Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1971)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers have earned a place In the automation of measurement stations. No station employing circular chart recorders can be completely automated without automatic chart changers. Without changers, charts must be physically removed and new charts placed regularly. This must be accomplished at the conclusion of each recording cycle regardless of weather, traffic, wOTk load or other Inconvenience. Since 1958, a number of devices have been offered to gas men which would change charts automatically. Some are still changing charts dally while some are no longer available. The first changer. The Dial-0-Graph was offered by Mullins Manufecturlng Company, Inc. next, Maeder Squler Company offered their Automatic Meterman then, the Barton Instrument Company introduced their changer, In the meanwhile, American Meter Company purchased a license from Mullins Manufacturing Company, Inc., to manufacture the Dial-0-Graph and offered it to the industry In a swlss made chart drive. As recently as 1970, a new changer was Introduced by Tejas Instrument Engineers, Inc.
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Document ID: D8A82A3D

Primary Measuring Elements
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Basic to recording and indicating instruments used in the natural gas industry are Che primary elements for sensing line pressure and line temperature. The purpose of this paper is to describe Che pressure elements (diaphragm and helical type) and temperature systems (mercury-filled, spiral element) used in recording instruments as well as in those meter-mounted indicating gauges which automatically apply Che gas laws to metered volumes on diaphragm, rotary, and turbine type meters.
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Document ID: 71513614

A Panel Discussion Of Revisions To AGA Report No. 3
Author(s): L. P. Emerson, W. G. Birkhead, E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
The AGA Report No. 3 Orifice Metering of Natural Gas is one of the most respected and important documents used in the natural gas industry. It is a technical document and it is to be expected it will be revised from time to time to reflect experience and use and a better understanding of metering techniques as technology advances. The following discussion and notes (with only minor editorial changes) were prepared by Loy Upp and previously published in the 1971 Proceedings of the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. We believe they are pertinent to an understanding of the Report Revision of September, 1969.
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Document ID: CA1ACF23

Elementary Gas Laws
Author(s): Charles R. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
In gas measurement, the pressure-volume-temperature relationships of a gas are usually used to obtain the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure and temperature base. These relationships between P, V, and T are called gas laws. Before discussing these laws, some of the terms moat used will be defined.
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Document ID: FCFFC2F7

Dot Pressure Control, Limiting And Relief Requirements For Distribution Systems, With Some Related Interpretations
Author(s): Jose L. De La Fuente
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide operators of gas distribution systema with a better understanding of the Hinimuia Federal Safety Standards pertaining to pressure control and to offer a summary of recent interpretations by the Office of Pipeline Safety of some sections of these regulations. As operators of gas distribution systems, you are naturally concerned with the effect these regulations will have on you. Therefore, a quote from the Office of Pipeline Safety Policy statement which was issued quite some time ago is in order.
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Document ID: 68099DC8

Problems In Measuring Atmospheric Emissions
Author(s): Herbert C. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone who reads a newspaper is aware of the fact that environment and ecology have become very popular subjects within the past two or three years. After many years of neglect during the development of an affluent society, we are finally beginning to look at some of the longrange problems that we have been creating, and steps are being taken to correct these problems and to prevent future problems from developing. This effort requires thought and action on the part of many different segments of our society: the lawmakers, the administrative agencies at all levels of government, the news media, the taxpayer, and the consumer. Professional people in various scientific and engineering fields have a special role to play in measuring and evaluating the problems that exist and in developing satis-p factory solutions for these problems.
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Document ID: 112B92CB

Mass Measurement By Turbine-Density Method
Author(s): J. Bruce Shrake
Abstract/Introduction:
There is an Increasing interest being shown around the country in Mass Measurement of natural gas. Some measurement people may ask the question, Why should I change from my present method of measurement and go to a completely new method?. I would like to answer this question, and then describe a new mass metering system to achieve mass measurement. There are basically two reasons for metering gas on a mass basis. These reasons are 1) Mass measurement provides a vehicle to easily achieve a BTU or thermal readout, and 2) measurement of large volumes of natural gas at elevated pressures can be made more accurately on a mass basis than on a volumetric basis.
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Document ID: 7FB192B7

Skid Mounted Meter And Regulator Stations
Author(s): Ralph H. Clemons, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
When planning a gas measurement facility, it is prudent to consider whether to skid-mount, or package, the unit in preference to a permanent meter setting. There are a number of advantages which bear consideration by the engineer, and a few of them are:
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Document ID: 9200FB99

