Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1971)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

New Quirks In Billing Wholesale Sales And Retail And Industrial Sales
Author(s): Russell R. Walden
Abstract/Introduction:
Ralph Waldo Emerson was once asked, what is a weed? He replied, A weed is a plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered. The early history of natural gas in the United States can be compared to the weed, because its potential as an energy source lay undiscovered, and when discovered, for a time unwanted. It was not until 1821 that natural gas became a primary energy source. That year marked the successful completion of the first well sunk in search of natural gas in Fredonia, New York. A few years later in 1868 natural gas was used in industry for the first time by an Oil-Weil Supply Firm in Erie, Pennsylvania. The utilization of those capabilities culminated in the highly efficient continental transmission network in the 1940s. The framework of the natural gas industry was approaching adulthood, and there seemed to prevail over the land an unspoken but nurtured belief, nothing heats like a gas flame.
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Document ID: D79B485D

What Is Available In Large Volume Regulation
Author(s): Richard Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Before describing what is available in large volume regulation, lets take a look at (1) what compises and is required by large volume regulators and (2) the methods of regulator operation and how this affects what is available from a design point of view.
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Document ID: 205FBE37

Bruceton Mills Compressor Station
Abstract/Introduction:
The Bruceton Mills Compressor Station costs more than 1.2 million. The first three of its five 1,080 horsepower Saturn gas turbine engines went into operation in December, 1966. A fourth unit was installed in October, 1969 the fifth in December, 1970, for a total of 5,400 station horsepower. At full operation, the station can pump 260 million cubic feet of gas a day. Maximum station working pressure is 960 pounds per square inch (psig) As modern as tomorrow, Bruceton Mills can be remotely controlled from the space age, Pittsburg Group gas control center at Bethel Park, (Allegheny County) Pa. about ten miles southeast of Pittsburgh, and fifty miles from the station. Autumatically, data is transmitted by leased telephone line and fed into a computer at Bethel Park. The operating pressures and flow rate are shown on a control console when the station is monitored at intervals daily. Such information is also printed out on data loggers, along with data from other points, every hour of the day.
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Document ID: A9CF1597

Products Available For Domestic And Commercial Pressure Control
Author(s): Don Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry requirements for equipment are changing at a rapid pace. These changes are brought about by the growing complexities and sophistication of gas systems creating the need for new equipment and instrumentation. In addition, some of the new federal regulations are changing the basic operating and maintenance philosophies of the operating utiUties. To meet these requirements for more and better equipment from the well head to the consumer we have introduced the following new equipment since the 1970 meeting to help solve some of these problems facing the industry.
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Document ID: 4457D656

Electronic Density Measuring System
Author(s): Milton H. November
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays instrumentation engineers are faced with an ever-increasing need for precision density measurement of fluids for a host of industrial applications. The criteria for such an instrument in the most general terms are: 1. Suitable for continuous industrial operation. 2. Applicable to liquids, gases, slurries, etc. 3. Exhibit a high order of precision (better than 0.25% reading). 4. Have a fast dynamic response. 5. Be useful over a wide temperature span without severe degrading of accuracy. 6. Be immune to: (a) flow velocity (b) viscosity 7. Eliminate fluid sampling errors, etc. In view of the persistent requirements, strenuous efforts to find practical solutions to the problem have resulted in the evolution of an interesting form of dynamic densitometer. Before proceeding with the actual device, an understanding of fluid density and the usual forms of techniques employed to measure, is apropos the main portion of this paper.
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Document ID: AA7C08F3

Rockwell Large Volume Regulators
Author(s): Ralph E. Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Large volume regulators will be generally defined for this discussion as 2 pipe size and largei Rockwell large volume regulators will be covered on the basis of the following th e types (1) spring type regulators, (2) pilot operated regulators and (3) valve regultors.
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Document ID: 45ED5D04

Design Of Regulator Stations For High And Medium Pressures
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a reason for a regulator station being a potential source of noise. It is because potential energy is changed into kinetic energy in the regulators, resulting in high velocities on the downstream side of the regulators.
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Document ID: 810154E7

Basic Theory And Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
To the problem of providing sufficient strength in regulator components to withstand the static pressures which may be imposed, there must be added the problems of mass and velocity. These factors introduce difficulties which are offtimes surprising and just as often puzzling. Natural gas, with its specific gravity of less than unity, does not ordinarily impress us with its weight. A cubic foot at standard conditions weighs only 5/100 of a pound. This we might be tempted to ignore. When we consider also the quantities, as well as the weights of the gas in a specific situation, we begin to realize that it would be a gross error to overlook the mass involved. Even a relatively small pressure reducing valve, such as a 1 house service regulator, can pass 1,000 cubic feet per hour and thus must be designed to handle a weight totaling 50 pounds each hour. This weight handling requirement becomes more apparent when we take a look at something on the order of a 6 regulator cutting from a pipeline pressure of perhaps 750 psi down to 250 psi. The hourly capacity under these critical pressure drop conditions is 10,000,000 cubic feet per hour. The total weight in this situation is half a million pounds!
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Document ID: F89B2DB7

