Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1971)

A Philosophy Of Fire Protection For LNG Plants
Author(s): W. L. Walls,
Abstract/Introduction:
The overall fire protection needed for an LNG facility consists of a combination of in-built leakage control and fire resistance measures backed up by secondary leak and fire control measures. These measures are common to many petroleum and and chemical plants for which experience is extensive. It is necessary to recognize the effects of both small quantities of LNG discharging at high rates (a short-time situation) and of large quantities discharging at slow rates (a long-time situation). Secondary measures should be designed to contend with both unignited and ignited leaks (fires). The factors involved in actual extinguishment and control of vapors and heat by water application are discussed and it is concluded that water has the most extensive application as an LNG control agent notwithstanding the care needed in its use.
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Document ID: 8922D485

Large Capacity And Unusual Proving Facilities
Author(s): B. Thomas Arnbekg And Charles L. Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present the flow measurement capabilities of Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. and the methods by which the flow measurement standards have been developed. Air flow rates ranging from 10 to 10 Ibm/sec (8 X 10 to 8 X 10 SCFM.I can be measured at temperatures near ambient over a range of pressures from 12 to 1,000 psia. A wider range of test section states can be reached over a limited range of flow rates, i.e. 1 to 6.000 psia, -320 to 400F. Accuracies of 0.1% are obtainable from the primary calibration facilities and 0.25% from the secondary standard facilities.
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Document ID: D86E4FD6

Use Of Simulation For Utility Economics Decisions
Author(s): J. F. Pink J. F. Pink
Abstract/Introduction:
A simulation computer model is described for developing the economics of a new storage for a hypothetical gas utility--Coldsnap Natural. Such a simulation uses statistical weather data and dynamic programming for optimization. It is a useful tool for study of many utility decisions. One of the advantages of computer use during the last 10 years has been the facility it aifords for detailed simulation of the business environment. Management now can explore the consequences of alternative strategies and obtain an evaluation long before any commitments are made. This applies to gas utilities where each year a decision must be made concerning a contract demand level or the need for additional peak shaving or rate adjustment. A simulation that evaluates the potential storage field economics for Coldsnap Natural Gas is demonstrated herein. Simulation has many advantages over the conventional technique of case studies in that it can take account of many factors that the latter method must either ignore or assume fixed. The results from simulation are more complete and it will account tor many more variables accurately. In the case study, these oftentimes are lumped and may be unrealistic under other-than-normal supply conditions. A simulation is dynamic since with a computer program it is easy to repeat many solutions of a particular year, weather condition or a load pattern. In addition one can parametrize a variable so that an optimum of some sort is achieved, where the income reaches a maximum. Finally a simulation is essential if one must consider the statistical variability of weather conditions as well as the changes in each type customer use per time period in the year.
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Document ID: A305E432

A New Wrinkle In The Storage Of LNG
Author(s): Walt Dennis,
Abstract/Introduction:
Like Foucauhs pendulum, mans interests, attitudes and needs oscillate in subhmation within the more primordial cycle. With the stimulus of ecology and pollution control imposed on an already exploded demand for clean energy and with the convergent impetus of a precipilous shortage of fuel, LNG facilities have spawned seemingly like rabbits.. With this proliferation, innovation in both design concept and structural intricacy is expectable. Originality in fundamental concept is not signified by the design presented here, unless the receptacle with a bag liner can be considered a new concept. Texas Eastern has applied this fundamental concept by installing a flexible liner in its 600,000 bbl unit at Staten Island. But engineering philosophy demands a sustained and constant probing for the syllogistic arrangement of design optimum. The essence of engineering seeks to afford the function of maximum complexity with the device of maximum simplicity the engine without moving parts, the black box, all at least real cost. In this present arrangement, a few new wrinkles effectuate cryogenic containment directed, hopefully, to that principle, while a few specific wrinkles provide a defined and predictable pattern of liner flexibility with coincident simplification in construction technique and procedure.
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Document ID: 682573C2

An Overview Of Utility-Highway Matter Under The Federal-Aid Highway Program
Author(s): J. E. Kirk,
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS presentation is essentially an overview of past events, current activities and possible future developments associated with the relocation of utilities that fall in the path of highway construction projects and the accommodation of utilities within highway rights-of-way under the Federal-aid highway program. Its purpose is threefold: first, to review briefly the major steps taken by highway officials on these matters during the 1960s second, to call attention to several related activities now underway of special interest to highway and utility officials alike, and third, to take a look ahead at possible new developments on those matters under the Federal-aid highway program of the 1970s.
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Document ID: E9B11ECE

Use Of Microfilm To Reproduce Service Records From Magnetic Tape
Author(s): T. R. Monaghan,
Abstract/Introduction:
ELECTRONIC data processing has enabled the gas distribution design engineer to address himself to more sophisticated design problems. The products of his imagination no longer are restricted to only those problems which can be committed to manual iteration. We all have experienced the benefits of systems design by using the computer to perform complex network analysis to solve gas flow problems. We will continue to lake advantage of the computer to perfect ovir abilities in these areas. However, developments made by the computer industry in the areas of data conversion, output display and copy reproduction have opened up fields of application which include not only the distribution engineer but also construction and maintenance personnel. These advantages have made the computer more flexible and adaptable to the needs of the latter. The discussion will cover one such application, that of using microfilm to reproduce the mechanized service records at Brooklyn Union Gas.
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Document ID: DA8F286F

A Computerized Maintenance Control System
Author(s): Merle N. Mielke, Jr.,
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS paper describes the maintenance control system in use throughout the operating division at Northern Natural Gas Company. The system is comprised of an integrated mix of manual and computer based sub-systems designed to work in concert to provide effective control capability. The mix includes maintenance job tickets, weekly work schedules, computer generated preventive maintenance schedules, maintenance history storage, and retrieval sub-systems. The operating division of Northern Natural Gas Company is responsible for gathering, processing and pumping natural gas from the gas sources in West Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico to the primary market areas in Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Michigan. The accomplishment of this task requires the coordinated utilization and maintenance of over 18,265 miles of various sized pipelines, along with 589 engines developing over 900,000 horsepower. These facilities involve over 100 locations spread across 10 states. Besides the above primary facilities, there is a substantial amount of supportive equipment and facilities necessary to a successful operation. This magnitude of equipment and facilities results in an operation that is particularly maintenance sensitive-one that especially lends itself to a computerized maintenance control system.
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Document ID: 063913D7

Bare Steel Mains, Life And Economics
Author(s): I. T. Wellener,
Abstract/Introduction:
THERE has been heightened concern for gas pipeline and distribution system safety in the past few years which in turn has spawned interest in the prudent maintenance and timely replacement of gas system components. This interest has been directed primarily toward developing the economic consequences of deciding whether to repair or replace system components. Several excellent articles have been written recently on procedures for comparing maimenance (repair) costs on the one hand against capital (replacement) expenditures on the other in order to arrive at a proper decision. The approach that generally is used in the comparisons is a fairly well accepted revenue requirement method. The nomenclature differs slightly depending on the author--some use a uniform annual equivalent, rather lhan the sum of the present worth of total annual charges. But basically the approach is the same.
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Document ID: 1DCB6938

LNG Plant Codes And Regulations In The United States
Author(s): I. L. Wissmiller,
Abstract/Introduction:
NATURAL gas is being used in more homes and in greater quantities every day. This is especially true for space heating. Likewise commercial and industrial installations are finding it advantageous to use more natural gas. Part of this increase in demand results from the fact that a minimum amount of air pollution is caused by the burning of this type of fuel as compared with other types of fossil fuels. The greatest consumption of natural gas is in the most populated areas of the United States. Natural gas is produced in regions quite remote from most large population centers. Huge systems of natural gas pipe lines are used to transport the fuel from the gas fields to the utility gas companies. The capacity of the line is limited by the volume of firm gas it can deliver during periods of peak demand. This results in the phenomenal growth of LNG plants for peak shaving at locations near the population centers. Satellite storage plants for LNG are increasing rapidly in number. These are attractive because a single liquefaction plant can serve more than one storage plant. Also the satellite storage plant can be located far from the pipeline supply and is able to handle base load gas for isolated communities.
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Document ID: A82153C3

