Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1970)

Experience With Satellite Systems For Peak Shaving
Author(s): George Dollames
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience with satellite systems for peak shaving is a subject that we are deeply involved in, not as Lowell Gas Company, but as Gas Incorporated, an affiliate of Lowell Gas. As all of you here are aware, LNG is the by-word of the industry. Every magazine you pick up has something about the subject. LNG has been dubbed the Giant of the70s. Generally speaking, all of the articles are directed at peak shaving applications, and curves are often shown depicting at what point company ABC should peak shave. This is good and I am not attempting to belittle this type of data. What I shall do is discuss not the economics of peak shaving but some of the actual facilities used in satellite systems and what our experience has been. The heart of the satellite system is the liquefaction plant. This type of facility we refer to as the mother plant. These plants, generally speaking, operate from 150-250 days per year during periods of low demand. The liquid from the process is then stored in large storage containers for use during the peak shaving periods.
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Document ID: 723363E0

Distribution System Component Performance Analysis
Author(s): Hertel C. Missimer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
How well does each component perform in your Distribution System? How can you prove to management you are in- Stalling the best components in your system? Do welded joints out-perform compression joints? Does steel pipe perform better than cast iron pipe, and how well is plastic pipe performing in your system? Does a thin-film coating give better life than the thicker coatings? The Distribution Design and Development Committee formed a task group to develop an answer to this type of question. It was designated the Task Group on System Component Performance Analysis. Its stated objective was Propose methods which will permit the measurement of gas distribution system performance by comprehensive indicators or yardsticks which provide an evaluation of system components performance and appraise the over-ail performance of a gas distribution system. This report shows how the stated objective may be accomplished
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Document ID: 20E9F50B

Can Natural Gas Solve Our Air Pollution Problems?
Author(s): Joseph T. Roe
Abstract/Introduction:
Air Pollution in our time of mans history has become the rallying cry of people all over the United States. Even the college students have taken up the elimination of pollution as a crusade and with banners (or signs) flying are seeking the Holy Grail of clean air. In all this hue and cry, natural gas has not had to defend itself, because today it alone among the major energy sources is usually considered a non-polluting fuel. In fact, in some discussions it has been called ihe way to eliminate most of the air pollution of today. As you know, it is a commodity eagerly sought after and were it not for cost, non-availability or lack of equipment development, many more of our energy needs would be realized with natural gas. If it is the ideal energy source, the question comes to mind-Can natural gas solve our air pollution problems if it is provided for all those who can use it? This question really needs to be answered by you people in the natural gas business. However, a brief presentation of some background data may help understand the problems that exist and where natural gas can help in pollution control.
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Document ID: 893A90DB

The Epga Story
Author(s): John Ricca
Abstract/Introduction:
Excellent progress has been made in emergency preparedness during the past year at all levels of government as well as in industry. We have all been moving ahead in harmony. Moreover, we can boast that petroleum plans at all levels are well ahead of most of the national effort in the civilian sector. The petroleum industry has been among the leaders in this effort, not only in in-house readiness effort, but in contribution to the government effort, and I must emphasize that in-house, company readiness is far more important than government readiness.
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Document ID: D99AB524

Evaluation Of Turbine Meter Performance
Author(s): R. E. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The evaluation and testing of new products for the gas industry has been a continuous challenge for the gas operating companies. This has been particularly true in recent years with the many new products which have become available to the industry as a result of new materials such as plastics and new technologies, particularly in the area of electronics. The testing and evaluation of new metering concepts and new gas measurement devices has been an area which has received considerable attention. This has been brought about by the large number of new measurement devices and readout equipment which have recently become available. These are quite drastically different in basic design concepts from the measurement system utilized by gas companies in the past. One measurement device which has received considerable attention in recent years and is still receiving a great deal of consideration by many companies is the turbine meter. Even though the turbine meter concept is not new, the utilization of a meter incorporating the turbine meter design concepts for the measurement of natural gas is relatively new.
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Document ID: 177084B6

Design Criteria-Mobile Homes
Author(s): A. C. Bielenberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1963, Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Company has served gas to 4,125 mobile home units in 68 different parks. Before discussing the mobile home it would be well to clarify the picture by defining the terms used. The Mobile Homes Manufacturers Association offers the following definitions: A mobile home is a portable unit designed and built to be towed on its own chassis, comprised of frame and wheels, connected to utilities, and designed without a permanent foundation for year-round living. A mobile module is a factory-fabricated, transportable building unit designed to be incorporated at a building site into a structure to be used for residential, commercial, educational or industrial purposes. A sectional home consists of two or more units factory-fabricated and transported to the home site where they are put on a permanent foundation and joined to make a single house.
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Document ID: 1FE33A32

Recent Research On Flaw Behavior During Hydrostatic Testing
Author(s): J. F. Kiefner, W. A. Maxey, R. J. Eiber, And A. R. Duffy Battelle Memorial Institute
Abstract/Introduction:
CONCERNING the subject of hydrostatic * testing, a vast amount of research and field experience has established firmly the immensely beneficial results that accrue from a hydrostatic proof test. Research in this field has been sponsored by the Pipeline Research Committee (Project NG-18) for a number of years. Summaries of this experience have been presented at prior Transmission Conferences in 1966(1) and 1968(2), and detailed publications dealing with the benefits of proof testing in pipelines(3) and in other types of structures(4,5,6) have been published. The studies presented in these references clearly have set forth by means of theory and experiment the following concepts wherein lies the value of proof testing. These are that hydrostatic proof testing removes defects the higher the test pressure, the smaller the remaining defects, and thus the testing of a pipeline (or other structure) to a stress level in excess of its operating stress level will remove defects which otherwise might fail when the structure is placed in service. None of this is new to those already familiar with hydrostatic testing. None of these concepts has been altered materially by subsequent findings. Yet one particular phenomenon which has been observed on occasion during hydrostatic tests(7) and which tends to be somewhat unsettling is that of a pressure reversal. the situation in which a defect survives a given test pressure level only to fail upon subsequent pressurization at a level below that of the previous test. It, is the current research of the phenomenon of pressure reversals and the implications with regard to hydrostatic tests that constitute the principal topics of this presentation. To provide background material with respect to pressure reversals, mathematical models of the behavior of defects in presstirized line pipe materials and the time-dependent nature of defect behavior are discussed. Then experimental findings concerning the nature of pressure image omitted reversals are presented. From these some logical conclusions about the nature of reversals can be drawn.
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Document ID: C3404769

American Dream Versus The American Nightmare
Author(s): Alfred J. Barran
Abstract/Introduction:
In a recent issue of the American Historical Review one of the advertisements was captioned The American Dream Versus the American Nightmare. This seemed to describe, better than any speech title I have read lately, the America we live in today. As the TV show master of ceremonies said. Will the real America stand up. In thinking about my remarks today I recall a recent high school convocation at which Kalherine Lee Bates America the Beautiful was sung by a mixed choru.s of forty or so young spirited kids. Recall with me the fourth stanza of America the Beautiful. Oh beautiful for patriot dream That sees beyond the years Thine alabaster cities gleam Undimmed by human tears.
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Document ID: 0F5B261E

Costs Associated W I Th A Corrosion Control Program On Small Or Moderate Sized Distribution Systems
Author(s): John J. Wise
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we can describe the cost of a corrosion control program we need first to consider some of the factors involved, such as the size of the total distribution system, the age range of distribution piping, and the number and average size of individual city plant systems. Also, we need to describe briefly just what is included in the distribution corrosion program, and what the cost figures given will represent and include. Naturally, the corrosion control program costs I am going to talk about today relate to my own company, Arkansas Louisiana Gas Company, so a brief description of the company is in order.
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Document ID: A5ECA2B2

Introducing The A.G.A. Manual On Imoise Control For Gas Engines
Author(s): Laymon N. Miller, Robert m. Hoover
Abstract/Introduction:
For people who have hecn busily working in noise control for the last 10 to 30 years, the current upswing in interest in noise pollution seems like another fad with an intriguing title to catch the publics eye, (Or is it ear?) Noise has been a problem for many years, and noise has been successfully combatted for many years when the effort has been made. Nevertheless, it is true that as our society becomes more concerned (or alarmed) about the quality of its environment, noisiness is coming to be a factor in the selection of mechanical equipment. Here is an example. Several years ago a gas company came up with this problem. They had convinced the owner of a new luxury apartment to install natural gas reciprocating engines to drive the refrigeration machines for air conditioning his building. The building owner was concerned about the noise of this system so he required the gas company to agree to replace the engines with electric motor drives if the installation proved excessively noisy. Because this was to be a possible showplace for other prospective customers, as well as to satisfy the building owners demands, the gas company asked us to work with the architects and engineers of the building to help assure a successful installation.
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Document ID: 873CD77B

Computer Control Of A Complex Storage Facility
Author(s): Dennis Martell
Abstract/Introduction:
Troy Grove, through the utilization of 65,000 hp, is capable of delivering 800 MMCF a day via a central computer console. Numerous information points are constantly brought into the system to forewarn the operator of any impending problems. The Conitel System, because of its logging, alarming, flow and mode control, is capable of saving many man-hours each day. Eventually, the plans call for a lineup with other stations and company-wide gas control. In January of 1970, Northern Illinois Gas Company sent out over 2.7 billion cubic feet of natural gas in a 24-hour period. This was a record sendout for the company. Since NI-Gas receives only 1.5 billion cubic feet of gas a day from its pipeline suppliers, the balance of its fuel sent out on peak days must be supplied from other sources.
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Document ID: BA37F860

Noise Suppression-Recent Developments In Large Volume Regulator Station Equipment
Author(s): F. C. Duerr
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of silencing equipment in gas regulator stations has grown rather slowly. Interest began to develop about 15 to 20 years ago, but there was no strong incentive for operating people to spend the engineering time and money to purchase or build an extra pressure vessel to add to the cost of a regulator station. When a noise problem did develop after installation, it usually was because neighbors complained, and often the piping was buried lo contain the noise as the most expedient solution. In time, more engineers began to study the advantages of absorbing the noise at the regulator to reduce the amount of noise radiating from the piping. This could stop neighborhood complaints and permit piping to remain aboveground for any desirable distance. Furthermore, noise in the regulator building could be reduced significantly.
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Document ID: B96272F8

Natural Gas Fueled Vehicle
Author(s): R. J. Corbell
Abstract/Introduction:
Probably no other city in the world is so identified with smog as Los Angeles. What Los Angeles has learned, other urban centers are increasingly finding out-air pollution is not an isolated phenomenon. And it concerns all who must suffer its effects. Several government agencies have become involved in the struggle against smog. The Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District (APCD), which was formed in 1947, has done an outstanding job in reducing emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources in the Los Angeles basin. It is a litlle-known fact that contaminant emissions from stationary sources in Los Angeles County are currently less than half of what they are estimated to have been in 1940. They are less than one-ihird of what they were calculated lo have been in 1947. It is a well-established fact that the primary source of air pollution in Southern California is motor vehicle emissions. A recent APCD report shows that gasolinepowered motor vehicles are responsible for 87% of the total contaminants emitted into the air in Los Angeles County.
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Document ID: AC94D859

Use Of Inert Gas To Test Potential Gas Storage Aquifers
Author(s): Jack R. Wingerter
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing the adequacy of the cap rock to contain natural gas in potential gas storage aquifers may be accomplished in several ways. A water pumping test in many cases is sufficient and should be tried first. (Pulse testing is another alternative.) The most positive proof of the cap rocks adequacy is to inject a gas. However if the cap rock should be inadequate, natural gas would not be desirable because of the hazardous conditions created by leaks into upper formations, Air should not be used because of the explosive conditions that would exist if natural gas were injected. Bulk storage facilities would make the purchase of an inert gas rather expensive. The use of an inert gas generator would seem to be the most realistic means of testing the field without risking the potential hazards of natural gas, should it leak.
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Document ID: 76436984

Use Of Inert Gas To Test Potential Gas Storage Aquifers
Author(s): Hyland R. Johns
Abstract/Introduction:
Environmentalism is here to stay as a basic fact-of-life, and will have tremendous impact in the 70s, having supplanted Natural Beauty of the 60s, Changing R/W problems include public concern over environment, conservation and aesthetic values. Utility top management is concerned with rising costs, interest rales and taxes. Legislation at the local, state and federal level also is becoming a serious problem. Finally, everyone has a problem with the available manpower supply. The prescription approach is imperative in meeting these challenges.
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Document ID: CA261D10

