which are generally considered as falling into this category: 1-wet (rotating drum) meters 2-rotary (impeller type) meters and, 3-slide-valve dry type meters. All of the above types of displacement meters have three basic elements in common. They have a measuring element or container of known volume they have a valve arrangement to channel the gas into and out of the measuring element and they have a counter or index to tally the number of times the measuring element has been filled and emptied.
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Document ID: 5F1624E7

Orifice Fittings Amd Meter Tubes
Author(s): Bill Larksr
Abstract/Introduction:
To achieve the accuracy and efficiency desired in an orifice meter set up, great care must be employed in design and fabrication of the entire insallation. The term orifice meter refers to the orifice plate, the meter tube, the orifice fitting, and the secondary recording instrument. The orifice meter utilizes an orifice plate within a pipe In which there is a gas flow. Flow through the line reaches the orifice plate and paaaea through the restricted bore, the differential between the preaaurea on the two sides of the plate varies with the volume of flow and this provides an accurate indication of the flow volume.
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Document ID: 6196D31D

Gas System Automation Made Easy
Author(s): Frank St. Amand
Abstract/Introduction:
In all fairness, the title of the talk should be Gas System automation Made Easier because there is no foreseeable way that it will ever be truly easy. We will attempt, however, to explain the approach taken by one control equipment manufacturer to make it easier. We will cover the history of this development, what the equipment is, and some of its various applications. Many control applications are changing, including those of the gas industry. Operations are becoming more complex we are dealing with more variables we require better control. The gas industry is affected visibly in production, transmission, storage, distribution and in peak shaving distribution operations. An example of one of the most dramatic industry changes which requires better control is the inauguration of 10.00 per MCF penalty gas for contract overruns,
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Document ID: E3BFC072

New Developments In Pressure And Differential Transmitters
Author(s): m. H. Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
Since man first became aware of his environment, he has recognized the possibility of influencing the many variables involved in such a manner as to make his existance more comfortable. Comfort generally has meant that man has developed means of utilizing energy from sources other than his own muscular force to perform work, This work is necessary to provide the food, shelter, and warmth required to insure his survival, This energy has been derived from other animals, water power foss i1 fuels in the form of wood, coal, and oil, and lately from the fundamental forces of atomic nuclei. As man came to recognize that various sources of energy could be used to his benefit, he also became aware that it was necessary to use this energy in a controlled manner. Since he did not understand the forces involved, he ascribed them to beings possessed of supernatural powers. Ri tes and ceremonies were devised in the hope that these ethereal beings might be favorably influenced to release their energy to the benefit of the entreator, while not destroying him in the process. Primitive man attempted to control his environment by occult means so it may be that the first instrument engineers were the priests and medicine men of the ancient religions. A very basic fact was certainly noted as man conducted his first scientific investigations, and it remains fundamental today: before you can control any force, it is necessary to be able to measure it. Extending this statement, it is logical to say that the degree to which any variable can be control led is directly related to the precision with which that variable can be measured.
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Document ID: 24AE7181

Insertion Type Pipeline Flowmeters
Author(s): R. L. Mabry, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There has been a new type of flowmeter introduced to the measurement business, namely the insertion type pipeline flowmeter. While the pipeline insertion flowmeter can be used to measure any and all fluids, this discussion will be limited to the insertion procedure and measurement of natural gas in large diameter pipe. Two types of insertion meters will be discussed, the insertion type turbine flowmeter and the insertion type vortex shedding flowmeter. The potential of these meters looks good as a pipeline tool, but the orifice meter will probably be around for a long time yet.
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Document ID: 66217551

Two-Phase Flow Metering
Author(s): m. L. Blackwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Factors to calculate orifice meter coefficients in convenient form for commercial uee were first published by Brown and Hall in 1921. The American Gas Association published a preliminary Report in 1927, which was revised in 1929, and Committee Report No. 1 was issued in 1930. Committee Report No. 2, published in 1935, was reprinted with revisions in 1948. After 1945, gas production and sales began to make tremendous increases because of the construction of long transmission pipe lines to the northeastern section of the United States. New types of equipment were being made available for use in construction of orifice meter stations. The factors as published in AGA Report No. 2 did not cover the requirements for larger meter run diameters and heavier wall pipe to measure this substantial volume of gas at higher metering pressure. It was recognized by the industry that Report No. 2 should be brought up-to-date. After considerable field, testing at Refugio, and after evaluation of the test data and other considerations, AGA Report No. 3 was Issued in 1955* This extended report has remained as a measurement standard since that time. If these data are to be applied in measurement of two-phase flows, some additional testing by AGA or by the parties involved will be required.
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Document ID: D049093E