Orifice Flow Computation For Field Men
Author(s): Rogers Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
When talking about any complex subject some limits must be set. Here we need to define just what is meant by field calculation of orifice meter volumes. My definition is very broad. Any volume calculated manually will be considered a field calculation. Most companies now utilize some type of computer system and very rarely will a manually calculated volume match a computer volume. Field calculations are usually made under conditions which eliminate the use of adding machines and calculators. Accuracies can vary from an extremely accurate spot check to a very basic calculation. External factors usually determine what procedure you use. These factors range from company policy to contract requirements to a rocking boat offshore.
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Document ID: 62803FD3

Applications Of Analog Flow Computers
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the construction and application of pneumatic and electronic analog qas flow computers in the natural gas industry. The achievement of equipment of flow computing during recent years has lead to the widespread use of these devices. Their cost has decreased and accuracy and reliability have greatly improved over earlier electro-mechanical flow computers. This paper will cover the application of these devices to various gas industry systems.
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Document ID: 10748D7A

Testing And Troubleshooting Molecular Sieve Dehydration Systems Used In Cryogenic Processing
Author(s): C. R. Freeman
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, the rapid growth of cryogenic processing and the associated low moisture level requirements have resulted in the installation of many Molecular Sieve cryogenic feed dehydrators. Molecular Sieve cryogenic feed dehydration has proved reliable in a variety of ccnmerclal installations including: l) hydrocarbon recovery plants operating at -160F 2) ethylene plants operating at less than -170F 3) liquified natural gas plants operating at -260F 4) plants extracting helium from natural gas at -270F and 5) air separation plants operating at -320F. The low dew points required to prevent freeze-up at these low process temperatures have demonstrated many times the ability of Molecular Sieves to attain extremely low moisture levels.
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Document ID: 5CCCE4F9

Pressure Relief Valves As Applicable To The Gas Transmission Industry
Author(s): Roger Paul Wistner
Abstract/Introduction:
The Relief Valve is not a new device. It has been used for years as a means of preventing over pressuring vessels and piping systems. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code has classified the Relief Valve into three categories. They a redefined as Safety Valves, Relief Valve, and Safety Relief Valve. SAFETY VALVE: An automatic pressure relieving device actuated by the static pressure upstream of the valve and characterized by full opening pop action. It is used for gas Or vapor service. RELIEF VALVE An autcMnatic pressure relieving device actuated by the static pressure upstream of the valve which opens further with the increase in pressure over the opening pressure.
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Document ID: 6A869D62

Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The modern domestic gas meter has changed considerably since it was first introduced in this country over 100 years ago. Although the basic principles of measurement are still the same, the materials and manufacturing techniques now used have brought about major improvements in accuracy and dependability. Todays aluminum case meters have higher working pressures, resist weathering in nearly all climates, and operate for longer periods without repair (Figure 1). The development of a synthetic rubber diaphragm material to replace leather brought about a significant improvement in stability. The introduction of die-cast aluminum bodies and covers eventually permitted the utilities to install meters outdoors in areas where tin meters were normally installed indoors. This, of course, greatly reduced the time required for meter reading.
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Document ID: 69C2CDB8

The Vortex Shedding Flowmeter
Author(s): Alan E. Redely
Abstract/Introduction:
The vortex shedding meter is a relatively new type of flowmeter but it has much in common with what is probably the oldest of all flow instruments, the orifice meter. Both make use of a natural effect, have no moving parts, are mechanically simple and have flow coefficients which may be verified by checking dimensions. The vortex shedding meter however has a linear and not a squareroot type of output. Its 100 to 1 range eliminates such things as plate changing and multiple meter runs. It has a very high accuracy over any part of its range and its digital nature eliminates the need for chart changing and integration as well as periodic recalibration and zero adjustment.
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Document ID: 85C929E9

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): W. Guy Warren
Abstract/Introduction:
With our continued population growth, we are forced to build more homes, raise more food, create more jobs, build more factories to supply the things we need to survive in this world of ours. All these activities are associated with noise. It has been said that you can almost hear the population explosion. Noise, as we encounter it In our daily life, is very relative, depending on the circumstances under which it is heard. Lets assume youre sitting on the back terrace under the stars relaxing and you suddenly are aware of the crickets singing or the locust in the trees across the valley or youre out fishing at night listening to the frogs croaking maybe youre in your office thinking on a problem and you notice the hum of the light ballast and last, but not least, youre lying in bed trying to go to sleep and the alarm clock is ticking about 90dB. These are what 1 call the Sounds of Silence. They are the sounds you are suddenly aware of, when everything else is silent. Its the everything else we are concerned with here so that we may continue to be aware of The Sounds of Silence.
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Document ID: 34728158