Design For Safety
Author(s): E. S. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two major problem areas in the operation of gas distribution systems which are accelerating due to increasing congestion and the demand for higher standards of performance. Both areas have generally been considered by designers to be operating problems. There is much the gas distribution system designer can and should do to alleviate these problems. The first area is contractor damage. Underground congestion together with todays high level of underground construction and maintenance has resulted in an ever-increasing problem. A greater awareness and some new thinking on the part of the designers can help solve these problems.
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Document ID: 00F38B39

Report On Results Of Preliminary Test Series On Pacific/Northwest/Southwest Intertie System
Author(s): A. W. Peabody
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes the results of a preliminary test program designed to give an initial indication of the effect on underground metallic structures caused by stray current from the HVDC system between The Dalles, Oregon, and Los Angeles, California, The HVDC system involved is a nominal 750,000 volt, two-wire, d-c transmission line used for interchange of large blocks of power. The test program described herein was conducted in direct cooperation with the Inter-Association Steering Committee and the National Task Force on Effects of HVDC, The tests were made prior to commercial operation of the HVDC system.
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Document ID: 18D8B823

Odorization Encapsulation Education-A Panel Encapsulated Mercaptan Used To Educate Customers (70 D-Io)
Author(s): J. O. Trittschuh
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety is a watchword in the natural gas industry. Natural gas is mothered from the producers well to the consumers appliance because the entire gas industry is concerned about safety at all points of production, transmission, distribution, and Utilization. Over many years, the natural gas industry has spent many millions of dollars to make it the safe fuel it is today. The safety record is a good indication of the industrys concern about safety. Leaders are constantly watching for ways of making gas safety a habit and not just a word.
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Document ID: 27788449

New LNG Applications
Author(s): Joseph Seliber
Abstract/Introduction:
There are three primary reasons why we dont have significant progress in new LNG applications. These are the high cost of LNG produced by small (1-5 million cf/day) plants, the lack of wide distribution of LNG, and the high cost of portable LNG fuel containers. These difficulties point to the need for inexpensive on-site liquefiers, which will facilitate pilot marketing for new LNG applications. Additionally, there are specific development needs for the LNGfueled, turbocharged, spark-ignition truck engine and the off-the-road LNG-fueled gas turbine. LNG-fueled truck refrigeration systems seem closest to commercial feasibility if LNG supply can be extended. A tentative solution for the low-cost small liquefier is the liquid-nitrogen-powered LNG liquefier. The key is obtaining low-cost liquid nitrogen from existing air separation plants at limes when these plants are operating at less than full capacity.
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Document ID: 661F76ED

Public Relations Aspect Of Planning For Emergencies
Author(s): Corey F. Overton
Abstract/Introduction:
Any company is a potential victim of a disaster or other emergency. And the unpredictable consequences of these unfortunate occurrences can range from death and widespread property damage, as immediate effects, to loss of public confidence in the company and impairment of its financial position, in the long term. For every company the prospect is forbidding, but for a utility, whose product is energy and whose service is essential to its customers, the prospect is even more serious, Although utility operating and organizational efficiencies have reduced substantially the risk of experiencing a major emergency, it is the long-shot event of largescale proportions we are considering here. On the outside chance that your company some day will be confronted with a disaster situation, logic tells us we should do what we can to prepare for these unpredictable events.
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Document ID: 16EEE1C9

Finding Profit Opportunities During A Supply Problem
Author(s): G. J. Tankersley
Abstract/Introduction:
The complexion of our business will be changing quite significantly over the few years. Two of those changes have already become apparent and they are severely affecting the operating man in the gas utility. Our two most important problems are gas supply and the increasing costs of raising money for capital investment. Both of these problems will require aggressive efforts to reach creative solutions. My operating plan is first to define the supply problem as I see it, then discuss your role in helping your company respond to the problem, and finally lalk about how your activities can significantly aid your companys growth prospects in todays tight money market. These two problems are not unrelated you may be surprised how similar your response could be to both.
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Document ID: 2B29B628

Pipe Stresses Due To Frost And New Methods For Frost Heaval Control
Author(s): Edward W. Browning
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of frost heave control has been with the gas industry for a number of years. However, as broader pressure cuts, high-flow rates and adverse soil and water conditions converge, the problem is intensifying. This is evidenced by an abundance of material being published. Consumers Power Company has made a rather concentrated and effective attack on the problem during the last few years as a result we have a contribution to make to the general subject of frost heave control. We have attempted to tailor this paper to avoid repeating material that has been previously and adequately covered by Davis, Kempner and more recently by Yic. For this reason, this paper will not dwell on the mechanism of frost heaving in soil and will only briefly comment on the control methods of soil stabilization by chemical injection.
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Document ID: 78F6439A

Flame Propagation And Explosion Proof Electrical Equipment
Author(s): T. E. Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1937, the Bureau of Mines engineers in Dallas. Texas, developed equipment for reproducing, on a laboratory-scale, actual fires and explosions which have occurred in the mineral and allied industries. Up to this time, few people had ever seen how a fiame travels through a sewer or pipe, how pressures build up as that flame travels, or how pressure can cause piping to rupture and sewer manhole covers to be blown off.
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Document ID: 2E14A7F1

Cathodic Protection Gas- Storage Field Well Casings
Author(s): A. W. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Wells that have to be plugged as a result of corrosion damage cant store gas. Because of this, the recent acceleration in gas storage field construction has been accompanied by a corresponding interest in evaluation and control of corrosion on storage well casings. Consumers Power Company and its subsidiary, Michigan Gas Storage Company, gas storage facilities consist of approximately 1100 wells and 650 miles of gathering system piping, located in four widely separated areas of Michigans lower peninsula. We provided cathodic protection for the 650 miles of gathering system piping in these storage fields several years ago and now are completing a program to provide similar protection for all exterior storage well casing surfaces. Previously only those well casings near an existing cathodic protection rectifier (where interference problems might result) were protected.
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Document ID: 8C72A007

LNG For Base Load Requirements-The El Paso Project
Author(s): George D. Carameros, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG for Base Load Requirements is a subject of particular interest to me and my company, since we are deeply involved in a major LNG project with which I am sure all of you are familiar. I refer, of course, to our project with Sonatrach, the Algerian national oil and gas company. This project involves Ihe importation into the United States of a daily average of approximately one billion cubic feet of natural gas in liquefied form over a 25-year period. Our agreement with Sonatrach is particularly significant since it is designed to import LNG into the United States to supply hose load needs for the first time. Moreover, it will enable both Algeria and the United States to achieve important goals: Algeria will obtain hard currency and a strengthened industrial base for its developing economy the United States will be assured of large volumes of LNG needed to help meet our growing natural gas requirements during a period of short age of supply.
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Document ID: 31629E13

On-Line Billing-How We Are Approaching It
Author(s): Dean W. Haldeman
Abstract/Introduction:
ON-Line Billing is a concept at Consolidated Gas but not a reality. The need to obtain accurate information quickly with respect to the corrected volume of gas which passes through large industrial and sales measuring stations during a specific period is increasing. At the same time the development of more sophisticated gas-dispatching techniques is increasing the need for more flow rate information from the various parts of a gas system. Best estimates of this information are unacceptable to some users and are being frowned upon by an increasing number of others. Currently four to seven days are required to obtain a processed chart after it has been removed from the meter, provided it does not receive special handling. With the need for figures of billing accuracy apparently going to increase in the future, a means of expediting the flow of processed information is needed.
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Document ID: 03A17FBA

Compressor And Regulator Station Corrosion Control
Author(s): Cory E. Mahan
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for cathodic protection of compressor station buried piping and regulator station piping has become a necessity for several reasons. Among these reasons are personnel safety, public safety, the need for continuous operation during peak periods, and, last but not least, protection of the companys capital investment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, installation, operation, and maintenance of a distributed anode bed for the protection of compressor and regulator station piping.
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Document ID: A12CF65D

Value Of Mini-Computer Control
Author(s): Melvin H. Rice
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company is a privately- owned combination gas and electric utility company operating in Michigans Lower Peninsula, The company serves approximately 830,000 gas customers over a 12,500 square mile area. Last years gas sales totaled 281,761 MMCF. A recent peak day sendout of 2,074 MMCF was recorded on January 8,1970, Consumers Power Company purchases gas primarily from the Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company and the Trunkline Gas Company. Consumers Power Company utilizes fully the native gas fields available to them for storage. By injecting gas during the summer months and withdrawing from storage during heavy demand periods in the winter, it is possible to purchase a fairly constant daily rate from the pipeline companies throughout the year.
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Document ID: 4A61FD38

Task Group Report On Deliverability Problems Of Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): James H. Gibbons
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its conception in 1951, the Task Group on Deliverability Problems has been involved with a variety of subjects pertaining to deliverability problems. The scope of this task group was rewritten last fall. It now reads: 1 . To undertake studies relating to the deliverability of natural gas and to the analysis of reservoir data pertaining to deliverability from underground storage. 2. To compile and distribute information on methods of estimating gas storage deliverability. 3. To monitor research being conducted by the Bureau of Mines and others on methods for improving underground storage deliverability
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Document ID: B38308A1

Use Of Cvm Meter As A Master For Testing Turbo Meters
Author(s): Walter H. Browning
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing use of gas turbo meters has created the problem for gas utility companies of means of testing them at their higher flow rates. Virtually no utilities in the United Slates have standard proving devices (bell prover, piston prover, calibrated pressure tank, etc.) which permit tests in excess of 20,000 cfh. Since this is the case, the next device that comes to mind for this purpose is some form of transfer proving, i.e., the comparison of registrations of a field and master meter when operated in series, and with consideration for their differences in temperature and pressure. Most forms of transfer proving have shortcomings which lead to a search for that form which is best when consideration to accuracy, capacity, cost, and other factors involved.
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Document ID: 500D5112

Guidelines For Transducers And Analog Flow Computers
Author(s): D. L. Imler, R. S. Grettom
Abstract/Introduction:
A survey of A.G.A. member companies experienced with transducers was conducted by the Automation Committee in 1968 and 1969. The purpose of the study was to define better the gas industrys problem with transducers and to make recommendations to assist in solving the problem. The study was completed under the direction of D. E. Jenks, Consumers Power Company. Based on a sampling of 18 gas industry members the most common transducer problems are as follows: 1. Temperature effect on sensitivity and zero. 2. Shift or drift in calibration without temperature or pressure fluctuation. The survey also indicated that 50% were not satisfied with present purchasing guidelines and over 90% of the companies surveyed would use an industry- wide guideline if available. The problem noted as the least common was that of component failure. As a result of this survey the Automation Committee selected a task group to prepare guidelines for transducers and flow computers.
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Document ID: BC67F295

The View Of A Domestic Gas Producer
Author(s): Leroy Culbertson
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the major gas producers are integrated companies. They produce and sell energy, such as natural gas, fuel oil, LPG and LNG. Some producers sell coal. It is not their policy or desire to promote the production and sale of any one of these energy sources to the exclusion of the others. They are interested in producing and selling any and all types of energy to meet demand. Phillips has been a major producer and seller of natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG for more than 40 years. We have probably dedicated as many gas reserves to proposed gas pipeline transmission companies prior to certification and building as any other company. During recent years we have continued to commit our gas reserves to the interstate market.
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Document ID: E7D19580

Design Considerations And Operating Procedures In Upgrading Distribution Systems To Higher Pressures-A Panel
Author(s): W. C. Dahlman
Abstract/Introduction:
In the middle 1920s, the Houston Oil Company found and produced large quantities of natural gas in south Texas. Gas was a stepchild to oil in those days because there was no great market for it. So, in many respects, the gas wells that Houston Oil brought in were a major disappointment. Since gas was there in large quantities and because a great amount of money had been invested in drilling, Houston Pipe Line Company was organized as a wholly owned subsidiary of Houston Oil. These pioneers reasoned that, if gas could be brought to Houston via pipeline, there would be a market for it.
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Document ID: 6C85064F

Reporting Systems And Their Use
Author(s): William D. Mcdonald
Abstract/Introduction:
On January 1, 1970 a new system of reporting and work measurement report preparation was instituted by Peoples Gas Service Department. A new Servicemans Daily Time Ticket was designed so that it could be read by the IBM 1287 Optical Reader and the information transcribed into the various reports through the use of the RCA Spectra 7055 computer system. One of the main reasons for the adoption of the new work measurement schedules at this time was the development of the Corporate Personnel Data System. Although prior consideration had been given to developing these types of service department records, the plan for the Personnel Data System provided an immediate opportunity to implement some of these. In addition, the new system has substituted the computer- prepared reports for manually prepared reports and has provided considerably more information than previously available.
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Document ID: EBE32F67