Satellite Service Operations
Author(s): Ralph E. Barkey,
Abstract/Introduction:
This report contains a brief history of satellite operations at Laclede Gas Company-how a satellite is operated and how we live with and overcome the problems associated with this type of operation. Also a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of a satellite is included.
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Document ID: 45701C9A

New Developments In LNG Satellite Plants
Author(s): John T. Mckenna, Jr.,
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG satellite plants, are taking on all kinds of shapes and sizes and assuming new directions. Todays LNG-minded gas industry keeps finding new and more complex areas to utilize this space age concept so that now it is becoming available to almost any gas utility. The first satellites were small facilities, employing cryogenic dewars and ambient air vaporizers to supply natural gas to outlying communities which were beyond the reach of existing gas mains. Shortly thereafter gas companies in the Northeast discovered the LNG satellite as a solution for their peak shaving problem. These latter installations were built around larger storage vessels and higher capacity sendout equipment. At the same time. Northern States Power was progressing through the initial stages of start-up at their large satellite plant in La Crosse, Wisconsin, the heart of this plant being a 37,000 barrel storage tank. All the while the LNG trucking industry was taking shape. Many small utilities realized that LNG was available to them without costly investments in liquefaction equipment and they quickly turned to the LNG satellite as a remedy to meet their peak demands. In turn the larger utilities with excess liquefaction production or inventory found it economical to market this excess product through the use of LNG satellite plants. Large storage plants, like Distrigas, are importing large quantities of LNG from overseas, making the product more accessible to the gas industry.
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Document ID: ABFDD614

Appliance Repair Part Standardization
Author(s): R. H. Reinauer,
Abstract/Introduction:
ALL gas utilities who provide parts replacement service for their customers are faced with the common problem of obtaining the proper parts to replace defective ones found on appliances. Due to the wide variety of appliances and controls manufactured over the year and the ever continuing addition of new product lines, the problem compounds itself as each year passes. A repair part standardization program can go a long way toward improving this situation. I will outline briefly some of the fundamentals of repair part standardization and provide some detail of various phases, by citing some of the experiences of Public Service Electric and Gas Company. I would like to mention here that our company provides repair part replacement service on all gas appliances on a break-even charge basis. The charges are based on site labor charges of slightly over 9,00 per hour plus actual material cost and 2.50 overhead charge. During 1970, a total of 76,000 parts were installed at a gross expenditure of over /i million. This gross dollar volume has been increasing at a substantial rate, with a 300% increase over the last 10 years.
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Document ID: A4A6E31A

What New Federal Regulations Mean To The Gas Industry
Author(s): John D. Lawlor,
Abstract/Introduction:
THE subject, discussing recent Federal safety legislation and regulations, is a broad one, I shall devote myself principally to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, which went into effect April 28, 1971. However, let me first point out some differences between this law and others which also are of interest to the gas industry: 1. The Occupational Safety and Health Act deals principally with industrys own employees. It is an employee safety or a production-oriented act. The Pipeline Safety Act. on the other hand, looks principally to the protection of the general public (although in so doing it also has impact on employee safety). 2. The Construction Safety Act is also an employee safety law, applicable only to employees of companies working on Federal contracts. However, the Department of Labor has announced that the standards which it promulgated under the Construction Safety Act also will be made applicable to the employees of private contractors under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 3. The various highway safety acts. covering motor vehicles and state and community highway safety, deal with the public at large. In so doing, they include not only the on-the-job activities of gas company employees whose duties require them to be on the road, either as drivers or as workers, but also the off-lhe-job activities of those who may be involved in traffic accidents. Both the traffic and highway safety laws have important management impacts. When a gas company employee is injured or killed as a result of a traffic accident-whether on or off the job-the absence of trained and experienced staff means dollars and time lost. This is one of the reasons that caused us to develop a program to improve driving skills. Our DDC program has almost three million graduates all over the country-and some phenomenal reductions in motor vehicle accidents both on and off the job have been directly attributed to the Councils defensive driving course.
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Document ID: 216E922A

Novel Gas Sampling Techniques
Author(s): L. A. Pogorski, E. m. Reimer And P. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
A novel, lightweight, leak-free, stainless steel gas sampler--the Bistable fluid container, requiring no special equipment to fill or empty and applicable for contamination- and deterioration-free collection and storage of gas samples from sources located outside of the laboratory limits have been described. Various types of pertinent accessories and container applications in the field of environmental and emission surveys have been reviewed. The use of the container in conjunction with a novel, lightweight, nonclogging, capillary soil probe for collection of soil gas samples for the purpose of locating gas leaks from underground pipes and geochemical exploration for oil and natural gases has been discussed.
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Document ID: 94C7DB70

Location Class Determination And Pipeline Surveillance
Author(s): John E. Thompson,
Abstract/Introduction:
Location class determination became important in November 1970 when the Regulations for Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline became effective, under jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation. The four categories of pipeline class locations are a measure of the number or density of buildings or areas for human occupancy, lying within 660 feet of a pipeline. Each class is assigned a safety design factor, which establishes the maximum allowable operating pressure in its area and is determined by a study of aerial photos plus field examination. A proposed time schedule of two years is allowed for pipeline operators to comply with the regulations and a program for continuing surveillance is required to maintain compliance as conditions change.
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Document ID: 720431B7

Incineration-An Optimum Approach To Liquid Waste Disposal
Author(s): Peter E. SUSEY,DR. Klaus H. Hemsath,
Abstract/Introduction:
Research and development programs have been carried out with respect to the efficient disposal of combustible liquid wastes of varying concentrations and physical/chemical properties. A liquids incinerator has been developed and is being marketed for disposal of pumpable liquid wastes with simultaneous feeding of oily and watery wastes. For highly viscous liquids, sludges or slurries, pyrolysis has been found to be ideally suited. The products of pyrolysis are rich, combustible fumes that are incinerated easily and efficiently. No products of incomplete combustion are discharged to the atmosphere in either case, The economics of liquid, organic waste disposal are shown to be quite favorable compared to existing commercial disposal services.
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Document ID: 559FF657

A Mixed Refrigerant LNG Plant For Long Island
Author(s): E. D. CROUCH,WALTER Linde
Abstract/Introduction:
THOSE of us who have attended Distribution Conference sessions on LNG duiing the past several years have heard descriptions of a variety of new plants coming onstreani-expander, cascade or mixed refrigerant cycles, metal or prestressed concrete storage tanks, direct or indirect fired vaporizers. There is a limit to the variations possible--a limit to the possible combinations and features which make these plants newsworthy. By these conventional measurements, the LNG plant being erected on Long Island can be described briefly as having a mixed refrigerant cycle, liquefaction capacity of 3 million cubic feet per day, a 600 million cubic foot double-wall aboveground metal storage tank, and three 50 million cubic feet per day water bath vaporizers. In an effort to make this presentation more interesting, the approach will be used of describing the boundary conditions imposed on this plant and how plant design was modified in obtaining a solution consistent with these conditions. The Long Island Lighting Company provides gas service to Nassau and Suffolk Counties and to the Fifth Ward of Queens Counly (a part of New York City), all located on Long Island, New York. Natural gas is received at several locations in ihe western part of the franchise territory. A 350 psig design gas transmission system has been developed over the past 20 years as required to provide adequate gas supply to the gradually developing gas load in the central and eastern portions of the territory. The transmission system supplies distribution systems operating at either 124 psig or 60 psig which in turn supply the customers. Some isolated areas are supplied by low-pressure (7-inch W.C.) distribution systems.
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Document ID: 32AC52FA