Fundamentals Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the principle of operation, selection, installation, and discusses common field problems and solutions related to gas measurement by rotary meters. The meters discussed will be the figure eight lobed impeller type however, most comments will pertain to all types of rotary meters.
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Document ID: 84F85B75

Meeting Federal Requirements For Pressure Regulating Equipment
Author(s): Ralph E. Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety is the requirement. The Federal Law covering that requirement is DOT. Prior to the enactment of DOT, the gas Industry had already developed B31.8, the culmination of work dating back to the 1920s, And while B31.8 was voluntary, its existence, plus the fact that by far most of the Industry voluntarily complied, plus the fact also that DOT is essentially B31.8, is mute testimony to the remarkable safety record the gas industry had achieved by the time in August of 1968 government felt it expedient to begin actively taking over. The Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act was enacted August 12, 1968. It required the Secretary of Transportation to adopt existing state safety standards temporarily, and allowed 24 months for establishing minimum federal safety standards.
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Document ID: 0FC8CF25

Inspection Program For Regulator Stations
Author(s): H. E. Kudlik
Abstract/Introduction:
The title assigned for this discussion is Inspection Program for Regulator Stations. To our Company, Regulator Stations are combined with Measuring Stations so actually the discussion will cover all equipment used at a Measuring and Regulating Station. We will endeavor to cover the schedules and procedures followed in complying with Safety Codes and inspections required for the determination of accurate measurement and reliability of equipment operation. Inspections of Measuring Stations should be predicated to the accuracy of gas volumes passed, continuity of service to the consumer, and all coupled with safe operations. Safety Code inspections and tests are included as they cannot be separated from operational procedures anymore. Whenever measurement men or operational personnel approach and enter a measuring station, they are visually making many of the inspections discussed later. However, if the inspections are not a part of a written record, they cannot be included as part of the Safety Code compliance. Safety Code compliance will become increasingly important as time passes. It cannot be said that any one item at a measuring station has more importance than any other one item in the inspection program, so please do not attach any significance to the sequence in which items are discussed. Accurate records of inspections are kept in the field and submitted weekly. These in turn are compiled on a master sheet and submitted annually to the main office, or as often as requested.
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Document ID: 111F8F71

Spot Samplihg Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Alvle P. Conn
Abstract/Introduction:
Purpose of Sampling: Gas samples are taken so that some type of analysis can be made to determine the quality of gas in the flowing stream. No analysis is any better than the sample itself, therefore precautions must be taken in sampling so that the sample is representative of the gas flowing in the pipe line.
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Document ID: B89A1463

Turbine Meter Applications
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Following the end of World War II, the Research Engineering group of Rockwell was assigned a basic project to explore the feasibility of developing Improved devices for the accurate measurement of large volumes of gaseous vapors. Many possible conceots were investigated and discarded. But early in this initial investigative stage, one concept stood out as having a great potential. This concept was based on the turbine principle. We had an existing In-house capability in this area since we had at that time experience in the manufacture of turbine meters for liquid applications. However, liquids are about 1000 times as dense as gas vapors so that a considerable amount of design engineering had to be done to develop a gas turbine meter that would perform satisfactorily at the relatively low kinetic energy levels encountered when metering gas.
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Document ID: AF0B09BD

Base Loading Facilities
Author(s): D. B. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Table I presents in a rather concise form the status of the base loading industry. The table shows the plant location the approximate capacity in millions of standard cubic feet per day the importing country the process employed and general contractor the year the plant is expected to be commissioned and its full capacity operation is indicated the plant owner the ship owner number and size of ships is tabulated. As noted in the table some of the plants are In operation, some are being constructed and many are being planned.
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Document ID: 7EF366FF

Fundamentals Of Densitometers
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
How can the direct measurement of gas density benefit the gas industry? This question is always foremost in the minds of measurement people when they are confronted with the suggestion of altering conventional measurement techniques to include density. Many persons think of the determination of gas density as an added measurement to be concerned with or as a brand new, unorthodox approach to flow measurement. Quite to the contrary, density is the primary property of a gas which relates the differential pressure across an orifice plate to the velocity of a gas flowing through the orifice.
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Document ID: FFC0C5E7