Turbine And Velocity Meters
Author(s): William L. Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Both diaphragm and rotary meters have practical limitations in capacity by virtue of their si2e and weight. Theoretically we can make either of these meters large enough to measure eyen the largest load encountered today. However, a diaphragm or rotary meter the size of a small house can hardly he considered practical. Even a cursory examination of manufacturing costs, installation space required, and the necessary maintenance and repair practices would rule out these designs. Orifice meters have been widely used on the big loads over the long years of natural gas service history in this country. Another type of meter more recently introduced is the turbine meter. Less than 10 years have passed since this measuring device has been offered to the gas industry in this country, yet its acceptance and usage has proven it to be a reliable unit which meets the accuracy requirements of our industry.
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Document ID: CDBF20F6

Liquefied Natural Gas - Contracting, Shipping And Handling
Author(s): A. G. Harshman
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a report on LNG with emphasis on the outlook for this product, the nature of LNG projects, and the techniques that are being and will be used to measure it. Although the title of my presentation, as listed in the program, includes contracting, I dont plan to cover this subject. As I will show later, LNG projects will involve many different countries, many different private companies, financing methods, etc., and the types of contracts that will evolve will differ substantially from project to project.
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Document ID: 6221213D

Maintenance Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): P. J. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject, Maintenance of Telemetering Systems, shall be treated in this paper as a series of simple solid-state electronic control and supervisory systems. Special emphasis will be placed on component selection because many failures are inherent in the design. Therefore, a great deal of money can be saved by selecting high quality reliable components that do not have design defects. Maintenance time on modern electronic hardware is directly related to: Component Selection Circuit Design Circuit Evaluation and Test Procedures Packing Concepts Power Requirements Power Consumption Relative to Heat Dissipation Manufacturers of high quality equipment utilize computer analysis to mathematically age their circuits under environmental extremes. When this is done properly, the manufacturer eliminates inherent design defects, improves reliability, and minimizes the hair-pulling trial-and-error method of field proving equipment.
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Document ID: 8588F920

Tin Meter Repair
Author(s): Phillip E. Opp, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of us still in the tin meter repair business must feel like the village blacksmith after the arrival of the Model T. Our days may be numbered, but we are by no means out of business. In the Consolidated Natural Gas Company operating area there are still over 600,000 tin meters in service and, as far as we are concerned, those meters should stay in service as long as on-line performance and condition substantiate such policy, Whether tin meters are returned to service at the end of a set period is entirely dependent upon economics. In other words, can a tin meter be given the attention in the repair shop necessary for its return to service at a reasonable cost? How much work can be done on a tin meter in face of todays labor and material market? Our approach is to be highly selective in repair of tin meters returned from service and to put only as much work into the meter as is necessary. Only repair work above the valve table is considered and any fitting-up work applies to only about one tin meter of four processed. Diaphragm replacement has been discontinued for years.
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Document ID: 9CA64F46

Recording Gravitometers
Author(s): Raymond A. Shannon, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper covers the installation, calibration, and maintenance of recording gravitometers. There are several variations of gravitometers available however, for this discussion, one of each of the two general classifications has been selected. They are the Acme recording gravitometer, of the direct weighing type, and the Ranarex recording gravitometer, or the kinetic energy type. The material presented here will cover the manufacturers instruction and data sheets and some operating experience.
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Document ID: 15B15EA6

Instrumentation For Positive And Turbine Meters
Author(s): J. Raymond Fitzpatrick, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A variety of instruments are used to measure volumes of gases through rotary, positive displacement, and turbine meters. The mechanically driven integrator is the most widely used instrument for this purpose. The integrator is mounted on the meter so the output wriggler of the meter engages directly with the input wriggler of the integrator. Gas flowing through the meter provides the mechanical force required to operate the integrator. The pressure within the meter operates the pressure element and linkage, while the temperature system responds to the changes in temperature of the flowing gas. The changing pressures and temperatures are integrated into the total corrected readout of volumes in cubic units by means of cams, ratchet, or rings in the integrating mechanism.
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Document ID: 8DC15FCA

Orifice Meter Tubes And Fittings
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
To achieve the accuracy and efficiency desired in an orifice meter set up, great care must be employed in design and fabrication of the future installation. The term orifice meter refers to the orifice plate, the meter tube, the orifice fitting, and the secondary recording instrument. The orifice meter utilizes an orifice plate within a pipe in which there is a gas flow. Flow through the line reaches the orifice plate and passes through the restricted bore. The differential between the pressures on the two sides of the plate varies with the volume of flow and thus provides an accurate indication of the flow volume.
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Document ID: 097BBDFA