Impact On Operating And Maintenance Practices And The Written Operating And Maintenance Plan
Author(s): R. B. Catell,
Abstract/Introduction:
AFTER two years of apprehension and reams of comments and discussions, the minimum Federal safety standards were published on August 12, 1970. These new standards went into effect on November 12 and replaced the interim standards, which were based on the existing B31.8 Code. In general the new regulations represented no radical departures from existing practices, although they differed in many instances from some existing state laws. Under the terms of the new regulation, the states will continue to enforce the regulations, the Federal version, that is, unless the state requirements are more strict and take precedence. First of all, we would like to compliment OPS on their method of formulating the new regulations. They appeared to review and consider the comments and suggestions which were submitted by all concerned, i.e., state regulatory agencies, the general public and the industry, and many of the recommendations were incorporated in the final regulations. There is some sentiment which felt that OPS should have adopted the B3 1.8 Code, which had been in effect, and made changes only as performance indicated a need in certain areas. The industry track record has been good under the B31.8 Code and, while we realize that an area of primary concern is with small municipally-owned companies, those companies which have followed the B31.8 Code should not be penalized.
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Document ID: BA8742AE

Protecting River Crossings From External Damage
Author(s): David W. Denham, Richard F. Lewinsky,
Abstract/Introduction:
WHILE the subject is protecting river crossings from external damage and we shall discuss our companys solution to a particular problem, an exhibition of the tribulations on our way to that solution may aid some in avoiding the errors and pitfalls which marked our path. In the spring of 1965, the gas department of Northern States Power Company confidently prepared for high water on the Mississippi River where it passes through St. Paul, Minnesota. Two of the three river crossings serving the St. Paul division successfully withstood the flood of 1952 when the water level through downtown St. Paul reached 19 feel above normal and the maximum discharge reached 125,000 cfs or 16 times normal. The third crossing was installed in 1957, at greater depth than the others. The 1965 flood (Fig. 1) was expected to be four to five feet over the previous record, but the addition of new flood walls and the assurance of the Corps of Engineers that they were sufficient left us with only the relatively minor problem of high ground water and some backwater to contend with. Thats what we thought. On April 20 old man Neptune blew the whistle and we learned the power of the river. The water was 25 feet deep over the portion of our island crossing which crossed the flood plain, with a discharge of 171,000 cfs. But there was an eightfoot well-consolidated cover overgrown 720r - with brush and small trees which had been in place since 1942. On April 20, 1965, the first of the pair of mains broke, causing some consternation. Subsequent examination by means of a diver, probing and fathometer revealed that a hole 12 feet deep and even more had been gouged in supposedly solid ground.
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Document ID: FABAA215

Prestressed Concrete Dike Systems For LNG Storage Containers
Author(s): J. J. Closner,
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety of an LNG storage facility becomes the most important and timeconsuming part of planning once a decision has been made to use LNG. Prestressed concrete protective systems for primary storage containers of either metal or prestressed concrete offer an engineered way to minimize the consequence of a potential accident. Several specific projects employing such means are described.
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Document ID: D9799E63

Mobile Home Metering
Author(s): D. L. Maret
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1970, one of every three housing starts in the nation was a manufactured home. Total dollar value was over 2.5 billion. Since income figures indicate that only one out of eight families in the nation today can afford a home of 20,000 and over, and since the average cost of a site-built home is now over 20,000, it is anticipated thai manufactured housing will continue to increase its share of the housing market. The Nixon Administration has gone on record as advocating mobile manufactured housing as the one answer to Americas housing problem if we are to reach the needed goal of 2.6 million new dwellings a year to meet current and future housing demands. Today mobile homes can qualify for FHA loans and the Veterans Administration will guarantee loans for mobile homes. This will increase the sale of mobile homes and create a demand for some type of utility service.
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Document ID: 91F710EC

New Turbine Meter Introduction To The United States
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan,
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS paper answers the following questions: 1. Why seek a more efficient meter? 2. What is a turbine meter (pinwheel analogy)? 3. Whats so unique about this turbine (Merbine) meter? The natural gas industry, like many other basic industries of the United States, continues to search for those ways to increase revenues and have a more efficient operation by utilization of equipment and techniques. One of the most important areas of study today is in gas measurement-better measurement in order to capitalize on natural gas as a premium fuel in todays energy market. Why seek a more efficient meter? The answer lies in the present situation in which the natural gas industry finds itself. The demands by large industrial and commercial users continue to rise because of the need to meet the demands of cleaner air in our metropolitan environments. At the same time, the proven reserves of natural gas are decreasing, which means that we must do a better job of accounting for the natural gas that is produced, transported and distributed throughout the United States.
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Document ID: D73604B7

What New Federal Regulations Mean To The Gas Industry
Author(s): John D. Lawlor,
Abstract/Introduction:
THE subject, discussing recent Federal safety legislation and regulations, is a broad one. 1 shall devote myself principally to (he Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, which went into effect April 28, 1971. However, let me first point out some differences between this law and others which also are of interest to the gas industry 1. The Occupational Safety and Health Act deals principally with industrys own employees. It is an employee safety or a production-oriented act. The Pipeline Safety Act, on the other hand, looks principally to the protection of the general public (although in so doing it also has impact on employee safely). 2. The Construction Safety Act is also an employee safety law, applicable only to employees of companies working on Federal contracts. However, the Department of Labor has announced that the standards which it promulgated under the Construction Safety Act also will be made applicable to the employees of private contractors under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. 3. The various highway safety acts, covering motor vehicles and state and community highway safety, deal with the public at large. In so doing, they include not only the on-lhe-job activities of gas company employees whose duties require them to be on the road, either as drivers or as workers, but also the off-the-job activities of those who may be involved in traffic accidents. Both the traffic and highway safety laws have important management impacts. When a gas company employee is injured or killed as a result of a traffic accident--whether on or off the job -the absence of trained and experienced staff means dollars and time lost. This is one of the reasons that caused us to develop a program to improve driving skills. Our DDC program has almost three million graduates all over the country-and some phenomenal reductions in motor vehicle accidents both on and off the job have been directly attributed to the Councils defensive driving course.
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Document ID: A3E368CA

Update Report On Electric Vehicles
Author(s): H. J. Young,
Abstract/Introduction:
IN its simplest terms, transportation is the process of moving people and goods from one place to another. We in the electric utility business believe that transportation provides an unparalleled opportunity for careful development of electric load which can bring positive advantages to the power supply system of the nation, the transportation system of the nation, the environment in which we live, and the long-range conservation of our energy resources. The trouble is that, whenever we start to talk about transportation, people translate the idea into the car. This is only natural. The basis of the transportation system in this country, of course, is the long-range multipurpose vehicle, powered by an internal combustion engine, which we all know as the family car. It is a wonderful device and it has played an important part in the development of our nation. The great industry which has been built up around it is one of the major elements in our economy. But there is broad agreement today that, as a society, we need to decrease onr dependence on the long-range high-speed multipurpose vehicle and find other ways of moving people from place to place, In some places we have done just that. We have developed transportation systems with limited ranges designed to carry out specific missions.
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Document ID: ECCCDAF7

A Search For Environmental Factors Affecting Meter Testing Accuracy
Author(s): Ralph C. Stanford,
Abstract/Introduction:
AS so often happens, the study which was a search for factors that affect diaphragm meter proof testing accuracy was a natural outgrowth of a study of much less scope. The original study was to test statistically the effectiveness of an automatic temperature correction device on bell-type meter provers. This correction was to be accomplished by an electronic device connected to the digital readout of the prover which senses, through thermistor probes, the temperature of the air in the bell and at the outlet of the meter being tested. The difference in temperature at the (wo locations is converted to an electrical signal by the device and fed into digital readout to reflect automatically the temperature correction. The question that needed to be answered was whether it in fact would correct for minor temperature variations which were evident in the meter testing areas within the meter shop.
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Document ID: 43306FE5

Automation, System Control And Computers- Emphasis: On-Line
Author(s): A. E. Uhl,
Abstract/Introduction:
A survey of several gas transmission companies was completed recently, which was intended to assess the current status of computerization in operations and system control, the general disposition of the industry regarding computer control facilities and particularly the potential for closed-loop control. The results of this survey are reviewed, with emphasis on the applications of on-line computers- existing, proposed and potential.
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Document ID: 35D64EED