The National Gas Survey
Author(s): Thomas H. Jenkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In view of the critical shortage of natural gas and other energy forms with which the nation is faced today, the Federal Power Commission recently has initiated, under its Order of February 23, 1971, the National Gas Survey. The Commission has been well aware of the need for such a survey in order for it to obtain an overview of the natural gas industry in all of its ramifications. This knowledge must be available to the FPC for the proper exercise of its comprehensive regulatory responsibility. The survey also will be of great value in the determination of a long-range Federal policy in regard to the energy needs to assure, with the cooperation of this industry, the most efficient utilization of our gas reserves in the national interest. The need for a plan or guideline to attain these goals and to assist the FPC in these very important responsibilities is becoming indeed critical.
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Document ID: 75A10ACD

Conduct Of Underground Storage Research
Author(s): E. Vincent Martinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of natural gas from storage to meet the maximum day requirements of utilities increased 41% in the four-year period from 1964 to 1968. The gas industry is now experiencing a period of diminishing availability of new reserves of natural gas for purchase from traditional United States sources of gas supply. Our industry experienced a number of nip-and-tuck days last January when unusually cold weather covered a wide-spread area. To meet the demands, underground storage fields everywhere were called upon to deliver maximum volumes and very convincingly proved their worthiness. The growing difficulty of obtaining new gas reserves is forcing the industry to resort more and more to natural gas supplies and LNG from foreign countries. In addition, greater effort than ever is being put on improvement of technology for more economical production of synthetic gas from coal, lignite and oil shales.
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Document ID: 485FABA8

Orifice Meter Research
Author(s): R. B. Dowdell, m. P. Wilson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not known where or when orifiee plates were firsi used for Row measurement. Over 2,000 years ago, however, the Romans had installed constrictive type flow metering devices in the branch lines from their main aqueduct system supplying Rome. Substantial income was derived from charges based on this metering and was used for the upkeep and further improvement of the system. The use of the concentric, flat plate orifice for the purchase or sale of fluids came about in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Since that time, we have seen its use grow to the point where it has become the principle means for the measurement of flow in closed conduits in the United States today.
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Document ID: 82F93FED

Application Of The Sterling Cycle To LNG Production Plants
Author(s): B. J. Ferro, J. A. Halloran
Abstract/Introduction:
The Stirling Cycle was conceived and patented in 1816 by Reverend Robert Stirling, a minister of the Church of Scotland. This fact obviously makes it a holy of a cycle. Reverend Stirlings original embodiment was a device to convert heat into power by using hot air instead of steam. This relatively simple engine worked by virute of the fact that a gas, such as air, expands when it it heated. If it expands against a piston, it does work and also cools itself in the process. The Stirling hot air engine consisted of a hot and a cold space connected through a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator). Pressure within these two spaces was varied mainly by the reciprocating motion of the working piston. Transfer of the working gas from the hot to the cold spaces through the regenerator, and vice-versa, was accomplished by means of the transfer piston (displacer). Proper phasing of the motion of piston and displacer was prearranged by the phase angles of the crankshafts driving each of these two moving elements.
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Document ID: 41C5922C

Operating Quality Control-An Action Rather Than Reaction
Author(s): J. N. Oling
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years we at NI-Gas have had an awareness of construction, maintenance and operating costs. We knew that unless we exercised diligent control over manhours expended and supplemented this control with ingenuity relative to methods, materials and equipment, our costs would rise. Rising costs seem inevitable today but a continuing objective has been to minimize these cost increases. It was not unusual for our crew members to know exactly how many manhours per average service were being expended or how many manhours per 100 feet of main installed were being expended. We were all aware of costs! They were easily measured and documented. But what about conformance to recogrized good practices? How vveli were we following the intent of B31.8? Were the construction specifications being followed as they should? How well were we doing on cleanup and public and employee safety? Had we made every reasonable effort to minimize the possibility of future incidents on the system? Most everyone in our company, and Im sure in your company, would answer these questions in the positive vein indicating that no real problem existed.
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Document ID: 025F33CF

Management Uses Of Computers
Author(s): Robert L. Brueck
Abstract/Introduction:
The job of management is to make decisions and, in so doing, to guide the organization to improved efficiencies of operation. In a profit-oriented company, these improved efficiencies of operation mean greater profits. Managers exist at all levels within the organization, from the foreman in the field to the president of the company. The importance of each decision to the overall operation of the organization varies, but because the decisions made at every level depend on those made at lower levels, all decisions within an organization are important.
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Document ID: F2549140

Engine Analyzer-Why Buy-Make Your Own
Author(s): Edward S. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
A set of design criteria for an electronic engine analyzer to be used only as a maintenance tool is proposed. Since no commercially available analyzer package satisfies the criteria, a homemade analyzer system assembled from discrete components and interfaced with commercially available logic circuitry which meets the criteria is described.
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Document ID: 5302237A

Role Of Fcc During National Emergency
Author(s): H. A. Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
The Communications Act of 1934, as amended, directed the FCC to assume the responsibility for that portion of the frequency spectrum for which we in the gas industry have an interest. The FCC wrote appropriate rules to govern our use of the spectrum, but included a provision that permitted us to utilize this spectrum or the frequencies during emergencies in a manner not necessarily covered by rules during emergencies. What this means is that we are pretty much on our own during emergencies. But the FCC can and will be of great assistance to us in preparing to meet emergencies.
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Document ID: A4E6D870

Critical Areas In Design Specifications For Derricks & Aerial Devices
Author(s): Walter E. Caesar
Abstract/Introduction:
The aerial basket as a utility work tool has come a long way since the initial design developed to pick apples or cherries. These early machines evolved through various stages from steel beams and wide stance outriggers to the broad range of units we see on the market today. This same evolution can be seen with derricks which developed from the early stiff leg derricks to the hydraulic foldover derricks, to the present day rotating head corner mount and center mount derricks. Caution must be used in preparing or reviewing specifications for the design or purchase of this type of equipment.
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Document ID: D237AF07

Field Use Of Microfilm
Author(s): Charles F. Safrance
Abstract/Introduction:
The Consumers Gas Company is using microfilmed copies of records in the field to assist in locating underground plant. Prior to the use of microfilm, the man in the field was issued a set of Alias Plate drawings (22 X 34) which were kept in a post binder. From these records he could determine the location of the main from property on street line, diameter, material, operating pressure, and cross reference number of the source document from which the information was plotted. If he was unable to locate or stake the main from this information, he would either radio or telephone a locations record clerk for more detailed information.
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Document ID: 18D31A81

Fleet Colors And Company Image
Author(s): F. F. Ferrara
Abstract/Introduction:
Our specialty is transportation. Our bag, if you will, deals with keeping our customers supplied with power. This may sound a bit presumptuous but, without our utility fleets to carry men and equipment to the customer or trouble spot, the power fiow in all probability would cease. We are living today in the most aflluent society in the history of man. This society expects much and has grown to identify those who can and cannot fulfill their demands. In our endeavor to meet these demands, our customers have identified us in a number of ways. Newspaper reports, radio, television, word-ofmouth- all have carried our name at one time or another.
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Document ID: 4C8FBF97

The Fpc And Limg Imports
Author(s): Albert B. Brooke, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The growing interest in LNG imports is a direct outgrowth of the present natural gas supply-demand imbalance in the United States. An alarming trend in gas supply has continued from 1968 as A.G.A. figures, recently released, showed the second annual decrease in proved reserves from the 282.1 trillion cubic feet in 1968 to 269.9 trillion cubic feet at the end of 1969. National demand for energy of all forms is accelerating. The Future Requirements Committee in its report of September, 1969 estimated thai nalural gas requirements would increase from 21.5 trillion cubic feet in 1968 to 25.8 trillion cubic feet in 1971, representing a 20% increase in requirements for the three-year period from l969 to 1971.
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Document ID: EE4C3E00

Real-Gas Effects In The Flow Of Methane And Natural Gas Through Critical-Flow Nozzles
Author(s): Robert C. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
When critical-flow nozzles are used for metering the mass flow rate of natural gas, the isentropic flow equations for a perfect gas do not apply. (A critical- flow nozzle is one in which the throat velocity equals the local speed of sound. It also has been called a sonic-flow nozzle or a choked nozzle.) In this paper a perfect gas is defined as one having an invariant specific heat and a compressibility factor of unity. A perfect gas is to be distinguished from an ideal gas, which has a temperature-dependent specific heat and unity compressibility factor. A nonperfect gas is a real gas. In the absence of dissociation, all real gases approach the ideal-gas condition as the pressure is reduced. The assumption that the gas is perfect is sufficiently accurate for computing the flow of such gases as air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. However, natural gas cannot be considered perfect even at pressures less than atmospheric, since natural gas has an appreciable specificheat variation with temperature. That is, under this condition, natural gas can be considered ideal but not perfect. At higher pressures the compressibility factor variation also becomes important.
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Document ID: 23671081

The Determination Of Total Sulfur By Hydrogenation
Author(s): Dominic F. Cundari
Abstract/Introduction:
WITH the phasing-out of manufactured gas in the late 1950s and early 60s, it soon became readily apparent that total sulfur concentrations in sendout gases took a precipitous drop to well below the 1 grain per 100 cubic foot mark. The referee method for the determination of total or organic sulfur, which long has been accepted as a standard method especially by gas manufacturing companies and by most regulatory agencies, has a precision of about 1 grain per 100 cu. ft. With gases containing up to 30 grains of sulfur per 100 cu. ft., this was a method of sufficient accuracy but with natural gas seldom containing over 0.4 grain per 1OO cu. ft. a new standard became a necessity.
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Document ID: B1DCAF78

LNG From Alaska To Tokyo
Author(s): Art Uhl
Abstract/Introduction:
During the next 15 years, over 50 billion standard cubic feet of natural gas in liquefied form will be delivered each year -from Alaska to Japan via two tankers plying the route from Port Nikiski on Cook Inlet to Negishi on Tokyo Bay. Each of the two tankers will deliver about 28,000 tons of -260F LNG per voyage and will complete about 17 voyages per year. This is the equivalent of pipeline deliveries of 140 MMscf/day, the year-round, across a distance of about 3.500 miles. Four corporations on the two continents are involved in the operation: Phillips Petroleum Company of Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and Marathon Oil Company of Findlay, Ohio, as suppliers of the LNG, with Phillips as the Kenai plant operator and Tokyo Gas Company, Ltd., and Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated, as LNG purchasers, with Tokyo Gas as Negishi plant operator.
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Document ID: C113436F

Pgw Tells It Like It Is
Author(s): William H. Thorpe
Abstract/Introduction:
According to the latest statistics from the Institute of Gas Technology, there are over 16 LNG plants currently operating in the United States and Canada plus 14 more under construction. Philadelphia is one of those having an operating liquefaction plant. If there are any transportation men in the audience whose companies are eontemptating an LGN facility or who currently have one under construction, rest assured that as sure as night follows day someone in your top management will decide that some experimental work be done in your fleet to evaluate the use of LNG as a vehicular fuel. The concept of natural gas as an engine fuel has been with us for many, many years but the application of natural gas in its liquid state as a vehicle fuel is relatively new, and I think I am correct in saying that our friends at San Diego Gas and Electric were the pioneers in this field of LNG vehicles as early as 1966. Im sure that the great majority of you are familiar with the so-called San Diego Story, and for those of you who are not, the information is readily available from many sources telling the whys and wherefores of the San Diego Companys entrance into the field of liquid natural gas for automotive vehicles.
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Document ID: 5E7278D3

An Appraisal Of The Soviet Gas Industry
Author(s): Ferdinand Gagne
Abstract/Introduction:
Considerable care must be taken whenever anyone attempts an overview of the Soviet gas industry. To begin with, the collection of basic information is difficult and not always rewarding. Even when data is gathered regularly, an assessment of the real situation is not always possible. To make a careful assessment, one would have to consider thoroughly socialist idealogies and then analyze practices, objectives and perhaps even anthropological differences. Gathered data can answer questions of what and how many, but the added considerations answer why. However, this is a business paper and not a philosophical treatise, so we must ignore the striking differences in the political and economic systems.
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Document ID: FE691F5D

Automatic Meter Reading
Author(s): A. B. Coyle
Abstract/Introduction:
McGraw-Edison Power Systems Division has been working on automatic meter reading systems for a number of years. Our first exposure was back in 1962 when we were approached by a small engineering development firm telling us of an automatic meter reading system it had developed. Since this company had neither manufacturing facilities nor sales personnel, it was interested in an association with an organization that would provide the lacking capabilities. This company had a small field trial in operation where it was reading electric watt-hour meters over telephone lines. A number of our people visited this fieldtrial installation and were quite impressed with what they saw. The operating principles were extremely simple. The hundreds dial of an electric watt-hour meter was fitted with a potentiometer. Telephone lines were used as a reading circuit. When a meter was to be read, the proper phone line was selected and its impedance measured. A signal was then sent over the telephone line causing a relay to close, which inserted the potentiometer into the circuit.
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Document ID: C1A7E607