Chart Processing Techniques
Author(s): Mark Bardolph, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This matter of chart processing becomes an increasingly more important function in the gas industry, and there arc several reasons for this increase in importance. Foremost, of course, is the matter of price. Our very first purchase gas contract called for a rate of six cents per thousand cubic feet. One of our most recent contracts. calling for both a Demand and a Commodity Charge, averages out at slightly in excess of forty cents per M.C.F. Another reason for the increased importance for accuracy in the processing of gas meter charts is the huge volumes of gas handled today as compared with days gone by. For example, in 1932, our first full year of operation, we purchased 6.8 billion cubic feet of gas at a cost of slightly more than 468,000. In 1970 we purchased 1,137.6 billion cubic feet of gas for which we paid in excess 205,000,000. The manufacturers of gas measurement equipment, recognizing our need for increased accuracy, have developed the most sophisticated equipment our field measurement men are better trained than ever before the equipment we have to help us calculate the charts is the best we have ever had. However, all these efforts will be to no avail unless the chart processing personnel exercise the same diligence in computing the volumes as the manufacturers of equipment and our own field personnel do in measuring the gas.
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Document ID: 174F46F4

Fixed Factor Metering
Author(s): Patrick H. Loughran
Abstract/Introduction:
Fixed factor metering is a relatively old method of using hard case diaphragm and rotating meters that is recently receiving increasing attention and use because of its comparative simplicity and suitability for many new and existing consumer gas loads. Fixed factor metering is sometimes known as pressure factor measurement. It is very similar to other metering methods, known as pressure compensatedor constant pressure metering.
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Document ID: 76EDA5DF

Automated Control Of Low Pressure Systems
Author(s): W. E. Boldyreff
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company, a combination utility, serves both gas and electric customers in outstate Michigan. One of the means used to serve gas customers is low pressure distribution. Low pressure distribution systems normally operate in a pressure range of 7 to 18 WC with a maximum design pressure of 21 WC. The pressure control equipment is preset to maintain minimum system pressures required to meet seasonal demands. Customers meters on the low pressure system are calibrated to a 6 WC base. To assure the 6 WC delivery pressure to all customers during peak conditions, regulator stations feeding the system were set at 18 WC for winter operation. During off peak periods which prevail, system pressures rise substantially above the 6 WC base. An inaccuracy occurs in metering during these off peak periods because of the elevated system pressures. In an effort to improve metering accuracy, automated pressure control equipment was installed on seven of the major low pressure systems. These seven systems serve approximately 120,000 customers. The control equipment consists of sensing low pressure points in a system, transmitting this information to a Division Servce Center, and transmitting control signals to regulator stations feeding that distribution system.
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Document ID: 722C8DEA

Effects Of Rounded Edges, Dirt, And Other Foreign Materials On Orifice Meter Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Jerry A. Roth
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this demonstration is to show the effect on orifice meter measurement created by undesirable conditions that may exist in a meter tube. For the purpose of illustration these undesirable conditions may be somewhat exaggerated. By means of this demonstration I hope to show that small deviations from perfect metering conditions can result in inaccurate measurement. Also, keep in mind that more than one of these undesirable conditions can exist simultaneously in a meter tube thus possibly creating an additive or compensating error.
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Document ID: D43EAE3B

Regulator Sizing
Author(s): Tom K. Buresh
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator sizing can be separated into two categories (1) self-operated regulator sizing and (2) pilot-operated regulator sizing. A self-operated regulator (Figure 1) is a controller in which all the energy to operate the final controlling element (valve plug) is derived from the controlled system, through the sensing element. For a self-operated regulator, the offset in controlled pressure required to produce maximum orifice capacity is substantial therefore, sizing can be presented only by capacity curves or tables.
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Document ID: 68D0CE88

Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
Low pressure flow was so named because it is used to test meters at pressures which are slightly above atmospheric pressure but slightly less than 15 psig. Either gas or air may be used as the test medium. The low pressure prover (Figure 1) is essentially a pipe tap or flange tap orifice meter which has been made adaptable as prover by the use of quick reference tables. These tables enable the use of elementary mathematics to make a comparative calculation of the rate of flow registered by the meter under test and the prover. Thus, the proof of the meter can be readily established.
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Document ID: 75AB4DA8

C-Signing For Data Transmission
Author(s): Orville W. Burg, II
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will show some of the parameters which were considered in the design, installation, and operation of two types of data compilation systems presently in use at Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation for dispatching of measured gas volumes. One type, the Bristol Meta-Logger system, incorporates computer controlled high speed data acquisition, processing and logging equipment. The other type uses a Leeds and Northrup Mass Flow Computer. The equipment used in the Bristol Meta-Logger system (located at Linden, New Jersey) contains one Digital Equipment Company PDP-8I computer complete with 4096 words of core memory and a 32,768 word magnetic disc file, one ASR 33 teletype, one 35RO teletype, one 75 characters per second high speed printer, one operator control console, and a digital data link for readout of information at a remote dispatching location (Houston, Texas dispatching office).
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Document ID: 957A55E0