Automated Bills Of Material
Author(s): R. S. WuLSH,
Abstract/Introduction:
WHEN computers first were introduced into the gas utility industry, engineers used them primarily for engineering calculations, This was the logical place to begin because for engineers the greatest savings were in this area. Even today at Consumers Power Company, engineers spend approximately 80% of their computer dollars on engineering calculations. However, we have realized that there are equally important payoffs in other computer applications. For example, computers have been used quite well to compile cost information on engineering projects or to keep track of material ordered for the job. A logical extension along these lines is to use the computer to help order material. This paper describes the development and implementation of a computer program that alleviates the manual processes necessary to order material. The program is limited to use in our general office design activity. Similar systems are under development for use in division offices.
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Document ID: 7BA8589A

Multiple Use Of Rights-Of-Way For Pipelines
Author(s): Charles G. Siegfried,
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines and electric transmission systems are required increasingly to use joint rights-of-way by the rapid increase of urban and suburban development, This joint tenancy, although attractive physically, can breed electrically induced interference problems to the pipeline which may be hazardous to the pipeline structure and operating personnel. Prediction of such interference is discussed and also certain remedial measures to mitigate the interference hazard.
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Document ID: 1D52C7B5

Energy Supply In The 1970s
Author(s): Elmer F. Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
THE Office of Emergency Preparedness, among its many assignments, is responsible for contingency planning and coordination of Federal agency efforts to cope with natural disasters. In recent years our agency has been instrumental in a program called Operation Foresight in which reliable forecasts are made in advance of probable flood damage areas each year. With these forecasts in hand, advance preparations then are made to meet these emergencies as they develop. The evidence before us today clearly indicates that we need better-coordinated and better-planned efforts fo analyze and evaluate our rapidly changing energy picture. While we certainly should not characterize our present posture as one of crisis or disaster, it seems apparent that in this area, too. we can well afford an Operation Foresight. All about us we see change developing and then occurring, and the fuel and energy industries are caught up in the tide of these times. A Roman philosopher once said, Time is a sort of river of passing events, and strong is its current no sooner is a thing brought to sight than it is swept by and another takes its place, and this too will be swept away. While I suppose we all agree that the river of passing events is causing some shock waves in the fuel industries, even greater shifts have occurred in the past, and a brief historical view might be useful.
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Document ID: 78A1DCCA

Environmental Compatibility Of Pipelines
Author(s): Karl E. Baetzner
Abstract/Introduction:
SPECIAL consideration must be given to the phases of pipeline construction that may affect our total environment. These special considerations have been spelled out in a series of guidelines by the Federal Power Commission under Docket R-360. The American Right of Way Association, of course, has not adopted any policies for specific route selection for utility rights-of-way, in as much as conditions vary so greatly from job to job. Some personal observations may be in order concerning these Federal Power Commission guidelines. In my opinion, I believe that rights-of-way through forest and timber areas can be given the appearance of not appearing as tunnels cut through the timber if, after the installation of the pipeline, trees could be planted, staggered on either side of the pipeline so as to give the appearance, when viewed from the entrance into the timber areas, of a much narrower right of way. I agree that minimum rights-of-way widths should be purchased but, if this is followed, then I think the entire rights-of-way must be cleared of trees and vegetation. It is almost impossible to protect and leave standing trees that may be growing in a location as described above. The use of heavy equipment in rough terrain where pipelines frequently are installed, makes it almost impossible to save from damage any trees that may not be cut down. The planting of fast groving trees after the installation is made may prove to be a more satisfactory solution.
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Document ID: F8B5F4D7

Whats The Future For Automotive Emission Control?
Author(s): Fred W. B0WDITCH
Abstract/Introduction:
AUTOMOTIVE emission control represents a major engineering challenge to General Motors. This highly complex subject also presents GM with a serious credibility problem aggravated by misinformation and political motives. The purpose of this discussion is an attempt to set the record straight and, in so doing, to indicate what appears to be in the future for control of automotive emissions. Behind much of our credibility problem are two basic misconceptions shared by much of the general public. These misconceptions are: lirst, that most of the nations air pollution problem is due to the automobile and second, that the automotive industry, and particularly General Motors, is doing nothing to minimize the emissions from automobiles. Both of these are grossly in error, I would like therefore to concentrate in these two areas. First, what about the popular misconception that most of the nations air pollution problem is due to the automobile? This bar chart (Fig. 1) shows part of the basis for this belief. Shown here is the automobile portion of each of the major air pollutants originally identified by HEW. The chart includes hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter Or dust. About half of all hydrocarbons come from automobiles and the other half from other sources. The automobile is responsible for a little over 60% of the total carbon monoxide in the U.S. atmosphere. About two-fifths of the oxides of nitrogen emissions come from automotive sources. Note, however, the relatively low contribution of automobiles to both the sulfur oxides and particulate matter levels.
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Document ID: 29A1A9D5

Distribution Metering Automatic Meter Reading And Billing
Author(s): Dr. D. D. FOLEY,and E. C. Smith,
Abstract/Introduction:
The modular approach to automatic meter reading and billing which the Neptune Meter Company is developing is summarized. The use of a decimal encoder index or register with the tape recorder for automatic meter reading/billing is presented. Cost savings effected by this system for one water utility with four years of experience are included. The technical basis of Neptunes central automatic reading/billing is outlined. Details of the field trials in Holmdel, New Jersey, and the extensive product trials in Chicago and vicinity are presented.
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Document ID: F50BB75F

Distribution Construction And Maintenance Automated Control Of Low-Pressure Systems
Author(s): W. E. Boldyreff And H. L. Thornton,
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company, a combination utility, serves both gas and electric customers in out state Michigan. One of the means used to serve gas customers is low-pressure distribution. Low-pressure distribution systems normally operate in a pressure range of 7-inch to 18-inch WC with a maximum design pressure of 21-inch WC. The pressure control equipment is preset to maintain minimum systems pressures required to meet seasonal demands. Customers meters on the low-pressure systems are calibrated to a 6-inch WC base. To assure the 6-inch WC delivery pressure to all customers during peak conditions, regulator stations feeding the system were set at 18-inch WC for winter operations. During off peak periods which prevail, system pressures rise substantially above the 6- inch WC base. An inaccuracy occurs in metering during these off peak periods because of the elevated system pressures. In an effort to improve metering accuracy, automated pressure control equipment was installed on seven of the major low-pressure systems. These seven systems serve approximately 120,000 customers. The control equipment consists of sensing low-pressure poiniis in a system, transmitting this information to a division service center and transmitting control signals to regulator stations feeding that distribution system. The engineering and control concepts necessary to accomplish automated pressure control of the systems were developed by Commonwealth Associates, Inc., an engineering consultant in Jackson, Michigan. This presentation will describe the reason for the control system, the economic justification, the means utilized to determine the economy, the determination of low points and associated regulator stations in a system, the objectives of the system, engineering of the system, and the hardware used in the system.
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Document ID: 5751A25D

The Emergency Plan
Author(s): D. K. Traverse,
Abstract/Introduction:
PREPARATION of an emergency plan is a nuisance, ft takes time which we need for day-to-day operations or a round of golf and forces us to think about unpleasant occurrences. But having listened to and read a number of reports on emergencies, I note that it Joes pay off when emergencies occur. The universal theme seems to be thank God we planned as much as we did wish we had done more. Section 192.615 of the minimum Federal safety standards requires each operator to have a wiiiten emergency plan. The B3I.g Code also required an emergency plan but it did not specify a written plan. I would like lo suggest an approach for preparing or reviewing emergency operating plan.
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Document ID: 31F5906E