The Legal And Logical Use Of Mass Measurement
Author(s): Conway T. Sinclair
Abstract/Introduction:
Probably never in its history has the science of gas measurement been more wanting in event than presently. The ever rising cost of natural gas coupled with the short supply, which to many customers is now being rationed on a curtailment program, demands that we explore every possibility of measuring gas more accurately. Further, the splraling cost of chart changing and processing Influences us to examine the economics of current measurement methods. With these concerns before us at United Gas Pipe Line Company, we initiated an economic as well as a hardware study, coraparibg current methods and costs to what might be done in both fields with further automation.
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Document ID: 96D097F7

Remote Meter Reading Using Existing Telephone Circuits
Author(s): T. L. Ebner
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote meter reading over existing telephone circuits is now being evalunited in Houston and Chicago by AT&T, the operating telephone companies, meter reading equipment suppliers, and utility companies in the two cities. It is anticipated that these two tests will meet objectives as follows 1) Establish technical feasibility with respect to use of telephone facilities. 2) Establish technical capability with respect to equipment of various suppliers of meter reading equipment 3) Provide working relationship between:
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Document ID: 3D90C67D

Distribution Pressure Control: Remote And Automatic
Author(s): Fred 0. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
Houston Natural Gas Corporation presently has about 350.000 meters, of which 217,000 are in the Houston Metropolitan area. The remainder are in smaller systems along a line from Silsbee in East Texas to Alice in the southern part of the Texas Gulf Coast. Including the Houston area, there are nine separate distribution systems along this l i ne that are large or complex enough to warrant remote and/or automatic pressure control. Before remote pressure control was used, the men of the pressure control department were out on cold mornings at 3:30 and 4:00 a.m.raising pressures at the regulator stations, packing the lines in order to meet the demands of the peak hour loads. After the peak hours were over and the demands reduced, the pressure control men would again go back to the stations and reduce the pressures.
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Document ID: 3717E133

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): E. J. Burgin
Abstract/Introduction:
Unlike the positive displacement meter, the orifice meter does not measure volume. Instead it measures physical characteristics of a fluid such as pressure and pressure differential which can be converted into flowing volumes by use of a basic equation developed by a Swiss scientist, Daniel Bernoulli, in 1738. Since volume Is obtained with an orifice meter after a determination of the physical characteristics, it can be termed an Inferentialtype meter that is, measurement is by Inference or deduction. Before reviewing Bernoullis theory and the basic hydraulic formula, it is interesting to note that fluid metering began with water measurement and is as old or perhaps older than recorded history. It is known that the ancient Babylonians and Egyptians used some means of measuring or proportioning water from their irrigation systems to individual land holders. It is thought that their methods were adapted from procedures used in Eastern Asia at an earlier period.
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Document ID: F1333F77

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years inefficient control valves or regulators were used. As a result of this inefficiency, very little attention was given to minor losses. As more efficient control valves (ball valves) became available, these minor losses (fittings, elbows, tees, swages, etc.) have become more important. Over one hundred years ago, H. Darcy proposed that the head lost in etny closed filled conduit was proportional to its length times a friction factor divided by its diameter, all timea one-half the average fluid velocity head.
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Document ID: C11755B2

Design Op Eigr Pressuke Meter & Regulator Staticws
Author(s): G. E. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the basic rules and information required to design high pressure measuring and regulating stations. A high pressure measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement and dependable pressure control. Factors such as safety, flexibility, expansion and governmental laws must also be considered in the overall design of these stations.
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Document ID: 50712165

Turbine Meter Applicators
Author(s): K. C. Yost
Abstract/Introduction:
It is generally recognized that the turbine meter has some very desirable features such as: (l) Superior performance which includes excellent repeatability, accuracy and linearity. (2) Extended operating range. (3) Digital output. (4) Retention of calibration. (5) Rapid Response. The turbine meter first appeared in the period following World War II as a fuel metering device for liquid propelled rocket and large jet engine test stands. After some 20 to 25 years, we find that the turbine meter is not only active in the liquid measiirement field, but during the sixties, branched out into the gas measurement field.
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Document ID: AE6AE23F

High Pressure Liquid Measurement Using Modified Mass Flow
Author(s): Jerry Huffman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss various factors that influence high pressure liquid measurement and to compare mass flow to conventional measurement techniques. The growth of natural gas liquid processing plants and the increased demand for petrochemical feed stocks during the past twenty years are evidence of the technical skill and advancement of the Natural Gas Processing Industry. Modern processing plants with design liquid hydrocarbon recoveries that exceed 50% of the ethane gas content in the inlet gas stream show very little resemblance to the old low pressure absorption type gasoline plants. With the drastic change in the hydrocarbon component mixture of the product, it becomes necessary to revise measurement procedures accordingly.
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Document ID: FC24E893