Basic Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Robert L. Foster
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter, as its name implies, utilizes an orifice as its basic element in the measurement of natural gas. The orifice is ofic of the oldest devices known to man for the measurements of rates of flow of fluids from vessels into the open air. The Egyptians used weir orifices for controlling or measuring the flow of water about 2200 B.C. however, it was not until 1904 that Thomas R. Weymouth, an engineer for the United Natural Gas Company, began to experiment with the orifice in closed-pipe flows. He installed a flange union with thin orifice plates in a line in series with a Pilot tube with the intention of studying its behavior and developing a simple rate-reading device. His work was interrupted, and it was not until about 1912 that the orifice meter, as we know it today, was developed. However, there have been some changes for the better since that time.
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Document ID: D437892E

Transducer Considerations
Author(s): Francis H. Tietze
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the problems, inconsistencies, and traps that lie in wait for the unwary technician who seeks absolute accuracies from presentations derived from transducers. Over the years, the gas industry has used recording charts for the operation of their system. With the use of the recording chart, the user is able to review history, predict trends, and through the correlation of this information, he is able to move vast quantities of gas all the way from the source to the consumer.
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Document ID: 7CAD00D9

Transcos System Of Large And Small Volume Odorant Injection And Monitoring
Author(s): Gordon E. Marttila
Abstract/Introduction:
By reason of its tariff and to fulfill certain regulatory requirements, Transco has been odorizing a major portion of its sales gas since the firm launched into operation in 1950. In the past twenty-one years, system deliveries have grown from approximately 350 MMCF/Day to nearly ten times that figure today. Transcos odorization program has also grown during this period to keep pace with the increasing volumes by improving odorization techniques. There are now some 150 odorizer installations on Transcos system, odorizing volumes from several thousand cubic feet per hour to one hundred million cubic feet per hour. In round figiu-es, Transco is currently injecting 400,000 lbs. of odorant through these odorizers each year. The odorant, made to Transcos specifications, is a 100% mercaptan mixture composed of approximately 75% tertiary butyl mercaptans and 25% isopropyl and heavier mercaptans.
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Document ID: D3D5FEAF

Adjustment Of Large Diaphragm Gas Meters
Author(s): H. K. Frome
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity diaphragm meters are used for high volume commercial and industrial customers where other type metering is not practical due to various load conditions. These meters are excellent measuring devices when properly sized, adjusted, and installed. In many respects, such as appearance and principle of operation, the large capacity meter is simply an overgrown domestic, positive displacement meter. Since these meters are usually handled in smaller quantities than the domestic meters, shop procedures are different. Flow charts and schematics of gas meter repair and testing can become complicated because of back tracking and cross flows. However a basic chart is outlined in Figure 1 of this paper. This chart is basic, but it does coi rey the idea of the various processes. Since we are concerned with adjustments only, this discussion divides this phase into three categories. 1. Adjustments during repair. 2. Final adjustments on the prover. 3. Change in proof at higher than normal operating pressure.
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Document ID: BC6472F9

Review Of AGA Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3 1969 Edition
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
In May, 1924, the Board of Directors of the Natural Gas Association (this later became Natural Gas Department, American Gas Association) established the Gas Measurement Committee and charged this new group with an assignment as follows: a. To determine the correct method of installing orifice meters for measuring natural gas. b. To determine the necessary corrective factors and operative requirements in the use of orifice meters, using natural gas in all experimental work. c. To secure the cooperation and assistance of the National Bureau of Standards and the United States Bureau of Mines, and to secure, if possible, the assignment of members of their staffs to the Gas Measurement Committee to assist in this work.
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Document ID: D29AAED9

Freeze-Up Prevention
Author(s): R. L. Milton
Abstract/Introduction:
In the operations sector of the industry, our primary goals are to assure safe and uninterrupted service to our customers at reasonable cost. The greatest degree of safety to customers, the general public, and employees is provided by insuring the safety of the system. Since a freeze-up in a part of the gas system can cause interruptions to service, system overpressure, or damage to our facilities or those of others nearby, they are to be avoided.
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Document ID: 3CE588DF

Odorization
Author(s): C.D. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Peoples Natural Gas Company deals in natural gas only, and has since its formation in 1885. About one-fourth of the gas distributed is from local production gas, and the remainder is purchased from transmission line companies. The company operates production, storage, transmission, and distribution facilities. It has approximately 290,000 meters and a peak day rate of about 700 MMCF during 1970. There is an Odorization Supervisor on the Operating Services staff and various personnel in the seven operating divisions who operate and maintain the odorizing equipment.
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Document ID: BF895951