Progress With Cng And LNG Vehicles
Author(s): W. B. Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 12 months since this group last met, we have seen numerous developments in the gas-fueled vehicles. One of the first which many watched with interest was the coast-to-coast clean car race sponsored by M.I.T. and Caltech. Forty-seven cars running on nearly every type of fuel and exhaust emission system imaginable raced across the country for seven days. Thirteen cars powered by LPG and 6 by natural gas were among the 37 finishers. Using a scoring system that was just as complex as some of the cars entered, the judges threw up their hands and awarded first prize to a car with exotic muffiers running on unleaded gasoline and failing to meet even the 1975 emissions standards. While we learned much from an air pollution standpoint, air pollution emissions were not the only criteria used to measure race performance. It should be noted, for example, that the scoring system omitted the reactivity factor in measuring hydrocarbons. My own choice from reading the results would have been Worcester Techs LPG-powered car.
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Document ID: D79BBB97

Trend To Consumerism In Service Policies
Author(s): George K. Bachmann
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to determine if there is a trend to consumerism in service calls or if it is imaginary, the Task Force on Service Policy Review of the A.G.A. Customer Service Committee sent a questionnaire to a group of 32 companies in April 1970 to see what their latest thinking on the subject is, as compared to what it was three years ago in 1967. In a short review of the responses we find: Most companies respond to leak and no gas calls on a no-charge basis (Question 1). Also, most companies provide some appliance adjustment service to residential customers, but a few of the 32 companies responding do not provide commercial-industrial service (Question 2). Central heaters and water heaters are serviced by most gas companies. There are lew companies that do not service other appliances (Question 3).
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Document ID: C0F5D9DA

Radioactive Waste Disposal By Hydraulic Fracturing
Author(s): Wallace De Lacuna
Abstract/Introduction:
Largely since World War II, ihe petroleum industry has developed the technique of hydraulic fracturing to increase oil recovery so that the procedure is almost universally used in reservoir rocks of low permeability. Single injections of 100,000 gal of oil containing 250,000 lb of sand are not unusual. Much the same equipment and procedure is used for waste disposal, although there are certain significant differences. The disposal well at Oak Ridge is drilled and cased to a depth of 1000 ft in shale using standard oil-field methods. The casing is slotted near the bottom and a self-hardening mixture of waste, Portland cement, and clay is pumped down under high pressure, forming a widespread, thin, horizontal fracture in the shale in which the waste sets up solid. After several injections into the same slot, totaling roughly 400,000 gal, the bottom of the well is plugged and a new slot cut some 10 ft higher up the well.
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Document ID: 4645781B

Problems Involved In Implementing Cathodic Protection In Large Cities
Author(s): John H. Fitzgerald, III
Abstract/Introduction:
Cathodic protection is an essential part of gas distribution operations. It is especially important that pipelines in urban areas be adequately protected, and this can be accomplished realistically and economically provided one recognizes the problems that can exist. Problems generally encompass effects on foreign structures, shorts (inadvertent contacts to other structures), damaged or poor quality coating and the feasibility of assuring protection through pipe-to-soil potential tests. This paper outlines the cathodic protection methods that can be used, the problems likely to be encountered and solutions that can be employed.
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Document ID: B1A32ED6

Corrosion Control Records System Using Electronic Data Processing
Author(s): Thomas Snedden
Abstract/Introduction:
With the expansion of metropolitan and urban areas, gas distribution companies have paralleled this growth by laying pipe to meet the increased gas demand. To prevent corrosion leaks from occurring on this pipe, cathodic protection has been applied. Keeping this protection up to standard has sometimes been difficult because of varied circumstances involving other structures and the protected pipe. If corrosive action on any of this gas pipe is ignored. a steady and continual action will, in time, consume the metal. It is of utmost importance when cathodic protection has been applied on an underground structure that periodic checks be made to determine if it is working and if it is adequate. The results of these checks, when accumulated, become the corrosion control records that can be used for future comparisons and this data can be used for a knowledgeable economical evaluation of the effectiveness of the program.
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Document ID: 06F80312

Effect Proposed B31.8 Code May Have On Corrosion Control
Author(s): Jack Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is anticipated that before the year is out a Corrosion Control Chapter will be added to the ANSI B31.8 Code. That is. the Section Committee B31.8, per se, has approved the substantive provisions of new corrosion control requirements, and these new provisions are now being reviewed by the American National Standard Committee 831 on Code for Pressure Piping prior to publication. Granted that one cannot state with certainty that this review process will produce no change whatever in the proposed Corrosion Control chapter, substantial deviations from the requirements heretofore approved by the B31.8 Committee are not anticipated. Since our objective is to consider the effect of the proposed Code changes on corrosion control, it seems appropriate to consider the substance of some of these provisions.
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Document ID: 529C5B77

Swirlmeter-the High Performance Gas Flowmeter
Author(s): John G. Kopp
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past few years there has been a great deal of interest shown in oscillatory fluid motion as a promising means for measuring gas flows. The Swirlmeter is the first flowmeter to use this relatively new fluid dynamics principle. It is based on a regular oscillation induced in the fluid which results in a digital flowmeter that has no moving parts. The Swirlmeter has excellent reliability demonstrated by three years of field experience. The meter has unique performance characteristics: range can be up to 100:1, measurement is 1% of the actual flow: and the meter has completely predictable performance regardless of changing operating conditions or gas composition
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Document ID: F557A5C2

Mobile Home Parks-A Panel
Author(s): Frederick D. Joels
Abstract/Introduction:
Design layout is a functional step in the process of establishing an adequate gas supply for a specified load requirement within a given area. It is necessary not only to adequately size the distribution system, but proper main locations must be determined to achieve optimum system design. System design layouts should be accomplished as economically as possible within the limitations of governing codes and design standards.
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Document ID: DFFF8A6D

New Automation Developments In Flow Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): Norman Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
The evolution or concepts and methods in the field of measurement over the years has brought us many new and better measurement instruments. These measurement instruments are, in turn, opening many doors to industry for operational improvements.
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Document ID: 319948B4

Serving Mobile And Modular Homes
Author(s): Alexander Merrill
Abstract/Introduction:
It seems appropriate that a definition of a factory-manufactured modular housing unit should be established because some confusion undoubtedly exists regarding the real name of the subject. Some of the names used include pre-fabs, prefabricated housing, boxes, cubes, industrialized sections, modules and even mobile homes.
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Document ID: 6DCA2C49

Forecaster To The Nation
Author(s): Frederick G. Shuman
Abstract/Introduction:
The daily weather forecast is perhaps the most widely known governmental service next to the postal service. The National Meteorological Center is a large but relatively little known organization performing a central role in the production of weather forecasts. It continuously processes large masses of data and issues guidance in the form of charts and advisories to forecasters all Over the nation who in turn directly serve the public. The centrally produced guidance material not only provides a means for keeping the many forecasts consistent with each other but also provides the forecast with a scientific base, since guidance prognoses are prepared on computers using basic principles of physics.
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Document ID: 09E33AE5

Temperature Compensation Ten Years Later
Author(s): Paul C. Hittle
Abstract/Introduction:
Development of the temperature-compensated diaphragm gas meter, a little more than a decade ago, was prompted by the desire of measurement men to measure accurately volumes of gas subject to wide temperature variations. The uncompensated diaphragm gas meter measures a displacement or volume at line conditions, Gas, an elastic fluid, varies in volume with changing gas stream temperatures and pressures. Consider the effect of temperature: By definition, the base temperature for gas volume measurement has been established at 60 or 520 degrees absolute, Deviations of 5 F from the base temperature will result in a volume change of approximately 1%. The direction of change, or error in volume measurement, is such that an uncompensated meter will appear to be slow at colder temperatures while at temperatures above the base, the uncompensated meter would appear to be fast.
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Document ID: 459A826A

Financing Transportation Equipment
Author(s): James A. Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
Financing transportation equipment is only a part of the much larger problem of financing the ever-increasing capital requirements of a growing public utility. Growth in the gas business over the years has meant that the companies have had to raise tremendous amounts of capital to finance expansion. While current natural gas shortage may slow things down for a while, additional sources of gas becoming available will generate higher levels of expenditures on new facilities. This in turn will require substantial amounts of new capital to be raised. It is typical in the utility industry for companies to have to rely to a great extent on outside sources of capital, simply because it is not possible for the average company to generate sufficient funds internally to finance its large construction outlays.
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Document ID: C2CC71AF

Data Acquisition
Author(s): R. F. Sarrine
Abstract/Introduction:
The data presented in the following paper is gathered while designing, installing and operating the Gas Data Acquisition System used in dispatching and measuring gas on the Consumers Power Company-Michigan Gas Storage Company Gas Transmission System. The paper explains the concepts, objectives and operation of the installed system, Accuracies obtained with the automatic system when compared to the integrated chart figures generally are in the range of from 0 to 2% difference on individual city gale flows. This is the range expected when using manufactures stated accuracy figures.
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Document ID: 02BB69CB

Corrosion Effects Of High Voltage Direct Current Transmission-Summary Of Research And Findings
Author(s): R. K. Talley
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this report is to review with you the HVDC corrosion research that has been and is being conducted by a number of interested industries. This is the first time, to my knowledge, that corrosion research has captivated the interest of so many industries, including the electrical power industry. The HVDC research is being directed by two independent groups: the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association and the Inter-Association Steering Committee, the research arm of the National Task Force, The latter is a group organized specifically to resolve problems associated with the development of high voltage direct current transmission systems. There is no duplication of work by the two groups, as I think our review of the research by each will point out. Lets begin with the work performed by the Battelle Memorial Institute under the direction of PR-3-41 supervising committee of the A.G.A. Pipeline Research Committee.
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Document ID: FCE3642D

Advantages Of Utility Equipment Standardization
Author(s): Frederic G. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Last year at the A.G.A.-EEI meeting in Philadelphia we discussed ihe merits of using manufacturers standard bodies in public utilities. Considered at that time were the vehicle manufacturers, Dodge, Ford, Chevrolet, International, etc. The vehicles discussed were the compact van and walkin lype units, as they could be and are used in our business. This year the Planning Committee for this meeting thought we might extend last years thinking and investigate ihe possibility of using standard bodies as constructed by the equipment manufacturers. Naturally, to be of value to us in the industry, these bodies would have (o have a considerable number of advantages. Advantages that would outweigh the possible disadvantages that would probably be found by the supervisors and crew to whom these units would be assigned, Im sure all of you at one time or another have delivered to a crew a new vehicle that you thought had every conceivable nook, cranny and crevice only to find that this particular crew could only work if the left-hand crevices were on the right-hand side. Or, maybe it was the righthand cranny that should have been on the left-hand side.
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Document ID: 979F98B4

Extended Weather Forecasting
Author(s): Donald L. Gilman
Abstract/Introduction:
Extended forecasting, as it now is practiced, covers the third, four and fifth days after forecast day and also the time-averaged weather for the third through the seventh days. On the near side of it lies short-range forecasting on the far side, long-range forecasting and the prediction of climatic shifts. The Extended Forecast Division is part of the National Meteorological Center at Suitland, Md., the National Weather Services major weather central. Our extended forecasts comprise a small segment of the huge volume of forecast and observed weather charts transmitted by facsimile devices every day from Suitland to the Weather Services forecast offices around the United States. The men at those offices use this centralized guidance material to help them prepare the familiar local forecasts that reach the public by radio, TV, newspapers, and telephone tapes.
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Document ID: 5D9A4FE4

The Use Of Linear Programming In The Economics Of Peak Shaving
Author(s): Victor J. Blanchet, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses in detail the application of linear programming software in determining the economics of peak shaving. Linear programming is presented as a tool which can determine the minimum gas cost situation by simultaneously evaluating all pipeline contracts and peak shaving options available to the distribution company, An example is used to illustrate the approach and methodology necessary for formulation and solution of the problem.
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Document ID: 7BA3BD82

Correlation Of Spin Test To Actual Meter Proof
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration, cleaning, and repairing turbine meters that have been in field service can be reduced considerably through the use of a simple spin test. Mathematical analysis and considerable test work have shown a definite relationship between the spin test and changes in turbine accuracy after field service. This test will give the men in the field a tool by which they can quickly determine a turbine meters condition. The turbine meter, making use of the velocity measuring principle, has been used for years, especially in the measurement of water. In recent limes the turbine meter has found its way into other areas, most notably the gas measurement industry. With a constant plea for more accuracy and reliability the turbine meter is natural for the job. When properly designed and applied the turbine meter exhibits a high degree of repeatability when operated within its normal range and maintained in good condition.
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Document ID: 3091A6BB