The National Gas Survey
Author(s): Thomas H. Jenkins,
Abstract/Introduction:
IN view of the critical shortage of natural gas and other energy forms with which the nation is faced today, the Federal Power Commission initiated, under its Order of February 23, 1971, the National Gas Survey. The Commission has been well aware of the need for such a survey in order for it to obtain an overview knowledge of the natural gas industry in all of its ramifications. This knowledge is imperative to the FPC for the proper exercise of its comprehensive regulatory responsibility. The survey also will be of great value in the determination of a long-range Federal policy concerning the energy demands to assure, with the cooperation of industry, the most efficient utilization of our gas reserves in the national interest. The need for a plan or guideline to attain these goals and to assist the FPC in these very important responsibilities is indeed critical.
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Document ID: 54CB6E3A

Geochemistry And Origin Of Natural Gas
Author(s): James G. Palacas
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is composed of lowmolecuiar- weight paraffin hydrocarbons, chiefly methane, and variable but generally small amounts, of Ns, CO, H.S, and He. Gas pools are distributed widely in subsurface rocks throughout the world, mainly in sandstone and carbonate reservoir rocks that range in age from Pleistocene to Cambrian. No one theory explains the origin of ail natural gas deposits. The most widely recognized source of hydrocarbon gases is decomposing organic matter in sediment derived from plants and animals the gases are produced by bacterial decay, thermal disintegration of solid carbonaceous substances at depth and natural cracking of disseminated or pooled crude oil. Substantial evidence such as isotope analyses supports an inorganic source for some large nonassociated natural gas deposits consisting mainly of methane and carbon dioxide. But many gas deposits probably represent multiple sources, variable chemical processes and complex migration and concentration mechanisms. Whereas most of the natural gas deposits have been and will continue to be located by traditional geologic exploration, development of new concepts on other sources of gas, such as gas-hydrates in the permafrost regions of the world and gases generated by high-temperature igneous activity in areas heretofore considered unfavorable, might yield additional large gas resources.
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Document ID: D583100D

Gas Measurement In Europe
Author(s): Andre Galateau
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to give some general informations about new developments in gas metering in Westen Europe at the beginning of 1971.
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Document ID: 32019A6F

Materials Management Corporate Materials Management Concepts
Author(s): Jack Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes concepts presented at the conference on the development of the materials management function in utilities.
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Document ID: AF0BEBBA

A Venezuelan Looks At LNG Exports
Author(s): Dr. Ruben Alfredo Caro,
Abstract/Introduction:
WITH the increase in natural gas demand and the shortage of gas supply, particularly in the energy-consuming countries of the world, attention has been focused on moving this source of energy from supply sources to potential market areas as liquefied natural gas. Presently LNG movements are underway between Algeria to the U.K. and France, Libya to Spain, and Alaska to Japan, Projects under construction or in the planning stages call for further LNG trade between Algeria and France. Brunei and Japan, and Algeria and the U,S.A.
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Document ID: 21791AD7

Discussion Of Paper 71-D-30A
Author(s): Martin C. Doherty
Abstract/Introduction:
THE novel concept of the gas turbine precooler with interstage LNG injection was convicing because it was supported by an extensive development program. In the past decade the industrial gas turbine with exhaust heat recovery has found many apphcations in both industrial and utility plants. LNG base load vaporization appears to be another ideal application for utilizing gas turbine exhaust heat. There is a compound benefit derived from the precooler in this system. On hot days, lower density ambient air reduces the weight flow through the gas turbine, lowering the power generation and the exhaust gas flow. The precooler, with an adequate flow control system, permits a constant weight flow of airthrough the turbine and even increases the LNG throughput because of LNG heat pickup in the precooler.
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Document ID: 08F36667

Dispatch Operations
Author(s): Robert R. Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
THE Wisconsin Gas Company has made many changes in its method of dispatching service work in the past 20 years. Some of the changes were made to compensate for the rapid growth of the company after the introduction of natural gas in 1949. Other changes were made because of system renewals, appliance improvement, changes in commission requirements, introduction of computer read orders, and a myriad of other small innovations. All of these sum up the service dispatch area into what it is today. Despite the expertise we feel we have today, we again are working toward even more changes in the future. The Wisconsin Gas Company service dispatch area is currently responsible for 300,000 meters in its franchised area. The service area consists of approximately 600 square miles. This area is serviced by 192 servicemen, who work out of 170 vehicles. One hundred-twenty of these vehicles are radio-equipped. We also have four radio car quick-call units. In the past month we also have introduced 10 personal papers. This unit is about YA the thickness of a cigarette package and about 5 inches long. When the pager is activated by the dispatcher, the unit sounds a signal and for 10 seconds relays a message to the selected serviceman. The serviceman receives the message and the unit goes into a hold position until the dispatcher needs Mm again.
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Document ID: 1005874F

What We Would Like To Know
Author(s): John R. Belanus And Robert B. Codling
Abstract/Introduction:
UP until this time the Washington Gas Light Company has been trying to operate a transportation department with a little skill, a lot of clerical man-hours, a few accounting-oriented EDP reports, and quite a bit of luck. The time has come, however, to rejoice, because the company is in the piocess of expanding EDP into the transportation department, along with most other departments of the company, oriented to the individual department, not just to accounting. To do this, the WGLCo. has appointed a seven-man task force, which includes five accounting-oriented, from both the accounting department and payroll department the head of the task force from the data processing department, and an outside consultant. In addition as each department becomes involves, the department utilizes someone familiar with the operating practices, to act as liaison. From my standpoint the liaison serves a threefold purpose. First, he explains to the task force the actual procedures of the department, with special emphasis on areas which he feels need improvement over the manual systems. Second, he absorbs the wrath of the five accountants as they discover that many of the well-planned procedures set up by the accounting department had to be changed in the field to make them work. Third, he tells the team what the department would like to know from an eleclronic data processing system.
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Document ID: 225B9DE1

Ocean Shipments Of LNG
Author(s): Barry Hunsaker
Abstract/Introduction:
OUR nations energy crunch, which daily seems headed towards a crisis of considerable proportion, has resulted in solution- seeking on several fronts. Among these is the large-scale importation for base load needs of liquefied natural gas, a concept which has been hailed by the Federal Power Commission as being as portentous for the natural gas industry as was the development of long-distance, high-pressure pipeline technology. My company. El Paso Natural Gas Company, was the first to announce it was planning such a large-scale project. Our initial announcement climaxed almost a decade of negotiations with Algeria concerning the possibilities of moving natural gas from that country to the United States. As long as domestic supplies were ample, there was little demand for such a project nor did it seem economically feasible. Bui, by the late 1960s, evidence was clear that the United States was headed toward an energy shortage, particularly in natural gas, a premium fuel in these days of increasing environmental concern. Thus the stage was set for a project of the magnitude we envisioned.
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Document ID: 2DC3D2BE

Video Tape Training For Construction And Maintenance Crews
Author(s): C. Larry Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
WE became interested in video tape, a relatively new tool for training construction and maintenance crews, about four years ago as a result of manufacturers bringing onto the market moderately priced video tape equipment. With this advent the natural question was. What potentials did video tape hold for more efficient company operations? A survey of company department heads showed that a great deal of interest did exist and applications were evident, As a result a more formalized study of available video tape systems was made considering economics, ease of operation, maintenance, service policy, picture quality, and portability. The key factor was simplicity of operation. In our opinion operation of the equipment had to be by our own people for flexibility as well as cost considerations, Our investment for cameras, lights, conirol console, monitors, and other accessories to date is 10,000. We have satisfied ourselves that we have the capability of professionally producing almost any type of video training program that our company could require. In fact this equipment is sophisticated enough to allow us to produce many of the special video effects you see on television, such as video replays, isolated cameras, corner inserts, etc.
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Document ID: 8A984E80