New Metering And Measurement Techniques
Author(s): Richard A. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
In the course of the last ten years, measurement has undergone certain far reaching changes that have been marked by the increased employment of technical people in the measurement departments of the many utilities and associated manufacturers. Some of the influencing factors and activating forces which are contributing and causing these changes are the following:
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Document ID: F546A36E

Electrical Maintenance And Calibration
Author(s): John F. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
A formal preventative maintenance program should be in use by all Electroscanner owners. Such a program will insure the quality of the data obtained. Maintenance will be either routine, that performed by the operator, or major, that performed by manufacturers service engineer. Operator performed maintenance will require use of an oscilloscope. The scope should be of better quality with provisions for calibrated vertical and horizontal sweep and external triggering sync. We recommend one made by Tektronix. The operator should also have a set of precision test charts for routine test and adjustment. These are available from UGGl for each scan station. We recommend a set of seven for each station. The full set should be used each time a station is turned on.
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Document ID: 001992D4

Handling And Injection Of Odorant
Author(s): Louis E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorant, as its name implies, is a liquid compound made to smell rather disagreeable for the single purpose of odorizing natural gas. Odorants most generally used, are organic sulphur compounds, mercaptans, or cyclic sulfides. Any one of these compounds mixed with natural gas will impart an identifiable odor. To the general public, this odor is known as a gassy smell. Since clean natural gas methane and ethane has no odor, the gassy smell is the ultimate goal in a program of odorization.
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Document ID: 3B9F1EF0

43-RPC Plot Operated Regulator
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
The 243-RPC regulator is a pilot operated Regulator designed for a specific application in mind. Jthough the Regulator can be used on industrial, commercial, or any other type ins illation requiring accurate control of pressure, it has been designed basically for he District Regulator installations where fixed factor billing will be accomplished. The accurate control of pressure obtained with this Regulator makes it an ideal situation for these fixed factor billing requirements.
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Document ID: 3EF7AE83

Fundamentals Of Bell Proving
Author(s): David F. Kee
Abstract/Introduction:
The essential problem in calibrating a meter, then, is to know the true volume that you are delivering to the meter inlet. The United States standard of volume is the cubic foot. Unfortunately a cubic foot of a gas, such as air, stays that size only if its temperature and pressure also stay the same. A VF change in temperature or a 0.4 inch water column change in pressure will each cause a 0.1% error. That is why We say that there is an elastic link in the calibration of todays volume standards. Yet for traceability to the national standard of length, a useable volumetric standard (gasometer) is essential.
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Document ID: 78B25E7C

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Displacement gas meters fall into three basic categories: the wet revolving-drum meter, the sliding valve diaphragm meter, and the rotary meter. Each are called displacement meters because they measure gas by volumetric increments, that is, they alternately trap and release known volumes of gas. In general, these meters are insensitive to the flowing gas pressure, temperature, or density.
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Document ID: 6EBB902C

Transfer Testing
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years, gas utility companies have relied on the use of the Low Pressure Flow Prover and the Critical Flow Prover to determine the accuracy of their large-capacity positive displacement meters. Although flow provers are commonly referred to as Field Provers, they are often used in the meter repair shop in lieu of a Bell Prover of adequate size. A diaphragm type meter, having a capacity of 10,000 cu. ft. per hour, would require at least a 20-cu. ft. Bell Prover to obtain the necessary hourly rate of flow for proving and adjusting.
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Document ID: C4A69A61

Modification Of Automated Bell Provers
Author(s): Glenn Chamberlain
Abstract/Introduction:
In a modern meter testing and repair facility where a large volume of production must be accomplished, it is desirable to use efficient automated equipment while still maintaining strict quality controls. During 1970 at The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, approximately 300,000 meters were either intested or repaired. The most significant factors concerning the performance of meters returned from the field are the meter proof results of the data obtained at intesting. For this data to be valid, strict control of proving equipment and environmental conditions must be maintained. The concept of automatic proving has worked quite well from the very beginning. However, some modest changes to proving equipment to be discussed could provide some improvement to bell prover performance.
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Document ID: 65D4B2E4

Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): L. A. Pearson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas is a fluid )of such nature that when it is inserted into a closed container, such as a vessel or pipeline, the gas will distribute itself evenly throughout the container. It is not conveniently weighed, such as solids and liquids. Volume can be determined however, the quantity depends on pressure and temperature, so these also have to be measured. These three factors, known at the PVT variables, can be related mathematically by means of the gas laws to measure gas in pipelines or through displacement type meters, sometimes known as quantity meters. Pressure and temperature are also used in orifice-type meters, sometimes referred to as rate of flow meters.
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Document ID: 139A7E72

Whats A Malable In Large Volume Regulation
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
Based upon an invanced concept of flow regulation, a new, compact Axial Flow valve is announced by American Meter Company. It can be used as an on-off relief or throtteling control valve with either gases or liquids, in such fields as gas transmission and distribution, as well as industrial uses.
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Document ID: 009DF113