Criteria For Optimum Equipment Replacement Schedules
Author(s): Paul W. Roof
Abstract/Introduction:
We have an established policy for replacements and additions to the automotive fleet the same as other utilities. We often say 3 years or 50,000 miles is a good guideline. Fleets often run the passenger cars x number of years or x miles. However, the discussion of large and mechanized trucks rarely ends with a satisfactory answer as to the exact method a utility fleet has, or should use, for vehicle and equipment replacement. The feeling of security was somewhat shaken after a prolonged study establishing a method to determine the right time to replace utility fleet equipment. The many types of vehicles and equipment required for the average utility fleet would surprise the average fleet operator. The utility fleet has changed in the sixties. The responsibility of the utility fleet manager has been to furnish an efficient, safe, reasonably comfortable and economical vehicle capable of transporting personnel, tools, and materials to and from the job site. Mechanization of trucks was in its infancy. The rotating derrick was not fully accepted because of the constant maintenance problems. Articulating elbows, truck-mounted, were relatively new and often believed too expensive to purchase only for carrying personnel aloft.
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Document ID: B7ABAABD

Density As It Applies To Orifice Measurement
Author(s): John H. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing the application of a densitometer to an orifice meter, it may be of interest to some to know why we might consider substituting an inexpensive pressure element with a delicate instrument costing several hundred dollars. A few reasons will be mentioned here to show that there are very practical uses for such installation. Contract specifications may be changed and one finds that he needs gas quantity in terms of mass instead of volume. He has an appreciable investment in orifice meter runs in place. Replacement of these facilities with pure mass metering equipment can be much more expensive than modifying the existing installation to add a density measuring instrument and using A.G.A. mass measurement formula.
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Document ID: 8EC6EC6B

Application Of The Benedict-Webb-Rubin Mark 1 Program
Author(s): Dean P. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past there was a trade ofV between accuracy and speed in scientific and engineering calculations. Approximations were developed when the more accurate methods could not be used due lo their complexity and time limitations. And balance was established between the more accurate solutions anti the faster approximations, which was necessary and useful when selecting the method of calculation to be used. The method that gave the highest accuracy and still observed the time constraint was used. The high speed, memory capacity, and logic ability of the modern digital computer has forced a change in this balance of accuracy versus speed. The complex calculation procedure can now be finished within a short time period using the computer. After programming, the entire procedure can be handled with speed, ease, and confidence. There is now considerable emphasis on the more accurate forms of calculation. The application of computers to scientific and engineering problems changes the balance so as to encourage the use of the more accurate procedure.
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Document ID: 3E871841

Effective Use Of Private Weather Services
Author(s): John E. Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
While our National Weather Service provides services of a quality unequalled by any other government weather service throughout the world, it has neither the authorization nor funds to provide services for special interests beyond which it normally provides the general public. Those industries such as the gas utilities whose daily operations are extremely weather-sensitive should look to the field of private meteorology for specialized weather services to help solve their weather problems. While no weather service can guarantee infallible accuracy in its forecasts, the benefits gained through the services of a private service are probably one of the best buys offered on the market today.
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Document ID: CA301233

Game Plan For The Gas Team
Author(s): F. Donald Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
At a time when the challenge is greatest and the going is toughest, the gas industry team needs a big extra effort from all to put some points on the scoreboard. Our game plan can succeed with a cohesive and determined effort involving the entire industry-member companies, individual members and staff people working together. It depends on imaginative planning, workable strategy and smooth execution. And it really depends on the talents, the willingness and the dedication of men who believe in teamwork. To build a strong industry team, we have enlisted the Associations officers, directors, section chairmen, and committee workers across-the-board. The Operating Section, of course, fulfills a number of key assignments. Although A.G.A. headquarters contributes participative staff management, our members really call the shots-through direction, approval and control of the entire planning process.
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Document ID: AE2B4093

Underground Gas Storage Statistics-1970
Author(s): George C. Crow, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past two decades the A.G.A Committee on Underground Gas Storage has reported to the industry on storage statistics. The 20th such report has just been released. Underground storage continues to expand and is the most effective way to meet growing market requirements of the gas industry during the winter months, There were some significant mileposts in 1970. For example total storage capacity exceeded the 5 trillion mark for the first time (5.178 Tr.). This is more than new gas discoveries of the past few years. Storage compressor station horsepower passed the 1 million mark-almost 11% of the total for the entire pipeline industry. Previous records for maximum day output from storage reservoirs were exceeded in nearly all states and the total for the country was 26,3 billion. This increase of 4.7 billion over 1969 was larger than for any previous year. Comparative increases in storage are shown in Table I.
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Document ID: 7B4675CC

Investigation Of Joint Performance Of Plastic Pipe For Gas Service
Author(s): H. W. Kuhlmann, F. Wolter, S. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
Basically, pipe-joining requirements are to provide a leak-proof joint with the longitudinal strength sufficient to withstand all service loads. Some industry engineers believe that, in order to accomplish this, it is necessary to have the joint equal to the strength of the pipe others disagree. For example the Dutch have used slip-Joints for years with PVC pipe. These certainly will not withstand a burst test or even some service pressures wiihoug being restrained.
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Document ID: 2BE66EDA

Results Of A.G.A. Sponsored Plastic Pipe Research
Author(s): F. Wolter, H. W. Kuhlmann, S. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of selected environments known to be found in gas-distribution systems on the long-term strength of plastic piping has been the object of considerable investigation in the American Gas Association research program (Project ID-3-1) on plastic pipe at the Columbus Laboratories of Battelle Memorial Institute. The environments used, such as alcohols, aromalics, mineral oil, etc., were chemically pure, well-defined compounds or mixtures. These studies demonstrated that under conditions of stress the environments previously investigated had a pronounced effect on one or more of the plastic pipe materials included in the program.
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Document ID: A3432AAF

Telluric Current Effects On Buried Pipelines
Author(s): Donald N. Gideon
Abstract/Introduction:
Data on telluric gradients and on telluric elTects on pipelines were recorded by four pipeline companies at sites in Washington, California, Wisconsin, and Ohio. Pipe-to-soil potentials and pipe currents were recorded at three points on a section of each piepline at least 10 miles long two pairs of electrodes were arranged in an L-shaped array near each pipeline for recording the telluric components. Recordings were obtained continuously at each station for a period of 12 to 15 months the recordings were sent to Battelle for analysis. Amplitude ranges determined for each 12-hour period for each station and averaged over some 200 days yielded long-term average amplitudes. Pipe-to- soil potential average amplitudes were mostly in the range of 10 to 30 my, and pipe current average amplitudes were mostly in the range of 0.3 to 0.8 amperes. Assessment of the significance of the observed effects in terms of corrosion interference leads to the conclusion that the effects are insignificant both for coated, protected lines, and for bare lines.
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Document ID: 46C4085D

Simple Approach To Practical Solutions Of Machinery And Maintenance Vibration Problems
Author(s): Ralph T. Buscarello
Abstract/Introduction:
What does the word vibration as applied to machinery do to an engineer? For some, it reminds them of a difficult mathematical course they took in college. For the non-formally trained, but with good experience, the word reminds them that in his work with machinery, there is a portion that he doesnt understand very well and whenever he tried to cope with vibration. either he was lucky and guessed right the first time or he had the horror of costly trial and error. For many it brings thoughts of special creatures with black boxes and flashing lights, coupled with a little black magic. But vibrations should bring to mind a practical subject that should be taught in trade school, as it can easily be reduced to laymans language and for any good mans reasoning process. Then, all of the promises -of longer running time, longer bearing and seal life, higher quality product, and so onwould have more meaning, and there would be a chance that the simple steps to achieve them would be readily carried out.
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Document ID: 7AF38049

Odorization Encapsulation Education-A Panel Encapsulated Mercaptan Used To Educate Customers (70 D-Io)
Author(s): J. O. Trittschuh
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety is a watchword in the natural gas industry. Natural gas is mothered from the producers well to the consumers appliance because the entire gas industry is concerned about safety at all points of production, transmission, distribution, and Utilization. Over many years, the natural gas industry has spent many millions of dollars to make it the safe fuel it is today. The safety record is a good indication of the industrys concern about safety. Leaders are constantly watching for ways of making gas safety a habit and not just a word.
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Document ID: 7DAB0ACB

Management Information Systems Evolutionary- Vs. Revolutionary Approach
Author(s): Robert E. Hayes
Abstract/Introduction:
DATA processing people, like engineers, are utilizing the most powerful tool known to man-the computer. Although I am aware of the extremely important role it must play in the control of transmission operations, another important role it must play is to provide management with easy access to current, timely, comprehensive, and accurate information from which to make decisions that will insure further growth and prosperity. What is a management information system? To my knowledge it has never been defined precisely. I will try to define what it is by explaining what it tries to accomplish.
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Document ID: 68EF4BA3

Plastic Versus Steel
Author(s): Keith A. Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Gas Company has been interested in the performance of plastic piping materials since the middle 1950s. Our experience with the standardization of plastic pipe for service replacements in 1962, for main inserts in 1963 and for new services in 1967 has proved that its application is advantageous in distribution systems operating at 60 psi or less. The evaluation of plastic pipe for new mains is nearing completion with the installation of approximately 58,000 ft of 2306 PE and 2110 PVC in 1969.
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Document ID: 94624284

Gas Storage Around The World
Author(s): H. L. Fruechtenicht
Abstract/Introduction:
The International Gas Union was founded 40 years ago, incorporating the national gas associations of 27 countries. One of its integral parts is the Committee on Natural Gases and Mass Storage. This committee has the following subcommittees: 1. Gas Gathering and Conditioning 2. Transport and Storage of LNG and LPG 3. Storage in Geological Formations. The first report of the Subcommittee on Storage in Geological Formations consisted mainly of a reprint of a paper on Storage of Natural Gas in Salt Caverns by H. L. Gentry, to satisfy the intense interest exhibited about this type of storage. Also reprints of Project Gasbuggy-A Nuclear Fracturing Experiment by Charles H. Atkinson, Don C. Ward and J. Wade Watkins and a paper on Use of Nuclear Explosive Devices for Development of Underground Gas Storage Caverns by Charies R. Boardman and John Toman were included. The Plowshare Program was much talked about and all details about it were sought eagerly.
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Document ID: 95376B04

Are We Over-Mechanized?
Author(s): James E. Wallis
Abstract/Introduction:
The question, Are we over-mechanized? is a very good one. It should certainly be asked periodically. The answer. however, is probably expressed as well as can be in the old adage about the man who was asked, Hows your wife? He answered. Compared to what? This question, as it relates to our area, can probably be only really answered in the same way -compared to what? It certainly must relate, among other things, to the times in which we live. Over the years it is very evident that as our standard of living increases, the level of mechanization required to meet this standard likewise increases. Society as a whole is becoming more mechanized in every sphere of necessity. Every business will experience this trend.
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Document ID: C73D992A

Economical Process For Removing Nitrogen From Natural Gas
Author(s): Harold G. Gulp, Richard R. Tracy
Abstract/Introduction:
Nitrogen removal from natural gas could pave the way for utilization of heretofore economically unrecoverable natural gas reserves. The process herein described, both in theory and in practice, has been employed in several applications and is currently the key factor in the development of the Chowchilla gas field in Central California. A discussion of the economics of treating natural gas of varying nitrogen content is included. Additional uses of this process depend only on technical and economic evaluation of its applicability to specific situations.
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Document ID: 4F8F73F8

Transportation Departments Image In Your Company
Author(s): Wayne A. Rigg
Abstract/Introduction:
It is safe to say that fifteen or twenty years ago the utility fleet superintendent was usually called the Shop Foreman and performed a lot of the mechanical work in the garage himself. Many times when he wasnt repairing vehicles, he might be performing chauffeurs duties, washing the boss car, picking up parts (wholesale) for his many friends and in many instances performing some repairs on employees cars. I am sure we all agree that the Fleet Superintendents responsibilities have drastically changed these past few years. This means, of course, that all phases of fleet management have increased proportionately. It is a well known fact that the many technological problems encountered today require dedication and talent that dwarfs the efforts of previous decades.
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Document ID: D124BD4F