The Gas Appliance Data Bank
Author(s): David V. Voigt
Abstract/Introduction:
FOR those not familiar with the gas appliance data bank, 1 first would like to describe briefly the hardware involved and its uses. The remainder of my report then will be devoted to an up-to-date status report on the existing bank and what is proposed in the future. The gas appliance data bank (hereafter referred to as (GADB) unit is composed of a desk-size microfilm reader and a library of microfilm strip cartridges. Each cartridge contains the reproductions of approximately 3,400 pages of manufacturers catalogs. This, of course, includes parts information, price lists, exploded views of assemblies, and instructional bulletins. The library is updated quarterly by the issuance of a new index cartridge and sufficient additional cartridges to contain the new data. Obsolete microfilms remain in the library but are deleted by lack of reference in the new index.
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Document ID: 453FF1C7

Current Status Of The Distrigas LNG Project
Author(s): Jacek Makowski
Abstract/Introduction:
DISTRIGAS Corporation is a brand-new company not yet in operation. The Distrigas program consists of importing LNG and selling this commodity, primarily in liquid form, to peak shaving and seasonal markets. We will purchase LNG at the dockside of our terminal and resell the liquid FOB our terminal for delivery by trucks or, if so desired, we will vaporize the LNG into the distribution systems of customers who can receive the gas as vapor. We also will operate an LNG barge which will be able to deliver LNG as liquid to customers storage. Finally we will provide LNG storage service at our terminals.
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Document ID: A8A5FB48

Quantitative Determination Of Oxygen And Nitrogen
Author(s): Irving Deutsch, P. E.
Abstract/Introduction:
Air is used extensively as a carrier gas in gas chromatography especially in the gas industry, since it permits a single run analysis for methane and ethane. When the gas mixture being analyzed has oxygen and nitrogen in proportions different than the carrier air, a positive peak will be observed if there is an oxygen deficiency and a negative peak wilS be observed for an oxygen excess. It has been observed further that a quantitative determination of oxygen and nitrogen can be made using this single oxygen-nitrogen peak. The determination is simplified by the use of calibration curve of the No/O:: ration vs peak height, Using this simplified procedure it is possible to run a rapid flue gas analysis without the use of the chemical orsat.
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Document ID: 6AD7281A

Optimization Of Gas Pipeline Networks Using Post Program
Author(s): G. E. Graham, Dr. D. A. Maxwell, And Dr. A. Vallone
Abstract/Introduction:
The POST Program (Pipeline Optimization and Simulation Technique) is a design tool for minimizing the cost of adding looping pipes and compressors to an existing gas gathering network. The program provides a steady-state solution for stnglephase flow in networks containing up to 4000 nodes. Interconnected loops containing 200 branches can be handled. The program can be extended to large distribution networks or to optimum production scheduling.
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Document ID: A8A4E0F0

Preplanning For Outages Using LNG
Author(s): D. R. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
With liquefied natural gas, San Diego Gas & Electric Company is able to maintain service to customers in situations which would otherwise require an interruption. In liquid form, natural gas may be transported over the road in sufficient volumes to make its use practical as a temporary source of gas. San Diego Gas & Electric Company first used LNG for this purpose in September 1966 at Poway, California. The entire community of 1,700 gas customers was served by LNG while modifications were made to the pipeline feeding the area. Careful attention was given to the public relations aspects through contacts with community officials as well as the technical considerations to ensure complete success of the project. Through experience gained at Poway, it has been possible to optimize the equipment for each job. In one instance, a 6,000-gallon LNG transport vehicle was used as the gas source to serve several hundred customers. In another, a 42-gallon portable cryogenic tank was ample where one small commercial customer was involved. The use of LNG to maintain continuity of service offers may benefits to both utility and th customer.
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Document ID: CA9F0079

Calibration Of Gas Meters With Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): m. P. Castillon
Abstract/Introduction:
At present gas meters are calibrated under low pressure with standard gasometers. As the meters can be used under high pressure on the network, the pressure effect upon the error curve must be determined. In order to avoid this drawback, we have been searching another standard of gas flow rate at the Gaz de France test station which disposes of a natural gas having steady characteristics and being available under a pressure of 60 bar and a flow rale superior to 10,000 mVh(N). This study led us to the working out of a new technique based upon a critical ilow meter the venturi nozzle with a cylindrical throat. This paper presents the results of the sonic nozzles calibration atid the equipment composed of sonic nozzles to calibrate meters and two examples of use of this standard of flow rate.
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Document ID: 3778C958

The Future Of Video Tope In A Construction Ond Maintenance Department
Author(s): George D. England
Abstract/Introduction:
COMMUNICATE! Thats what its all about today, baby! At least one thing is certain-thats what we all hear that its all about today. 1 guess its true. It is certainly what we constantly are told and what most of us preach to our subordinates. A foreman or crew not aware of what the purpose of their work may be or what goals or objectives have been set is not nearly as effective as one which is fully aware of what is going on and why. The day when our people are willing to follow orders blindly is long gone and overall it is probably a good thing, although 1 am sure that there are plenty of times that we all wish for the good old days. Keeping the lines of communication open is a difficult job requiring that we all spend much time, energy and money. In a construction and maintenance department, one of the very real problems that a decentralized organization must face h keeping the forces informed.
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Document ID: 31C512A3

Nondestructive Examination Of Plastic Pipe Socket Joints
Author(s): E. Dziengielewski
Abstract/Introduction:
THE solvent cement socket joining of PVC pipe and fittings appears to be a simple and fast operation. In practice it can be but its very simplicity has eliminated virtually all latitude for variance. Prerequisites such as square cut ends, beveling of those ends, cleaning and priming of the surfaces to be mated, matching fit between pipe and socket, and complete familiarity with the joining procedure are essential in consistently producing optimum joints. After the actual fabrication, (he written requirements for curing and handling lime are not just a literary exercise actually the requirements should be exceeded if circumstances permit. In the effort to measure and stabilize the quality of workmanship, in 1969 the quality in.spcction department of the Wisconsin Gas Company investigated the use of x-rays to examine nondestruclively 2110 PVC socket joints. This method was not very successful. We could determine only two things: whether the pipe was bottomed completely info the socket and whether the pipe end was beveled. We could not detect the quantity of bonding material apphed to the joint or the quality of the bonded areas.
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Document ID: B1C69FBD

The Brunei-Japan LNG Project A- Progress Report
Author(s): John E. Jenkins
Abstract/Introduction:
THE voyage, in February 1959, of the Methane Pioneer, a converted dry cargo vessel of 2.200 tons, from Lake Charles, Louisiana, to the British Gas Councils reception facilities at Canvey Island, Essex, was the first transoceanic movement of LNG and paved the way for the development on a commercial scale of oceangoing LNG transportation. Since that historic voyage a number of projects based on ocean transport of LNG have been developed, some being in operation today, while others will be coming onstream in the near future.
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Document ID: A1C178B2

The Computer And The Corporation
Author(s): Noel F. Mermer
Abstract/Introduction:
THE American Natural Gas System is a completely integrated system. Tt is comprised of six wholly-owned subsidiary companies: Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line Company, Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, Wisconsin Gas Company, Central Indiana Gas Company, a production company, and a service company. In addition we have a 50% equity in the Great Lakes Transmission Company, which delivers Canadian gas to our system. With 8,700 employees, 28.000 miles of pipeline and 600,000 installed horsepower, the System serves 1,600 communities with an area population of 7% million people. Much of our activity is computerized, with our first system dating back to the early 50s. Twelve years ago the engineering activity obtained a simple, digital Bendix G15 computer for engineerings use. Having this computer for their exclusive use, our engineers used it and used it effectively. They used to bang around and get the answers. We were involved in rapid expansion of our pipeline system. Having our system and other pipeline systems programmed permitted us to check more alternate design options and to optimize our system.
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Document ID: AE770C71

Cathodic Protection For Communication Facilities
Author(s): Roy L. Steelman,
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the corrosion engineer and technician with some of the methods of cathodically protecting communication facilities. The advantages of using rectifiers Or impressed current, over sacrificial type anodes, are discussed,
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Document ID: 9B3B92C7

New Products For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Don Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
THE gas industry requirements for equipment are changing at a rapid pace. These changes are brought about by the growing complexities and sophistication of gas systems creating the need for new equipment and instrumentation. To meet these requirements for more and better equipment from the wellhead to the consumer, we are introducing the following new equipment.
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Document ID: 29751F67