Processing Control And Measurement Techniques
Author(s): Terry L. Winters
Abstract/Introduction:
I wish to express my gratitude to those attending this meeting today, the many individuals responsible for making this conference possible, and last but not least, the people who assisted me in preparing this paper. My subject, Processing Control and Measurement Techniques, covers a broad range of subject matter. The hydrocarbon gas industry will be discussed today in a general scope from production through pipeline sales and then focus on custody transfer and special measurement techniques.
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Document ID: 0B1B39C6

Pneumatic And Electronic Controls For Gas Regulator Stations
Author(s): David E. Woll
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, automatic controls are widely used to control flows, pressures, and in some cases, temperatures. Both pneiimatic and electronic control systems are employed in these applications in the gas industry. Rather than a paper on control theory, this paper covers instrumentation to solve those control problems most commonly found in the gas industry.
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Document ID: ED60A77D

Automating Gas Transmission System Dispatching
Author(s): John A. Heap
Abstract/Introduction:
Drawing from the Biblical adage that old bottles should not be filled with new wine, this paper will explore the compatibility of space-age technology with horse and buggy dispatching concepts. It is difficult to discuss the subject of automation without the usual proliferation of hardware descriptions and the tongue-twisting terminology of the computer world. To avoid the possibility of obscuring the real issues of this subject, the writer will avoid the trade journal approach and deal primarily with the most important aspect of automation--the benefits to be derived from the man-machine relationship.
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Document ID: E97EF241

Electronic Density Measuring System
Author(s): Milton H. November
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays Instrumentation engineers, are faced with an ever increasing need for precision density measurement of fluids for a host of industrial applications. The criteria for such an Instrument in the most general terms are: 1. Suitable for continuous industrial operation. 2. Applicable to liquids, gases, slurries, etc. 3. Exhibit a high order of precision (better than 0.257. reading). A. Have a fast dynamic response. 5. Be useful over a wide temperature span without severe degrading of accuracy. 6. Be immune to: (a) flow velocity (b) viscosity 7. Eliminate fluid sampling errors, etc.
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Document ID: 7B28C53C

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Larry G. Irving
Abstract/Introduction:
The Orifice Meter as a measurement device is comprised of the orifice plate, the orifice fitting, the meter tube, and the secondary indicating or recording instrument. This paper will describe the various components of the producer of the primary measurement signal to be received by the secondary element. These parts make up the primary element, and they are the orifice plate, the orifice fitting and the meter tube. This paper will not only cover manufacturing tolerances and techniques, but the proper maintenance of the equipment as well.
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Document ID: 1B84A68A

Procedures For Handling Loss Of System Pressure
Author(s): R. m. Hurt
Abstract/Introduction:
For the purpose of presentation I have broken this subject up into two parts, and after being Involved with a few small systems that did lose their gas pressure, and In most cases their supply at the same time, my advice to you gentlemen is Dont lose it. Iu you do lose the system I can tell you what to do in six words - Turn em off and light em upl Now, we could leave the subject right at this point but I believe you gentlemen who have been involved in this sort of thing know that there can be a lot of elements involved, and its just not that simple. So, lets just explore the things we have just gone over.
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Document ID: 24FE235A

Advanced Use Of Elbow Measurement
Author(s): Sam Cannella
Abstract/Introduction:
Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation Is presently utilizing elbow flow meters in determining compression machinery performance and for telemetering pipeline flows do its Gas Control Department. Only elbows of diameter over 20 inches have been used for these experiments, which have been going on for 5 years. Some of our findings are presented here, with the hope of developing interest in the elbow meter and of inspiring broader experimentation. Since Transco did not have any main-line measurement installations at its compressor facilities, the development of a flow measurement device of reasonable accuracy, which would be inexpensive to install and operate, was of great interest to the Company. This device was needed for testing and, in many cases, operating compression machinery. The advances made in methods of testing both centrifugal and reciprocating equipment were becoming totally dependent on the ability to obtain a reasonably accurate flow measurement.
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Document ID: C11656BB

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): W. P. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
Years ago one of tlie plug valve manufacturers equipped a valve with a pneumatic cylinder and a positioner and offered it as a monitor regulator. The concept was definitely a new method of gas regulation and was the beginning of a new era. I dont believe the plug valve manufacturer real ized what he had done toward the design of the modern high capacity regulator. A midwestern utility used these plug valve regulators above grade with relatively good success. They believed, however, that a buried valve regulator (Figure 1 would be more desirable than an above ground unit and would greatly reduce the cost of a pressure or flow control station. Units of this nature which were built in the gas utilities shop were successful and proved to be the key to todays modern pressure and flow control stations. Manufacturers are now building valve regulators utilizing plug valves, sliding disc valves and ball valves. I believe, however, that any valve can be used to make a regulator. Naturally some units will outperform others, prime factors being tight shut-off and low torque.
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Document ID: A06D2653