Hyperbaric Welding Of Offshore Pipelines
Author(s): W. Thomas Holden
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for making sub-sea code-quality welds has never been more apparent than in the last few years. With oil and gas production from areas of greater water depths, the pipeline industry has to reach out to take this production. But once pipelines are installed, it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to bring a line to the surface for repair. Underwater welding meeting API 1104 code requirements allows us to now make in situ repairs of these lines. After three years of field experience we are optimistic that hyperbaric welding will have application in new construction. What is hyperbaric welding? It is any type of welding process made under ambient pressure conditions. The ambient pressure comes from the surrounding water at the working depth. The welding habitats used offshore are open bottom, and the inside pressure of the habitat, therefore, is the same as the surrounding water and varies with depth.
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Document ID: 8CBED1D9

Impact Of Consumerism On Service Policies-A Panel Protecting The Customer With Good Dealer Contractor Service
Author(s): John Maclarty
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past five years, the Service Policy Task Force of the A.G.A. Customer Service Committee has made a continuing study of service policies and practices. Each year on the spring conference program we try to present a different aspect of service policy for your consideration. In 1969, there were differences of opinion and philosophies on how much service should be provided by the utility and how much should be on a paid service basis. But there was unanimous agreement on one key point Our gas utility and gas mdustry interests can be protected only to the extent that the utility and the industry can insure that its gas customers are provided with efficient, reliable gas service on their gas appliances.
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Document ID: 8F9A4B8C

Procedure For Hydrostatic Testing Gas Transmission Facilities
Abstract/Introduction:
This procedure covers hydrostatic testing of new and existing facilities used in the transmission, gathering, storage, measurement, compression, and regulation of natural gas. The intent is to suggest possible procedures for operating companies to hydrostatically test their facilities. This procedure is offered in the interest of safely and good engineering practice, and is intended to aid in the formation of each individual companys testing procedures. The current edition of the American National Standards Institute, ANSB31.8, Code for Pressure Piping-Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, is recognized as establishing minimum standards for design, installation, testing, and operation of all gas transmission systems.
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Document ID: 9F7007A2

High-Flow Meter Calibration
Author(s): J. A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
The ideal method to prove the accuracy of a gas volume measurement device is to calibrate the device with an accepted and recognized standard of volume measurement. The primary reference standard for volume measurement is a calibrated cubic foot bottle. The standard cubic foot bottle calibrated by the National Bureau of Standards has been used for years to calibrate other volume measurement devices for use as the basic gas industry reference standards. The basic industry standard for volumetric proving has been the Bell Prover and these devices have been accepted as volumetric reference standards by various regulatory bodies. Newer gas measurement devices with high flow capabilities are beyond the flow range of the typical Bell Prover sizes, and provers of sufficient size are very costly.
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Document ID: 57935E70

Value Of Pipeline Automation
Author(s): Robert G. Wall, George m. Hugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Trans Canadas system is used for the remote operation of automated compressor stations. We have attempted to make an historical economic comparison of the costs of owning and operating two classes of compressor stations of similar horsepower on a pipeline system, one fully automated and the other manually operated. The area upon which the analysis is based is TransCanadas 30-inch pipeline system running from Station 41 to 130. There are several compressor stations on this section of the system. However, the section has remained relatively stable for the past six years in that no major pipeline or compressor station facilities have been added because of the construction of the Great Lakes Gas Transmission Company system during this period.
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Document ID: BE1F18F2

Effect Of Instrument Torque On Meter Accuracy
Author(s): Patrick H. Loughran
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter-driven instruments such as base pressure indexes, emcorectors, base volume indexes, and temcorcctors, as well as meter driven chart recorders, had been in use for many years on diaphragm and rotary gas meters prior to the introduction of turbine gas meters into our American gas industry less than ten years ago. A recent review of the AGA Bibliography of Gas Meters and Metering, and other sources indicates that there was little apparent interest and information on the effect of the torque required by these instruments on the accuracy or other performance of those available meters. Even today there still seems to be relatively little interest and most manufacturers literature omits technical data or precautions on the torque effects of instruments on diaphragm or rotary gas meters.
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Document ID: E1C8A23A

Results Of A.G.A. Sponsored Plastic Pipe Research
Author(s): Norman H. Sunness, David W. Denham
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of selected environments known to be found in gas-distribution systems on the long-term strength of plastic piping has been the object of considerable investigation in the American Gas Association research program (Project ID-3-1) on plastic pipe at the Columbus Laboratories of Battelle Memorial Institute. The environments used, such as alcohols, aromalics, mineral oil, etc., were chemically pure, well-defined compounds or mixtures. These studies demonstrated that under conditions of stress the environments previously investigated had a pronounced effect on one or more of the plastic pipe materials included in the program.
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Document ID: 42B25BAA

The Computer Facility: A Candidate For On-Site Utilities
Author(s): William J. Weaver, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
COMPUTERS, the phenomenon of the 60s, have enabled man to achieve some of his fondest-and wildest-dreams, including traveling in space and standing On the moon, But without computers, thousands of scientists, engineers and technicians who worked on the spate project still would be sitting in some vast complex of buildings figuring out the basic arithmetic of the thousands of extremely complicated equations involved in each minor subsystem of the first space shot. A similar dilemma would exist in a multitude of other areas. A vast army of dedicated men and women working at great distances from each other and without the means of rapid and accurate exchange of information still would be laboring patiently over reams of basic research data, looking for the foundation of the fantastic breakthroughs accomplished by modem medical science.
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Document ID: 89B871CE

Engineering Features Of The Ommen Compressor Facility Of Nederlandse Gasunie Nv
Author(s): James m. Iocca
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past five years Western Europe has been receiving natural gas from the immense Groningen field (formerly called the Slochteren field) which is located in the northeastern part of The Netherlands. The gas produced from this field is transported to points throughout The Netherlands and to the West German and Belgian borders through the pipeline system of N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie. In late summer 1969. he first pipeline booster plant of a planned four-planl station located on one site was commissioned. Known as the Ommen Compressor Station, this facility will become the worlds largest gas compressor station when completed.
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Document ID: B26B3E6B

Computer Applications Unlimited
Author(s): Robert A. Cooksey
Abstract/Introduction:
An accurate prediction of the future is imperative in todays business world. The conditions under which management operates are constantly changing and at a faster rate than ever before. A manager requires the tools that will let him react to changes and one of these tools is the computer. But more important, a manager requires a technical staff to offer insight to any computer problem through practical applications. The shortage of gas supply in the U.S. has caused the operating conditions of the gas industry to change more rapidly than at any time in its history. Tor many years the excess of gas supply over demand permitted less than optimum operations and planning. This is not to say that efficient operational planning did not exist but only that the need for the evaluation of every planning alternative was not required to reach an acceptable operational plan.
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Document ID: CE1E23DD

Defect Behavior In Hydrostatic Testing
Author(s): Jack Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrostatic pipeline testing, which was almost unheard of 20 years ago, has become common place today. This change in pipeline construction practice is largly a result of the realization that the likelihood of a spectacular test failure can be greatly minimized by testing with liquid as opposed to a more conipressible fluid. But even more important, by the realization that the integrity of a pipeline can be enhanced by the higher stress levels permissible with hydrostatic testing. This latter view, unfortunately, is not universally held primarily as a consequence of defect behavior during hydrostatic testing. That is, there are still a few who feel high level hydrostatic testing can adversely affect a pipelines reliability, but their number have decreased measurably during recent years. Again, this is attributable to a better appreciation of the formidable defect behavior problem.
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Document ID: 2E72A186

Look Into The Future-Gas-Fueled Environmental Control Devices
Author(s): Robert C. Weast
Abstract/Introduction:
During the period I was collecting material for this paper, I read a short article by Dr. S. I. Hayakawa, President, University of San Francisco. Although the article he wrote dealt with social problems, I fell that Dr, Hayakawas examples were particularly timely regarding the situation we in the gas industry find as we look into the future of gas-fueled environmental control devices, By such devices I mean those apparatuses that heat, cool and regulate the humidity of the spaces in which we live and work. Dr. Hayakawa staled that speakers and commentators refer nowadays very frequently to self-fulfilling prophecies. This is an interesting phrase and an important idea, A self-fulfilling prophecy is a statement that is neither true nor false, but is capable of becoming true if it is believed.
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Document ID: 786AE5C9

What Are Your Metering Problems?
Author(s): Frederic Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
What are your metering problems? If all operating personnel would take a few moments to give our topic some serious thought. I am sure they will become aware, as I have, that we encounter metering problems to one degree or another and from a variety of sources. Therefore I want to explore with you some of the sources where I believe many of our metering problems originate or develop. I have categorized these sources as follows 1. New Meters 2. The Repair of Meters 3. The Handling of Meters 4. The Sizing of Meters 5. The Installation of Meters 6. The Reading and Billing of Meters 7. The Distribution System Serving the Meters
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Document ID: AAA83397

Selection, Training & Promotion Of Mechanics
Author(s): Telesforte J. Filipski
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you have heard the statement that a company is only as good as its people. Our job in management, therefore, is not only to get good people, but to train them and to provide them with opportunities for maximum development. In our garage operations at The Illuminating Company, we have a detailed program for the selection, training, and promotion of mechanics, which we believe does all of these things very effectively. We first began to develop our program about ten years ago, when it became evident that youthful interest in adopting automotive mechanics as a profession was at its lowest point. While we recognize that the further development of our mechanics program is a never-ending task, I believe that we have made a good start.
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Document ID: 31653B2E

HVDC-Where We Stand
Author(s): J. T. Simon
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of high voltage direct current (HVDC) for electrical transmission is a cause for concern for all owners of underground metallic structures. Research has been under way for several years directed toward what the problem is and how it can be counteracted. Preliminary tests indicate that HVDC transmission with ground return can affect buried structures over 100 miles from the electrodes. As electrical requirements in this country expand, steps must be taken to be certain that HVDC systems with ground return must not be built to cause damage to underground metallic structures. But it is not my intent to dwell on the technical aspects of the problem.
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Document ID: 131B42D9

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin, J. R. Robison
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in natural gas was introduced to the industry nearly 20 years ago. Sweet gas had been delivered to the Eastern and Midwestern markets through high-pressure transmission lines for a few years when the demand for gas brought more sour gas into production and treating plants for desulfurization were installed on these supplies to bring hydrogen sulfide concentration down to contract limits. A continuous record of hydrogen sulfide concentration was found to be necessary to ensure the quality of delivered gas. Photoelectric measurement of lead sulfide in impregnated paper tape was used widely as was electrolytic titration.
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Document ID: 3898B985

Report On Threshold Displacement Pressures For Gas Displacing Water From Caprock
Author(s): m. R. Tek, D. L. Katz, m. A, Ibrahim
Abstract/Introduction:
Project PR26-47 was initiated during the summer of 196H at The University of Michigan under the sponsorship of the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association. The purpose of the project was to investigate more thoroughly the nature of threshold displacement phenomena, extend the range of the data, and document field experiences obtained in gas storage reservoirs operated at pressures above the discovery level. All of the information so gathered and organized will be presented in the form of a monograph to be published upon completion of the project this fall. A year ago, at the Gas Transmission Conference in New Orleans, a progress report was made. The significance of threshold pressure as related to the hydraulic gradients above and below caprock was pointed out and a need was expressed of an assessment for simulating the conditions of the reservoir more closely in threshold measurements.
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Document ID: A7D1353F

Design, Operation And Maintenance Experience Of Automatic Line Break Control
Author(s): Max E. Harbach
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic line break control is defined as a device that signals, automatically, a valve to open or close when an attached pipeline ruptures or is torn open. As I define the use of the device, it does not depend on a remote or an outside command to operate but has the inherent ability to sense certain phenomena and command the valve to activate itself. With the growing complexity of the pipeline industry, people no longer have time to analyze on the spot all the effects of opening or closing mainline and compressor station valves. In addition pipeline sizes are becoming much larger and are designed to even higher pressures so that the work required to manipulate these valves is more than men physically can handle in an efficient and prompt manner. Living side-by-side with the public and the present awareness of the publics safety make us look much closer at automatic protective devices.
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Document ID: F1BA0215

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): Kenneth Kendall
Abstract/Introduction:
The word computer is one which is drastically overworked in our language and implies some mysterious and marvelous device to solve all problems. The Chinese had computers centuries ago, and for them the word was abacus. All of us utilized computers in our college engineering courses, but our term at that time was slide rule. Many of us, after college, advanced to a more elaborate computer known as a calculator, and, today, even the calculators are more marvelous and silent since electrons are doing the counting. There are two basic types of computers, analog and digital, and examples in the previous description would include the analog computer, known as the slide rule, and the digital computer, known as a calculator. In simplest terms, analog techniques are based on how much, while digital techniques are based on how many.
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Document ID: 593B90D5