Response Of The Flame Photometric Detector To Sulfur Compounds
Author(s): Robert C. Stubbs
Abstract/Introduction:
THE IGT Odotron uses a flame photometric detector because of its high sensitivity to sulfur compounds with minimum interference from hydrocarbons. Although several reports on the operation of this dectector have appeared in the literature, we did not have sufficient information for precise calibration of the Odotron by the use of relative response factors for the various sulfur compounds of interest. Therefore a study was made to obtain these factors and to establish the extent of any errors that might be introduced into the results because of the presence of background sulfur in the analytical system.
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Document ID: 8C29777C

Recommended Procedure For Training And Qualifying Personnel For Joining Plastic Pipe
Author(s): W. G. Hickle
Abstract/Introduction:
NOT unlike many other companies, Columbia Gas of Ohio, Tnc. follows a policy of having properly trained people doing most Jobs that are performed for construction and maintenance. This is not to say that we have a specific training program for each job classification, but we do emphasize key aspects of our work vith such programs for regulation, leak inspection, construction inspection, corrosion testing, welding, and now plastic fusion. All of these programs are designed to accomplish proper work techniques.
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Document ID: 43313A08

The Effect Of Charge Service
Author(s): John R. Peak
Abstract/Introduction:
MY discussion is limited to the effects we have experienced at Connecticut Natural Gas as a result of implementing a charge for adjustment service on May 4, 1970, 12 months ago. Connecticut Natural Gas Corporation is a straight gas company, servicing the metropolitan Hartford area with approximately 100,000 customers. Natural gas became available to us in 1957. Heating saturation is 45%, typical of New England gas utilities. We aggressively promote gas in all areas. We merchandise appliances, promote heating through dealers/ contractors, rent water heaters, conversion burners and gas-air conditioning. The company has and continues to accept the responsibility to provide service to all its customers on gas appliances and equipment with its own service employees. Prior to May 4, 1970, the company service policy provided free adjustment and diagnostic service. Replacement parts were installed on a time and material basis. Free service was considered an important marketing tool.
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Document ID: 3F808B4E

Base Load LNG Vaporization And Power Production Using A Gas-Fired Industrial Turbine
Author(s): Edwin m. Arenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and development of heat exchange equipment for base load LNG vaporization using the waste heat from a gas-fired industrial turbine is reviewed. Preliminaiy economic evaluations based on marketing the power produced and utilizing the power produced within the confines of the LNG complex are presented. THE energy crisis, occurring primarily in the Atlantic seaboard stales at the present time, has caused increased interest in the base load vaporization of LNG. This increased need for energy will be alleviated, at least partially, by the importation of LNG from North Africa and Venezuela. With the advent of imported LNG, the total cost of transportation, storage and revaporization is of piaramount interest to the gas industry as a whole as well as to the ultimate consumer.
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Document ID: 2C53C293

A New Size Rotary Positive Meter
Author(s): James W. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a new 1.5M 125 rotary positive gas meter now available from Dresser Measurement Division, Houston, Texas. Described are the construction features and performance of the basic meter and the manner in which a modular design philosophy has been utilized to allow maximum versatility of application. Also described are the characteristics of the counler, temperature compensator and instrument drive accessory packages.
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Document ID: 10907842

Extent Of Repair Work Performed By Utilities
Author(s): m. J. BELENSKY,G. BACHMANN,J. N. Leech And D. L. Ely,
Abstract/Introduction:
TO determine the extent of appliance repair work being performed by utilities on residential and small commercial appliances, a questionnaire was sent to a group of 25 companies in March 1971. Regulatory requirements, merchandise practices, personnel policies, and the various financial aspects of serving also were covered.
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Document ID: 3014A042

Infrared Spectrographic Technique For Analysis Of Flue Products From Gas-Fired Appliances
Author(s): Douglas W. Dewerth
Abstract/Introduction:
MAJOR components in the flue gases of a gas-lired appliance are N-. CO and HjO, which are harmless. Because of its toxicity in low concentrations, CO is an important component which has been monitored for many years even though it is essentially a trace component with a properly adjusted appliance. Other trace components such as NO, NOa, SO, CHi, CMi, and aldehydes are present in such low concentrations that in the past they were considered generally to have little significance and only a few investigators of combustion properties studied these trace gases, Because of increasing concern over air pollution and because some of the trace components are considered air pollutants, the gas industry through its PAR Plan Activity is sponsoring a project at the A.G.A. Laboratories aimed at obtaining representative data for the levels of emission of these pollutants by all types of gas appliances. A second aim will be to determine if there is any correlation between burner and equipment design factors with emission levels so as to recommend optimum design factors to minimize gas appliance contribution to air pollution.
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Document ID: 512CEC8D

Pipe-End Protection During Storage
Author(s): R. E. Schnare
Abstract/Introduction:
SEVERAL years ago it became apparent to us at Northern Illinois Gas Company that, with rising labor costs and more stringently enforced requirements for welding inspection by distribution companies, our welding costs would rise considerably. We could not avoid the expenses of continual quality control by x-ray and requalificalion. What could we do? We were progressing well in changing from stick wire welding to the Micro- Wire process, which reduced welding time considerably. But one item that irritated the welders when we talked about increasing productivity v/as the deteriorated condition of the weld bevels (rust and pitting). Pre-weld bevel cleaning time also would have to be reduced.
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Document ID: 381B5D43

A Computerized Operation And Maintenance System
Author(s): H. E. Strecker
Abstract/Introduction:
DURING December 1968, the corporate development department of Panhandle Eastern initiated preliminary studies which led to the formation of a corporate information system the following year. One module of this information system is the engine operation and maintenance system, which is the subject of this discussion. The engine operation and maintenance system was and is being developed through extensive involvement of both corporate development and transmission department personnel and it incorporates what we at Panhandle Eastern believe to be some unusual features and capabilities. It is user-oriented and is designed with the supervisors-at all levels of the organization- in mind. Its purpose is to provide the transmission department supervisors with the information they need to manage more effectively their plants, areas, regions, and department. It is an operating system and not an accounting system in the normal sense.
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Document ID: 1E909620

Well Control In Abnormally High-Pressured Reservoirs
Author(s): L. R. Records
Abstract/Introduction:
THE problems of well control in abnormally high-pressured wells seem to have no connection to the problems of transmission and distributing natural gas to millions of people. And yet I feel there is a definite connection. The cost of drilling deep gas wells particularly is affected hy the degree of well control ability and equipment. In a free enterprise system the cost of supply always is felt at the distribution demand point, Further the environmental issues of drilling depend entirely on safe well control practices.
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Document ID: B4DA419E

Customer Service After Thirteen Years Of Contracting Service
Author(s): P. N. Ross
Abstract/Introduction:
CONSUMERS Gas, following conversion in 1955, began to subcontract a substantial portion of its service work load for the following reasons: 1. Avoid and/or limit costly overtime work by company personnel. 2. Develop sales oriented outside personnel within the gas industry. 3. Provide faster service in peak workload periods. 4. Maintain service in the event of an emergency. 5. Expand the range/control of services available to our customers.
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Document ID: 993DBE81