Gas Quality Control Instrumentation And Gas Sampling
Author(s): Alvie Conn
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper gas quality control instrumentation results in the elimination or control of undesirable or contaminating elements in natural gas. To me, the best quality of gas is that which has the highest BTU, a minimum of contaminants and the ability to remain in a vapor state under all conditions until it is consumed. Quality control must result in the removal of the contaminants down to some acceptable and mutually agreed upon concentration. These limits are usually stated in written contracts.
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Document ID: 6469107C

Transfer Testing
Author(s): G. L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
Field testing of gas meters requires managements attention due to the potentially attractive savings in time and expense over procedures requiring meter removal and shop testing. With many larger meters now in service, a new and better field testing method has been made available. Attention has turned to the use of a field calibration method which compares the field meter with the known accuracy of a reference or master meter.
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Document ID: 19198CE1

The Orifice Flow Formula
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter formula might be more properly called the head meter formula, since the same basic equation applies-regardless of whether the restriction in the line, which generates the increase in velocity, is an orifice, nozzle or Venturi tube. This equation, basically, would apply in an open stream flow where we would measure the head induced by the velocity-as with a Pitot tube. Actually the Pitot tube. Figure 1, was used in commercial gas measurements in this country, before the orifice meter came into general use. While all of these flow measuring devices employ the same basic equation, there are pfeculiar characteristics, too difficult to determine theoretically, which must be determined by experiment and lumped into a dimensionless constant, K, called the coefficient of discharge.
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Document ID: C060BF89

Total Sulfur And H2S Analysis
Author(s): Charles L. Kimbell
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of hydrogen sulfide, natural gas odorants, and other sulfur compounds in natural gas has presented problems for many years. These difficulties have resulted usually from inadequate sample handling or from instrument errors. Modern instrumentation has resulted in gas analyzers providing continuous monitoring, data recording, linear output, automatic, control and with alarm contacts. Trace sulfur compounds in natural gas are usually limited by contract, thus it is vital that the gas stream from desulfurizing equipment be monitored on a continuous basis. Automatic shutdown by an analyzer is required if plant malfunction is not to cause release of sulfur impurities into the pipeline.
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Document ID: 314D0C14

Chart Calculation Amd Gas Accounting
Author(s): Donald R. Bachle
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart calculation and gas accounting results do not differ appreciably among companies. What differs is the method used by each company in obtaining these results. The method chosen by each company depends on the number of charts to be processed. Smaller companies will have simple methods of chart calculation, whereas larger conpanies will have very elaborate methods using the most modern equipment. This paper deals with the method used by an average ccanpany - average that is in size, type of charts procesEed, and problems encountered.
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Document ID: E0EDB0AC

Maintenance And Calibration Of Integrating Indexes
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
When metering large volumes of gas at elevated pressures using diaphragm displacement, rotary, or turtlne meters, it is customary to supplement the meter with an instrument which will correct the metered volvone to base conditions. This paper will refer to the maintenance and calibration procedure of the Base Pressure, Base Volume, and Continuous Integrating Indexes.
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Document ID: A07158D3

Full Well Stream Measurement
Author(s): H. R. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss Full Well Stream Measurement and testing of gas condensate wells. Much has been said and written about this type of wet gas measurement: but thus far no one has come up with a sttmdard method for adjusting full well stream volumes to actual production. Information received from the testing of gas condensate wells is necessary in settling the question of mineral ownership, proration, allocation of products from central separaticn units and gasoline plants, development of improved methods of operation, evaluation of reservoirs, and designing lease equipment.
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Document ID: B1291A01

Measurement And Analysis Of Water Effluents
Author(s): James C. Martin, Davis L. Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past several decades, the idea of water pollution control has evolved in the public mind from a remote thought to an active concern. At the same time, the technology encompassing water pollution control has progressed from an art to a vital science.
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Document ID: D828C180

Calorimeters
Author(s): D. F. Scholtes
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording calorimeter is a large instruinent used to measure the amount of heat energy in natural or manufactured gas. It is housed in a gray case, operating in water and using air as part of its means of measurement. A clean calorimeter, with the gray cover raised, has a golden hue giving a good indication as to its value to the gas industry.
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Document ID: 25811F97


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