Role Of The Domestic Transmission Company
Author(s): Gordon L. Jennings
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas transmission industry not only has a role to fill in LNG imports, but has been, is, and will be fulfilling that role. Its part in the continuing and expanding drama of gaseous energy supply in our economy is really no different from the part it has been playing for years -only another act has been added to the play. Pipeline companies have been working for some time in preparation for the show to begin and I assure you it will begin shortly. Lets look for a moment into where the pipeline companies have fit into this overall scheme of things in the past and where they will fit in the future. We are the large volume wholesalers, the transporters, the warehousemen of the gas industry buying, transporting over long distances, storing when needed and delivering when needed the vast quantities of gas that have allowed your growing markets to be supplied.
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Document ID: 9A37556D

Unit Factors Applied To Vehicle And Equipment To Determine Workload-A Panel
Author(s): J. E. Hulsizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Agreat deal of time has been given by all transportation departments to establish the optimum manpower requirements to properly maintain their transportation equipment. Along with the increase in the number of units operated has come increased complexity as many electrically, hydraulically and pneumatically powered auxiliary devices have been added to increase the productivity of our construction forces. This rapidly changing type of line construction equipment being placed in service in large numbers, with the greater amount of maintenance, has radically changed the requirements of the garage forces to maintain this equipment in a safe and operational manner.
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Document ID: 2D2E6600

Techniques For Controlling Stray Current Caused By Direct Current Electric Railways
Author(s): Elmer C. Paver
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the oldest methods of applying cathodic protection to underground structures is the use of stray current from direct current electric railway surface lines and subway systems. Adversely, however, some of the pipeline losses have been from the inadequate and improper control of these vagabond currents. Northern Illinois Gas Company has four electric railways passing through its territory. I will attempt to show how we use the stray current from one of these railroads to protect cathodically our pipelines and other structures in the area. First I will explain how stray current from direct current electric railways will cause pipe to decompose or corrode. This type of corrosion usually is classified as electrolysis of underground structures. Electrolysis is defined as chemical decomposition by an electric current.
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Document ID: 4A0CEF20

Leak Survey Practices And Their Importance To The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Andrew Kellogg
Abstract/Introduction:
When a group of gas men get together, they talk about that phase of our business that is the most colorful-the construction of the Big Ones. This is where the action is. and rightfully probably should be-in the construction of our main artery pipelines. While it is vital to lay new lines, another phase of our work is as vital to the safety and maintenance of our existing pipeline system-leakage survey practices and their importance.
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Document ID: BCC58801

Flow Circulating Facility
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and preliminary operation of a closed-loop test facility is discussed and illustrated. The facility was designed to provide a means of testing gas measurement equipment over a wide range of flows and pressures. The system utilizes a centrifugal compressor as the flow generator in a closed system that can be pressurized from an external source up to pressures of 1000 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). The compressor produces flows of 51,600 cubic feet per hour (cfh) at line conditions. Flow control is effected by control valves on a compressor bypass and in the test sections. Preliminary performance of the system appears good, using a turbine meter and a water calibrated oritice meter in calibration tests. Development of suitable measurement standards is in progress. The system can be utilized to test gas measurement and control equipment at pipeline conditions.
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Document ID: 605CD928

Filtering Natural Gas
Author(s): Richard A. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Welding rod, rocks, tools, nuts, bolts, boards, scrap metal, and various other species of foreign matter have been experienced by all of you in pipeline services. It has been a problem from a gas distribution operating and maintenance viewpoint for a long time. Also, dust clouds or dust storms within pipelines as well as the larger entrained material are not new to the gas distribution industry. Impurities were an entity with manufactured gas. It still is an entity with the conversion to natural gas. The drying ability of natural gas in older gas distribution lines has induced many problems. However, lack of knowledge or the cost of available preventive measures caused operating men to live with the problem of sullied gas lines.
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Document ID: 019A6801

Developments In Downhold Safety Valves For Gas Storage Wells
Author(s): Guv W. Cant, William W. Dollison
Abstract/Introduction:
Since there are now more than 13,000 storage wells in the United States, having a combined capacity of approximately 5 trillion cubic feet, protection of the product and to personal property has become increasingly important as the industry continues to grow. For more than thirty years subsurface safety valves have been used in oil and gas producing wells throughout the world. However, most of these valves were installed in wells producing native hydrocarbons and do not have a predictable pressure decline. These valves would not permit high production rates without considerable pressure drop across the valve and would require frequent adjustments to meet changing well conditions. Therefore, the development of safety valves for Gas Storage wells with relatively high production rates and known pressure declines was necessary. These valves are controlled from the surface and do not recognize variable flow rates and declining formation pressures, therefore will not close prematurely during normal pressure decline.
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Document ID: 3EAAF7B9

Proposed Method Of Developing A True Calibration Standard For Automatic Chart Scanners And Mechanical Integrators
Author(s): L. J. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
A paper titled How Repeatable are Your Integrator Operators was presented at the AGA Distribution Conference held in Pittsburgh in 1963. It contained data from an extensive study which showed that throughout the United States there was considerable variation on the results of orifice meter chart integration. Further investigation indicated that the major contribution to the problem had to be integrator calibration, The same paper presented data demonstrating the remarkable improvement in repeatability of reading orifiee meter charts with the new automatic chart scanner as compared with the mechanical integrator. This made it apparent that comparison of chart reads between companies having scanners would be much more of a problem than it had been with integrators.
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Document ID: 57DEA1F0

Study Of Downwind Vapor Travel From LNG Spills
Author(s): Robert O. Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
A method is presented for studying the hazard downwind of large spills of liquefied natural gas. The problem is treated as (1) a heat transfer calculation at the earth-liquid interface yielding the input (2) another heat transfer problem if there is no wind, or (3) if there is wind, an atmospheric dispersion problem. The results of the proposed treatment are compared with the only available area source data on pools of LNG. An example applying the proposed method to conditions approximating an existing configuration is given. The conclusion developed for the conditions of ihe example is that it is very unlikely that vapor concentrations of more than 1/2 the lower flammable limit will exist 600 or more feet downwind of the lee dike.
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Document ID: D18F163E

Fundamental Combustion Research Tools
Author(s): R. V. Serauskas, S. Joni, E. R. Kweller, D. Y. C. Ng
Abstract/Introduction:
A general and brief discussion of some currently useful methods of analysis of combustion reaclants and products is given, with emphasis on their applicability to present combustion analysis problems. New fundamental research techniques for gas flames also are discussed, with special reference to the possible applications that may result from such studies. AT the present time new and more severe demands are being placed upon the use and knowledge of combustion and flame processes. Ever-changing, more restrictive antipollution standards, for example. have made parts-per-million and even parts-per-million analyses of the emissions from such systems a necessity. Trace constituents in flames and flue gases must meet new environmental requirements. Analyses for possible pollutants in combustion emissions must be both more specific and more sensitive.
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Document ID: DAD7FF5C

Experiences With Major Changes In Odorization Practices
Author(s): A. L. Whitehead
Abstract/Introduction:
The major changes in odorization as described herein deal primarily with work done in our companies over the past eleven years endeavouring to: 1. Relate odor intensity to the types of leaks actually being reported by our customers. From such a study we wished to upgrade old, or determine new, parameters from which odorization could be assessed and controlled by relating customer safety to odor impact maintained within, or between, natural gas distribution systems. Such parameters would also help in the development of more efficient odorants, 2. Reduce labor costs in the maintenance and supervision of all phases related to odorization. The aim would be to automate the method of odorant addition and supervision as completely as possible and at the same time provide adequate records of the parameters determined which would guarantee adequate customer safety and odor intensity.
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Document ID: DF69BC88

Purging-Safely And Economically
Author(s): David W. Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
Air trapped and traveling in a natural gas pipeline must be prevented regardless ofthe cost or effort. A positively safe, quick. and convenient method of controlling the purging of air from natural gas pipelines is the subject of this paper. Actually A.G.A. suggests the more precise word clearing to describe displacing air from a pipeline by rapidly introducing gas. This assumes a high pressure source of gas (1100 psi or more) whose volume is several times larger than the pipeline to be cleared. My subject, then, is a very small segment of the much larger problem of purging as defined by A.G.A. Consider for example: Purging a 10-mile section of 24-inch pipeline using pressures of 250 or 300 psi can use as much as 2800 Mcf of gas.
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Document ID: 58CDF91B

The Legal And Logical Use Of Mass Measurement
Author(s): Conway T. Sinclair
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of natural gas coupled with the ever increasing expense of measuring it demands that we review new measurement methods, both from a standpoint of accuracy and economics. A study in both areas was initiated by United Gas Pipe Line Company, resulting in favorable conclusions. The use of a densitometer and an electronic flow computer offers a system which, when compared to present methods, reduces the probability of error to some extent. With further advancement from volume to mass measurement, providing contractual obligations could be changed, a most impressive improvement in error tolerance could be realized.
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Document ID: F68342F8

Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation Of State For The Superheated Region
Author(s): Ronald H. Kuss
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the methods used to determine the work of gas compression for natural gas compressors is based on the change in energy level of the compressed gas. This approach to compressor analysis requires the thermodynamic properties of the gas at the compressor suction and discharge conditions. Using the thermodynamic properties from experimental data presents a problem. The diversity of mixtures found in natural gas transmission work would require experimental data for many mixtures. In order to readily obtain the properties for compressor testing, a method is needed to predict the thermodynamic properties of specific mixtures.
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Document ID: 543BB2C8

Land Mobile Communications And The Public Interest
Author(s): Kenneth A. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of wire and radio communications as vital elements in the promotion of efficiency and safety in pipeline utility operations is indisputable. Gas production, transportation, and distribution are all activities which qualify you for licenses in the general category of industrial radio, and more specifically within the petroleum and power radio services. It has not always been so, however, since the industrial services, as we now know them, have been in existence only since 1948. Prior to that time, your industry made use of a very limited number of frequencies available in a general category of miscellaneous radio services, later in a more restricted group, ihe emergency radio services, still later, the utility radio services and now the present petroleum and power services. Even in those early days you had problems. Possibilities for the use of radio in production and transportation activities were being developed and expanded and, even then, you were seeking additional frequencies to permit new uses and techniques to be implemented.
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Document ID: 41A257DC

Application Of Rock Mechanics To The Underground Storage Of Natural Gas
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
As the demand for natural gas increases, the necessity of storing larger and larger volumes of gas underground during periods of low demand has increased markedly. For example, Table 1 (Grow, 1970) lists the comparative increase in a number of underground storage parameters during the period 1959-1969. Each year there has been a continuing increase in most of these parameters and indications suggest that this trend will continue. If pipeline capacities remain fixed and demands continue to increase, only two alternatives are available: development of additional storage capacity or more efficient utilization of existing storage reservoirs. From an economics point-of-view the latter alternative is certainly the most desirable.
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Document ID: 4B85CF1E

Training Personnel For Corrosion Control Work
Author(s): Richard m. Niedbala
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper depicts the mechanics of educating the company work force in the three disciplines of corrosion control: 1. Pipe Coating 2. Cathodic Protection 3. Electrical Insulation from Foreign Pipe- A soil bos demonstration using the various pipes encountered in street right-of- way, i.e., coated steel, cooper, and cast iron is presented in language understood by the man in the ditch. The construction of a simulated gas pipe system is done in front of the group being trained. They actually see the voHage changes of their pipe as a result of the three facets of a corrosion control program.
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Document ID: 057D5713

Increasing The Capacity Of Existing Distribution Systems
Author(s): Howard m. Boyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The growth cycle of a typical gas distribution system starts with an accelerated territorial expansion rate that continues until the boundaries are reached. Concurrent with or following the expansion is a process of consolidation as gaps are filled in and the system becomes fully gridded. The third phase might be characterized as transitional the geographical distribution of loads can be affected by changes of land use, and the magnitude of loads affected by increased gas utilization per customer. Even though much thought and effort are apjilied to the master planning of new systems, predictions are seldom wholly confirmed by events. A once finely tuned network can get out of kilter with the passage of time. Eventually, the capacity of the system must be augmented. Bui finding the best solution, that is, the proper amount of reinforcement at the proper time and most important at the proper location, is a difficult task because the network is likely to have become very complex. There are usually several plans which will meet the design parameters, but only one that will prove to have the best economic performance, and so we are confronted by a problem of optimization.
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Document ID: 90309698