The Use Of Electronics For Flow Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter, Product Line Manager
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronics in flow measurement has been rapidly increasing because of three major things: (1) decrease in cost and increase in reliability of electronic components (2) increased use of automation and centralization of data gathering and (3) increased use of primary flow elements requiring electronic secondary instrumentation.
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Document ID: AEE514A4

Flow Computation For Field Men
Author(s): m. L. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computation is both important and interesting. However, like any other work, it may seem mysterious and overly complicated when we are unfamiliar with it. Flow computations are usually made in the office where either a calculator or some type of computer system is available. These volumes are accurate to the smallest factor. The field man, however, does not have the benefit of this type of equipment. Therefore, he must compute flow by hand calculation or by using a flow slide rule or flow graph. The field volume, of course, is not expected to be as exact as that volume calculated by a computer system but depending upon the purpose for which it is to be used, it must still compare favorable. In order to illustrate the accuracy and simplicity of the different methods of arriving at a field volume, we will use as an example a typical set of conditions from which a volume is computated by a computer system. Then we can compare the different stages of hand calculation as well as slide rule or graph calculation for accuracy.
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Document ID: E3517434

Recent Developements Ahd Associated Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, offshore gas pipe line systems are actively competing in every respect of supply and demand to meet the countrys energy crisis. The offshore area is one of many untapped reservoirs for energy. The exploitation of these reserves has been retarded by recent cancellation of lease sales, legal and politcal battles based on the ever expanding modern day ecology revolution. Today, I wish to discuss some aspects and developments being tried and used to solve not only our energy crisis but also our ecology revolution.
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Document ID: C4D316B4

Dead Height And Dew Point Testers
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: E8C9BA7D

Application Of Analog Flow Computers
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Automation requires units of volume to be presented in a form compatible with collection, transmission and display. This was accomplished in liquid measurement by use of positive displacement and positive volume meters, which provide a single pulse per unit voluime, such as barrels. The most feasible method of obtaining gas flow figures in units of volume is by means of an automatic computer utilized with the orifice meter. Such units have been available for quite a few years and have been constantly refined both as to circuit design and operating features.
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Document ID: CF43F80B

Fundamentals Of Gas Presssure Regulation
Author(s): Floyd D. Jury
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grovm accustomed to seeing then in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take then for granted, Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his Job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: C98E40A2

Design Of High Pressure Meter & Regulator Stations
Author(s): G. E. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the basic rules and information required to design high pressure measuring and regulating stations. A high pressure measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement and dependable pressure control. Factors such as safety, flexibility, expansion and governmental laws must also be considered in the overall design of these stations.
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Document ID: 70BCB2C9

New Developments In Control Systems
Author(s): R. H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, automatic controls are widely used to control flows, pressures, and in some cases, temperatures. Both pneumatic and electronic control systems are employed in these applications in the gas industry. Rather than a paper on control theory, this data sheet covers instrumentation to solve those control problems most commonly found in the gas industry.
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Document ID: D8DB3885

Primary Measuring Elements: Metallic Elastic Deformation Elements For Sensing Pressure And Temperature Pressure Transmitting Diaphragms
Author(s): G. A. Laigle And J. P. Hildebrandt
Abstract/Introduction:
Mr. E. Ross Foreman in The Handbook of Applied Instrumentation defines the term Primary Element as the portion of the measuring means which first either utilizes or transforms energy from the controlled medium to produce an effect which is. a function of change in the value of the controlled variable. This effect may be a change of pressure, force, position, electrical potential, or resistance. Our purpose is to attempt to add to your knowledge, or at least to your awareness of the many considerations & design criteria involved in those areas in which we feel best qualified to contribute further, concentrating on specific aspects of design, manufacture and/or application, which may be commonly overlooked or taken for granted because of their very basic nature.
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Document ID: 3FCFBFA9

Swirlmeter Gas Flowmeter Applications
Author(s): John G. Kopp
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past twenty years basic fluid mechanics studies of vortex development and decay observed that given the proper environment that any fluid, liquid or gas, will take up a definite and regular oscillatory motion which within given limits is proportional to flowrate. The Swirlmeter (Figures 1 and 2) was the first flowmeter to use the principle of fluid oscillation as a practical flowmeter. The Swirlmeter Gas Flowmeter is intended for gas flow measurement although fluid oscillation, the principle involved, is applicable to both gas and liquid flow. The Swirlnaeter design has been optimized to give the best combination of performance characteristics on gases.
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Document ID: F040FBE5

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): H. S. Biles
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia con be seen the relics of hydraulics works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can still be seen lead piping which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers who accompanied the Spanish missionaries, and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: BCE0972A


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