Automated Meter Reading Aair()
Author(s): Dennis J. Martell
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic meter reading with its promise of eliminating the meter reader has been a dream of utility management for more than half a century and has appeared to be imminent reality for the last decade. Until this time, there has not been a system capable of meeting all the requirements. This paper outlines Northern Illinois Gas Companys development of such a system. The system concept and many of the systems advantages are presented.
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Document ID: 63320A80

Pneumatic Controller Installation And Maintanence
Author(s): K. C. Yost
Abstract/Introduction:
The manufacturer of pneumatic controllers has made every effort to meet the needs of the industry by making available instruments with many different sizes, shapes, and control actions. Where the instrument is to be installed will dictate the size and shape the complexity of the process will dictate the control action. It is apparent from observation that some processes are more difficult to stabilize than others and that it is more difficult for the controller to prevent these processes fiom deviating from the desired set point. The degree of difficulty in maintaining precise control prompts the purchase and use of instruments with different control action capabilities the more difficult the control of the process, the more complex the controller.
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Document ID: 70654468

Products Available For Domestic And Commercial Pressure Control
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will cover the newly developed Model 70 regulator, the small Model 1213B with E. C. Orifice, and commercial E. C. pilot loaded Model 2002 regulator, and their effect on reducing meter set costs and unaccounted for gas. Various types of safety features available for service regulators will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 6A4258C5

Accelerated Meter Testing
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
To remain competitive in the gas industry today, gas meter manufacturers must continually search for new ways to improve their products. They must not only improve the performance of their products, but also find ways to reduce their manufacturing costs. These improvements might be a new mechanical device to be installed in a meter or simply making an existing part from a less expensive or more durable material. However, before any changes are made to a meter, enough tests must be conducted to insure that no adverse effects will appear as a result of this change.
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Document ID: 64ACB610

Products Available For Domestic And Commercial Pressure Control
Author(s): Joseph P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry, progressing in modernization and safety, is putting requirements on the manufacturers to meet the ever growing needs for new equipment. The manufacturers must stay abreast with the gas industry, working with them to assure a safe and steady growth of the overall industry. Universal Lancaster, Inc. has the equipment to meet the gas industrys needs for domestic and commercial pressure control. There is available from Universal Lancaster, Inc. a pressure regulator to be used for any domestic service.
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Document ID: 591A8A2B

Basic Corrective Devices
Author(s): Kenneth R. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Our subject deals with the measurement of large volumes of natural gas. Todays widespread use of natural gas as a fuel has resulted in an increasing number of the larger volume meters of various types to be placed in service. Also, this increasing demand has resulted in higher service pressures in order to efficiently bring our fuel, a form of energy, to the customers premises. In 1967, approximately 68% of the gas sold in the U. S. was to non-residential customers. A large percentage of this volume was sold at pressures other than 4 oz., our generally accepted base pressure. The industrial and commercial usage of natural gas in the past 30 years has increased at a faster rate than that of residential customers.
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Document ID: E2B00460

Proving Diapragm Type Positive Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Many provers room designs and procedures in use today were formulated many years ago when accepted meter performances were 1 or 3% error. Today, meter performances are approaching .2 or .3% , but unfortunately these requirements, in most cases, are trying to be accomplished by using the same original prover room design and procedures. When laboratory test results are required, a prover room is no longer just a prover room, it must be a gas measurement equipment testing laboratory with all designs, equipment, and procedures comparable to the expected end measurement results.
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Document ID: 27413309

Telemetering Of Dew Points And Other Data For Quality Control
Author(s): V. Leon White
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering in various stages has been with us for many years, some as far back as 1915. In its infancy, telemetering was on a hope it works basis and was not too reliable. Today we use telemetering to increase the flow of gas through a city gate station or to raise the level in a water tank for a city. This can be accomplished by the touch of a switch on a control panel. It is no longer necessary to send a man to an on-the-spot location to make the adjustment of equipment, because the flow can be controlled with 3 a city block or 60-70 miles away. This is not quite true in dew-point telemetering and control of quality gas. We would like very much to be able to push a switch and control the water content or any other impurities in a stream of gas. Since, however, we buy gas from a number of producers, we must depend on ihem and their equipment to perform the vital job of extracting water, oil salt, sand, and excessive amount of H2S from the gas stream. The producers must keep their equipment in the best working condition to do this job well.
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Document ID: 61CB7482