New Metering And Measurement Techniques
Author(s): R. A. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
IN the course of the last 10 years, measurement has undergone certain farreaching changes that have been marked by the increased employment of technical people in the measurement departments of the many utilities and associated manufacturers. Some of the influencing factors and activating forces which are contributing and causing these changes are the following: 1. The availability of high-speed programmed desk calculators and the ever increasing use of computer systems has released this technical capability, to a large degree, from the tedious calculations normally required to calculate flow, As a consequence, more time is placed on the scrutinizing and examination of output data, thus emphasizing results. 2. New computer statistical techniques and advanced technology in fluid mechanics have been applied to present metering systems and their associated formula. In some instances these statistical techniques have revealed discrepancies in formula and metering devices which heretofore have gone unchallenged. Monies have been allocated by the gas industry to various research institutions to investigate these uncertainties and to propose more accurate methods of measurement. 3. Another facet of major importance is that industries associated with the gas industry are placing more instruments and devices on the market than has been available in the past 20 years. Some of these devices incorporate the latest advancements in technology that have been proven accurate and reliable. 4. Many new measurement concepts are being introduced by companies not closely related to the gas industry. These concepts are a spin-off of government projects and company research programs. 5. Several gas companies have built test facilities where new measurement devices can be evaluated and their performance characteristics ascertained. In many cases this information provides the manufacturer with technical data that would otherwise be unobtainable. Also this performance data is used by the gas company as a basis to gain acceptance and approval of the new metering device. Apart from the technical advantages offered by these facilities, their very existence instills a certain discipline into the market by preventing the widespread use of equipment that may prove to be unsatisfactory, despite the assertions presented by the manufacturer.
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Document ID: 1683586B

Compressor Cylinder Molfunction Detection
Author(s): L. D. Mills, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The compressor cyhnder handles the payload of our business. Any malfunction connected with it is a serious malfunction, serious in that the operating efficiency of the unit is reduced, the gas throughput capabilities are reduced resulting in a loss of revenue to the operating company, Early detection and repair therefore is desired and essential. It is my purpose to discuss a program of monitoring compressor discharge temperature and using this temperature as an indicator of compressor condition. This temperature can be monitored with relatively inexpensive equipment that is simple to operate, accurate and easy to maintain- equipment that is capable of detecting a minor cylinder malfunction before it can proceed to a major, more costly repair. By so doing, a cost savings in operating and maintaining the compressor facilities will be experienced by the operating company.
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Document ID: F0094F78

New Calibration And Test Facilities
Author(s): James R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief description of high-pressure closed loop system which is being used in conjunction with large bell proving equipment. These two facilities are being used to check the performance and operating characteristics of turbo meters throughout their pressure and operating range.
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Document ID: C26C57C4

Safety Of Servicemen During Planned Projects
Author(s): Donald G. Bess
Abstract/Introduction:
THE Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation is unique in that it still has approximately 23,000 customers served with what we call mixed gas. These customers are located primarily in an area that must be called Rochesters inner city. Because of steady deterioration of conditions and the changing of attitudes within the ghetto areas of our cities, the eventual conversion of these customers to natural gas will present us with problems far different from those encountered by utilities who completed their conversions 10 to 20 years ago.
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Document ID: B4B8E4F8

Service Dispatch Operations
Author(s): W. T. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
DETROIT district is centered mainly around the city of Detroit, which serves approximately YA million customers. Servicing appliances for the customer, as well as the detection and repair of gas leaks and other related activities, is the job of the service division. This division has approximately 600 servicemen in various classifications, approximately 400 vehicles, 300 of which are radio-equipped and in contact wilh the service dispatch center.
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Document ID: C2FA67F0

Highlights Of The Third A.G.A. Plastic Pipe Symposium
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The Third A.G.A. Plastic Pipe Symposium provided a forum for the exchange of information on the application and installation of plastic piping systems for natural gas distribution in this country, Canada and western Europe. During the three-day program, over 300 attendees heard 23 voluntary speakers, representing resin suppliers and extruders from the plastic pipe industry, as well as users from the gas industry, present technical papers covering six areas of current interest in gas pressure piping applications for plastics: 1. Manufacturing methods for pipe & fittings 2. Material selection 3. Service life prediction 4. Quality control and inspection methods 5. Joining methods 6. Utilization applications. Several stimulating questions were raised at the symposium by challenging speakers who recommended that more attention be directed to such vital performance-related factors in plastic piping systems as current methods of predicting long-term strength, the design of couplings and fittings and the evaluation of joining methods used in connecting plastic pipe and fittings.
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Document ID: A1958A62

Distribution Construction And Maintenance, Distribution Design And Development, And PIPELINE-JOINT Session Development Of Improved Plastic Pipe For Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): H. W. Kuhlman, Fritz Wolter, Sylvester Sowell, And R. B. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
THE announced Research Program for 1970 on Improved Plastic Pipe sponsored by the American Gas Association has, as its prime objective, improvement in the technology for the safe, reliable and economical use of plastic piping systems in natural gas applications. The scope of the continuation program will be to encourage cooperative efforts between the natural gas industry and material suppliers, piping systems fabricators and standard organizations for 1. The development of improved piping characteristics, including higher longterm strength, better impact resistance and better chemical resistance 2. The study of failure as related to (a) Material, fabrication and use (b) Composition, molecular structure, and chemical changes in materials 3. The development and/or improvement of test methods 4. The evaluation and development of effective joining methods. In order to meet these overall objectives of the program for the year, the laboratory pipe evaluation studies included the continuation of long-term stress-rupture material investigations and the evaluation of various short-term test methods: impact resistance, tensile, burst, and chemical resistance, particularly as each is related lo the effect of condensate vapor. In addition investigations related to fracture behavior of both PVC and PE were continued as well as the joining studies initiated in 1969.
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Document ID: 3C4A2FA6

LNG Transportation Under The Jones Act
Author(s): Daniel D. WITHERS,ROBERT L. Vickers, And David B. Waller
Abstract/Introduction:
Water transportation within the U.S. is subject to many complex and interacting rules which have led to the development of specialized operating management techniques. Those gas companies or other members of this group who are anticipating entry into LNG transportation under the Jones Act are advised to. become familiar with these techniques or lo engage the services of those who are experienced in U.S. coastwise transportation. Those planning to import LNG should investigate the financial advantages of the Merchant Marine Act of 1970 for U.S.-flag vessels and avoid especially the temptation to apply foreign-flag LNG shipping techniques to the far different conditions in the U.S. merchant marine. Some techniques developed to meet these conditions are discussed here.
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Document ID: EAEE637D

The Role Of Computers In Compressor Station Automation
Author(s): Dale A. Swann
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent technological developments have resulted in the mini-computer having a dominant role in future compressor station automation. Programmable logic is a necessity for implementation of the comprehensive control and diagnostic strategies which are expected to have significant impact on fuel and maintenance costs. In addition the cost/performance characteristics of the mini-computer cause it to be the logical approach by which to implement a variety of other functions as well. The functions which will be implemented via computer and the technical developments which have made them possible are the subject of this paper. Particular emphasis is placed on developments relating to station load allocation and engine diagnostics.
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Document ID: E7190E50

Progress Report On A.G.A. LNG Safety Research
Author(s): Dwight A. Dundore
Abstract/Introduction:
This progress report is intended to relate Ihe current status and future plans for research on LNG safety within our industry. At the May 26, 1970, meeting the LNG Committee recognized the need to obtain the accurate information that could be used to assure the highest practicable level of safety in the transport, storage, liquefaction and vaporization practices of LNG. An LNG Safety Task Group was formed to work with the A.G.A. research staff in developing and monitoring a research program directed to a thorough evaluation of LNG safety. This group consisted of the following members: D. A. Dundore, Chairman, Philadelphia Gas Works C. W. Ade, Northern Natural Gas Company P. L. Hathaway, San Diego Gas & Electric Company T. G. Humphreys, Jr., Alabama Gas Corp. H. M. Joiner, Consolidated Gas Supply Corp. C. F. Mengers, Philadelphia Electric Company E. L. Smith, Texas Eastern Transmission Corp. R, C. Van Meerbeke, Columbia Gas System Service Corp. L. A. Sarkes, A.G.A. Research.
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Document ID: E6C78829

Axial Pipe Window Cutter For Steel Pipe Without Damage To Inserted Plastic
Author(s): Charles J. Rees
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years Columbia Gas of Pennsylvania has been renewing some distribution mains by the procedure of inserting plastic pipe. However, a problem arises whenever it becomes necessary to expose the new plastic, such as for installing a service tee. A new tool called an axial pipe cutter developed in conjunction with Ridge Tool Company now enables a window to be cut into the metal pipe without damaging the inner plastic pipe.
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Document ID: 9F5BAC63


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