The Energy Problem - U.S.A.
Author(s): Ward C. Mccallister
Abstract/Introduction:
Talks and treatises on the subject of U. S. energy sources have reflected a remarkable growth rate during the last year. It has become quite fashionable when dealing with this to do one of three things: criticize national policy, criticize regulatory practice, or dwell at great length on our own imperfections. At this point of time it occurs to me that such practices may be somewhat irrelevant. You have been exposed to analyses and reviews of the national energy problem to a probable point of saturation. Government committees, industry committees, senators, congressmen, industry leaders. Time, Newsweek, U. S. News and World Report, countless newspapers, business and trade magazines, and even the Congressiontal Record have completely worked over and restated the subject, time and time again. Most of these undertakings have been identified as the work of experts. I cannot conclude, however, that all of them are necessarily experts on the subject they choose to explore or attack. So now, youre going to hear the subject discussed by a non-expert.
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Document ID: 785A9FB3

Mobile Home Metering
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
A mobile home is a portable unit designed and built to be towed on its own chassis, comprised of frame and wheels, connected to utilities, and designed without a permanent foundation for year-around living. A unit may contain parts that may be folded, collapsed, or telescoped when being towed and expanded later to provide additional cubic capacity, as well as two or more separately towable components designed to be joined into one integral unit capable of being again separated into componenis for repeated towing. Mobile units can be designed to be used for residential, commercial, educational, or industrial purposes excluding, however, travel trailers, motorized homes, pick-up coaches, and camping trailers.
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Document ID: 8BA92C59

Chart Intergrator: Maintenance And Calibration
Author(s): A. J. Sahr
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper maintenance and calibration of chart integrator equipment is a very important function often ignored because of the press of the routine chart processing work load. This can he a serious mistake, since the proper maintenance and calibration of the equipment can directly affect its accuracy and performance. The chart integrator is designed to convert orifice meter charts to values used to calculate gas volumes. It renders a fast, accurate calculation of the chart extension with a minimum effort of the operator.
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Document ID: 55E2546B

Designs To Achieve Accurate Measurement, Flexibility, Expansibility, Low Noise Level, Good Pressure Regulation, Standardization, And Compliance With Applicable Codes, Statutory Regulations, And General Ecology
Author(s): Rex W. Landry
Abstract/Introduction:
In sales measurement and pressure regulating statiom, the primary measurement element is of basic concern in design. For volumes of gas normally encountered, sharp edged orifice plate is the most commonly used. Of course for smaller flows, positive displacement, rotary type, and turbine type meters are often used. The AGA Committee Report #3 is the guide line used by most companies in gas measurement for design lengths, diameter tolerances, etc. Most companies with many and varied types of installations standardize their meter tube lengths, taking into account the maximum Beta Ratio to be expected, and the maximum potential flow disturbance upstream such as regulators, partially opened valves, and 90 degree bends. A typical conservative specification would be based on a .75 Beta Ratio and an AGA Figure 6 installation for meter tube design tolerances. The lengths computed on this basis are the minimum recommended lengths, and many companie prefer to add extra lengths where space and physical location will permit them to do so. The use of straightening vanes greatly reduces the required upstream approach length. Good versatile design for stations with increased load possibility may indicate that the use of a meter tube of such length so that the next larger size meter tube or tubes could be installed without a major revision of the station.
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Document ID: 336283D4

Regulator Inspection And Maintanence
Author(s): E. J. Rohanna
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of regulator inspection and maintenance has been presented and discussed many timt . in the past several years our primary concern was, and continues to be, safe and accurate pressure control. However, added emphasis is now being put on this subject due to the keen interest shown by the Department of Transportation. We nust now place greater emphasis on scheduling inspections and keeping records to satisfy the D.O.T. requirements.
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Document ID: 51198D7A

Testing Of Turbo Meters
Author(s): Walter. H. Browning
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will primarily deal with tests performed in the meter shop, but some discussion of manufacturers tests is in order. One manufacturer has been using the technique of pyramiding to test the performance of meters at high flow rates. Essentially the test consists of obtaining accuracy data for two or more meters on a bell prover at flow rates up to 15,000 cfh, Such meters are then operated in parallel to enable the testing of other meters at higher flow rates as this flow rate cannot be exceeded on such small bell prover, Results from the pyramiding method are verified by further tests against orifice meters as a standard.
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Document ID: DE170AFE

Large Capacity Regulation With Bpe Valve Regulators
Author(s): Henry J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
First, what is large volume regulation? This seems like a simple question however. we do not feel there is a simple answer. The amount of gas (MSCFH) is only a part of the answer. Flow, inlet pressure, and allowable pressure drip are all key factors in determining large volume regulation. The entire station piping must be considered when calculating the allow- able drop. Pipe, pipe fittings, block valves, and regulators all contribute to the pressure loss. In our opinion any flow of 500 mscfh and larger should be considered large volume if the allowable drop and inlet pressure are minimal
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Document ID: 2B82BBA1

Remote Meter Reading
Author(s): Raymond. G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote reading is hardly something new. My experience in the field, and probably that of some of the old timers amongst us, dates back to the Sangamo pneumatics of about 1953. Much to my chagrin, however, in the course of researching my original paper, a good friend in the industry nonchalantly handed me a copy of a U. S. Patent dated May 27, 1890, covering what most certainly appears to be a Remote Reading Index device.
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Document ID: 6E806E96

Telemetering Used To Its Best Application, Safety, And Economic Advantage
Author(s): C. A. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Everyday alert gas company executives are discussing plans to connect their system to a central point by remote control because they have learned in their business that The whole is greater than the sum of all its parts. Experience has shown that telemetering is the key to any effective centralization plan. As a result, considerable interest has been stimulated to improve and devise new telemetering equipment am techniques for use in this field.
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Document ID: FCD02C87

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): James R. Bowers
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans corner of Gas Magazine in April. 1967, it was stated If gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer.
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Document ID: 055CC954

The Benefits Of Controlled Velocity Regulation
Author(s): L. W. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A benefit is sometimes derived through the absence of something undesirable such as: The absence of regulator control instability. The absence of regulator erosion. The absence of regulator vibration. The absence of regulator noise. The absence of regulator icing and hydrates. These are serious problems which reflect Iheir gravity by the costs involved each year through attempts to exist with them. Regulator control instability can, at times, result from excessive velocity. This may be due to one or a combination of factors. Extremely high velocities will produce turning losses that result in the pressure side loading the stem and plug. This can alter the usually concentric plug-to-seat relationship or flow versus lift variations. If Ibis occurs in a fluctuating manner, then the trim may see vertical instability and/or control performance can suffer. Or even worse, the resultant vibration and wear may lead to destruction of the inner valve.
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Document ID: F78754AE

Basic Principles Of Instruments
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrumentation usually starts with measurement. Many types of measurements utilize the elastic properties of materials. For instance, a spring can be used to measure weight. If a weight is attached to the end of a spring supported from a fixed point, the point of attachment lowers. Any arbitrary scale may be used to make a measurement. It can be in inches, centimeters, feet, yards, grams, ounces, pounds, etc., as illustrated in Figure 1. The familiar length scales and their subdivisions are defined by weights and measures standards. For a scale to have meaning (he spring must be calibrated with weights of known mass. A scale factor is thus determined such as pounds per inch or grams per centimeter.
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Document ID: 52FC0338

Types Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): C. S. Mumper
Abstract/Introduction:
Two types of temeters can be discussed, classified by the form of the electrical transmission of the measured quantity. These are (1) the analog telemeter and (2) the digital telemeter. In the analog type telemeter, the electrical signal transmitted is directly proportional to the measurered quantity, whereas in the digital telemeter, the electrical transmission signal 5 related to the measured quantity only by definition according to the encoding technique being used. The analogue meter can be further subdivided into several categories by the nature of the electrical transmission, but we will discuss two categories of major interest. The first these two develops on output signal impulse of variable time duration, proportional to the measured variable. The second type develops an output signal in which the requency varies in proportion to the measured quantity.
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Document ID: 70803CF4

Density Measurement With An Orifice Meter
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
How can the direct measurement of gas density benefit the gas industry? This question is always foremost in the minds of measurement people when they are confronted with the suggestion of altering conventional measurement techniques to include density. Many persons think of the determination of gas density as an added measurement to be concerned with or as a brand new, unorthodox approach to flow measurement. Quite to the contrary, density is the primary property of a gas which relates the differential pressure across an orifice plate to the velocity of a gas flowing through the orifice.
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Document ID: 4CA90890

Orifice Meter Testing, Inspecting, And Maintenance Procedures
Author(s): Donald R. Hurd
Abstract/Introduction:
The principle of he orifice meter is many years old. Measurement by orifice meter has been developed to be the simplest and most accurate device for measurement of large volume of gas.
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Document ID: 20F2DB09

Instruments For Demand Metering
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry, like many other basic industries of the United States, continues its search for methods of increasing revenues and reducing costs. A primary responsibilily is to determine how to operate at more efficient levels by better utilization of equipment and techniques. The increasing demands for natural gas in todays energy market is presenting a real challenge to the gas industry to come lip with better operating techniques. One of these techniques is to optimize the load factor of the overall system in order to protluce more net income for each dollar of revenue.
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Document ID: D29581C3

Freeze-Up Prevention
Author(s): R. L. Milton
Abstract/Introduction:
In the operation: sector of the industry, our primary goals are to assure safe and uninterrupted service to our customers at reasonable cost. The greatest degree of safety to customers and the general public, and employees is provided by insuring the safety of the systems.
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Document ID: 1FA7AAD8

Office Of Pipeline Safety Pressure Control And Overpressure Protection Requirements
Author(s): Paul Cory
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is to provide operators of gas systems with a better understanding of the Federal Safety Standards pertaining to pressure control and to comment on interpretations of some sections of these regulations by the Office of Pipeline Safety. The following is a quote from the Office of Pipeline Safety Policy statement which was issued quite sometime ago.
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Document ID: 0D9C5794


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