Public Relations During Pipeline Construction, Testing And Emergencies
Author(s): William H. Gover
Abstract/Introduction:
Construction, testing and emergencies arising from pipeline operations present varied public relations challenges. In this paper the public relations aspects of each of these facets of pipelining is discussed. Checklists are presented as guidelines to use during testing of in-place pipelines. Samples of handbills and letters for distribution to residents living along the route of the pipeline to be tested are included. Being largely underground, natural gas facilities present very few public relations problems during normal operations. Problems first occur during construction. Subsequent problems occur during testing and emergencies arising from deviation to normal operating modes. Each of these facets of pipelining will be discussed independently.
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Document ID: C3C8C14B

Commercial Cooking-Dont Lose The Load-A Panel
Author(s): m. L. Graham
Abstract/Introduction:
At Oklahoma Natural we feel strongly that service is a definite sales and marketing tool as far as the retail and institutional food service customer is concerned. This has been our philosophy for a number of years. Servicemen have played a significant role in our food service sales program for nearly 20 years. Strong sales and service efforts have resulted in a food service equipment market saturation of over 92%. In simple terms we might state our companys position in a formula an aggressive sales force + customer satisfaction through sound gas and control adjustment service + a sales and service marketing team an important load maintained.
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Document ID: 84AB7C67

The Epga Story
Author(s): Vincent m. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for, and importance of, emergency preparedness and planning cannot be overemphasized. While all of us share in the hope thai we will never have to face the possibility of a serious national emergency, this does not rule out the fact that we could be attacked. And how well we prepare now could spell the difference between survival and defeat, especially in the event of a nuclear attack. To meet this situation, the President of the United States, in February 1962, by Executive Order, specifically assigned to the Secretary of the Interior the responsibility for preparing national emergency plans and developing preparedness programs covering petroleum and gas. The Emergency and Gas Administration, established by the Secretary of the Interior in 1963, marked the culmination of a growing awareness that this sort of approach was the most effective way in which to carry out these plans.
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Document ID: F5EBD015

How To Keep Cool-With Fire Resistant Coveralls
Author(s): John G. Penrod
Abstract/Introduction:
Almost everyone connected with the natural gas industry is interested in the safety of the individual workman when he is exposed to the dangers of a flash fire from an explosive gas atmosphere. If you talk to those people that are knowledgeable concerning thermal protection, about the first question they ask is . . . protection against what temperature and for how long? In the gas industry our product, when it flashes, will reach temperatures approaching 3600 F. By photographing a number of flash fires produced under laboratory conditions and by counting frames on the film, we find that most Rash fireballs in an open bellhole persist less than 2 seconds until they collapse to a plume of flame at the point of leakage. Assuming that a workman is not injured or unconscious at the time of a flash fire, then we can further assume that he has great motivation and wilt, in fact, rapidly remove himself from the vicinity of the remaining flame.
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Document ID: 4746E4EF

Mechanized Gas System Load Analysis
Author(s): T. J. Kohler, D. S. Bundy
Abstract/Introduction:
In the niid-60s, it was decided that a method be developed for providing an accessible record of all IPC systems. The existing records were on 1/4 x 1/4 section maps (standard maps used for visual lecording) or recorded on work orders and job orders, which were relatively inaccessible. The criteria of a new approach must make data easily accessible in an orderly manner with the least amount of time for updating. The piping network was the first item to identify, followed by identifying each customer in respect to the network. Therefore each piece of pipe was defined uniquely by a system and node number. each being represented by a four-digit number. By identifying each piece of pipe in this manner, information could be recorded on computer cards or tape for an accessible record.
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Document ID: 1C54BEFA

Function Of The National Transportation Safety Board In Relation To Pipeline Safety
Author(s): Barry m. Sweedler
Abstract/Introduction:
Thank you for giving me the opportunity to discuss the pipeline safety functions of the National Transportation Safety Board. First. I would like to tell you something about the Safety Board. It came into being under the Transportation Act of 1966. Actual operations commenced on May 2, 1967, when our five Board Members received the oath of office. Board members are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The length of office is five years, except for the first five members who are serving staggered terms.
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Document ID: D13D55FE

Will Third Party Certification Improve Quality Of Plastic Pipe?
Author(s): E. J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
Will third party certification improve quality of plastic pipe? A thought provoking question very definitely. The listener can assume that either plastic pipe is so good that little can be done to improve upon its manufactured qualities, or that it is so bad that the industry is desperately seeking ways to obtain a quality product. The answer to these assumptions is Maybe! The consensus is a definite Yes! Dr. Frank W. Reinhart, technical director, Plastics Pipe Institute, in a paper presented before the American Water Works Association Annual Conference at Cleveland, June 4, 1968, made the following statement regarding the technical development of plastic pipe and fittings since 1962: The increase in quality of thermoplastic pipe and fittings has been due to: (1) improved extrusion and molding machinery and techniques used to form plastic pipe and fittings, (2) improvements in plastic piping materials, (3) policies and procedures used to develop recommended hydrostatic design stresses, (4) the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) inspection and certification programs, and (5) the increase in quality and quantity of the standards for plastic piping.
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Document ID: BBD7AAF8

Water Pollution-Plant Survey
Author(s): Bryan J. Sevey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Monsanto Plant at Trenton, Michigan, is located on the Detroit River near the point where the river discharges into Lake Erie. The plant is Monsantos major producer of food-grade sodium phosphates. In recent years the soluble phosphate loss in the plant effluent, has averaged 3,260 lb/day, expressed as P. Monsanto had long recognized this loss a.s a problem of raw material yield but in early 1965 it began to think of reduction in terms of pollution abatement. The local plant was given overall responsibility for solving the problem. To fix responsibility, an engineering supervisor was assigned to develop and implement a program for the plant. This was accomplished with the assistance of plant engineers and chemists, the Inorganic Chemicals Division Research Department, and Monsatos Central Engineering Department. In April 1966, Monsanto stipulated with the Michigan Water Resources Commission for plant loss that would be reduced by 80%, or to less than 625 lb/day, by November 1969.
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Document ID: EAB64648

B31.8 Code-Welding
Author(s): A. G. Barkow
Abstract/Introduction:
Field welding of pipeline girth welds has probably received more attention in recent years than any other phase of construction. If one would believe all the comments that are made and all the criticism that is leveled against welding and welders, one would imagine that the girth weld was a major cause of pipeline failures. Yet, the records do not bear this out. In fact, girth welds seldom fail, and when they do fail, they are not the cause of long catastrophic ruptures. I can recall that in at least one instance, a poor weld was the means of stopping a running failure. This is not to say that I believe past and present day welding is good enough. Past efforts have made a great improvement, but we must still continue to make technological and actual improvements in welding.
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Document ID: 2EA210CF

Gas Control Planning Of Temperature Dependent Operations
Author(s): Allan D. Nelson, Suresh N. Bhat
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Natural Gas Company operates an underground storage reservoir located near Redfield, Iowa. Northerns supply area is mainly in the Southwest-New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. However, a large share of the market area is in Minnesota and other northern states. The storage reservoir, being considerably closer to the market area than the supply area, facilitates meeting the contract demand during the cold winter months. The basic idea is to inject extra gas into the storage reservoir during the summer and withdraw during the winter. However, from an economic standpoint, the company wishes to get the reservoir full at the same time that withdrawal becomes necessary and then schedule withdrawal so that the reservoir becomes empty at the time extra gas is no longer necessary. Thus, the use of the storage reservoir adds complexity to the overall operation of the transmission system.
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Document ID: 59D531B4

Import Limg For Peak Requirements: Gazocean/Distrigas Program
Author(s): Robert L. Purvin
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone who has followed the trade or financial press the last six to twelve months, or more particularly most of you who live daily in the gas industry, must be intimately familiar with the developments taking place which create the situation in which we find ourselves. Basic to all these developments is a growing awareness of a domestic gas shortage which naturally poses the problem as to how to best alleviate this situation both in the short and long term with ihe minimum impact on the growth of the industry and always recognizing that we are in a competitive industry and therefore our customers must be assured adequate supplies of natural gas at a price commensurate with its true value in the market place in relation to competing energy sources.
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Document ID: 6AAB34C9

Motor Vehicle Driver And Equipment Operator Training
Author(s): E. H. Engelbert
Abstract/Introduction:
The philosophies underlying the need and values of driver training and equipment operator training have been thoroughly explored in our industry and the many papers previously presented are indicative of the magnitude and importance of the subject. My remarks are rather in the form of a report on the administration of these programs in the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. As background, the transportation fleet numbers about 1,750 vehicles and approximately 400 units of associated mechanized equipment such as cranes, derricks, aerial buckets, air compressors, etc. This does not include special mobile construction equipment under the jurisdiction of various operating departments. There are 4,300 authorised company motor vehicle operators, 1,700 of whom are authorized to operate one or more types of associated mechanized equipment.
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Document ID: E6089FE4

Mobile Maintenance Possibilities, Shop Vans-Contract Shops
Author(s): J. L. Wells
Abstract/Introduction:
Mechanized equipment must be kept busy and maintained at a very high degree of efficiency and effectiveness. A well planned and implemented preventive maintenance program is mandatory, for the highlevel maintenance required However, when units are not normally headquartered or operated reasonably near adequate maintenance facilities, the carrying out of such a program presents difficult problems which can be effectively and economically solved by utilizing mobile maintenance facilities and performing the necessary maintenance on the units wherever they are based.
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Document ID: EC37953E

Fluorosilicone-Lubricant Consumption Cut Over 95%
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company and Michigan Gas Storage Company operate and maintain seven major compressor stations to provide natural gas to 850,000 customers in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Two stations are located at points of delivery where natural gas is taken into the system and five stations are employed in underground storage of natural gas. Consumers Power Company and Michigan Gas Storage Company have a total of 64,000 turbine engine/ centrifugal compressor honsepower and 80,000 reciprocating engine/compressor horsepower. In 1967 a program of Teflon conversion was initialed on our 35 individual reciprocating compressor units in an effort to reduce the amount of lubrication required and consequently reduce oil and fluid carry-over into the pipeline system. An estimated total of 16.000 gallons was at that time being carried over each year. To date 75% of the reciprocating compressor units have been converted to Teflon compressor piston rings and rider bands.
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Document ID: B06AD7D4

Various Techniques For LNG Vaporization
Author(s): Stanley E. Dale
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied natural gas has become a hot item in recent years, even for a cryogenic fluid. The number of LNG projects, either completed or in the planning and construction phases, is at an all-time high. There are now at least five base load LNG projects in operation or under construction and over 20 peak shaving LNG projects now operational. LNG vaporization systems can be generally divided into two classes: vaporization systems for base load LNG plants and vaporization systems for peak shaving LNG plants. Both classes of systems have essentially the same function: Conversion of liquefied natural gas at -260F to a gaseous state, usually around ambient temperatures and at the sendout pressure required by the system.
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Document ID: 10D8152A

Stability Studies On Gas Storage Reservoir Models
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The maximum pressure to which the reservoir may be subjected, and still remain mechanically stable under the action of the combined in-situ stresses and the stresses induced by pressurization of the reservoir itself is defined as the optimum pressure. In general, it is assumed that this optimum pressure depends on the following factors: 1. The in-situ stresses 2. The reservoir geometry 3. The physical properties of the reservoir, cap and immediate surrounding rocks When the optimum pressure is exceeded the reservoir becomes mechanically unstable and fractures develop which may eventually lead to a release of the stored gas.
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Document ID: 5E774049

Ngpa Chromatography School
Author(s): Ralph B. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
Some 27 years ago, it was my privilege to serve my country as a fireman on coalfired, steam locomotives on a narrow guage railroad in North Africa. These locomotives were leaky, old, and underpowered for service in mountains, and when combined with steep grades, sharp curves, and worn out rolling stock, presented a serious operating problem. One of the most significant difficulties was the type of fuel, which happened to be coal briquettes. These briquettes varied in heating value through such a great range that there were times when these old locomotives could not be kept hot while in continuous service. This was one of my first experiences with change in composition of fuel, and the resulting change in heating value.
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Document ID: 206B1618

Development Of A True Scanner Calibration Method
Author(s): L. J. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
It is my privilege to report that the second segment of an extremely important threephase project assigned to the Specifications, Calibration Methods and Fundamentals Task Group of the A.G.A. Measurement Committee has been completed. This work concerns the development of a true calibration method for automatic chart scanners and the mechanical integrators. A copy of the material that is being presented for publication is attached.
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Document ID: ADBEEC91

Acoustic Emissions Signal Failures Before They Occur
Author(s): G. D. Nicholson, R. P. Meister
Abstract/Introduction:
A new technique has evolved for the inspection of materials and structures. It consists of listening electronically to the sounds produced as materials begin to fail. At Battelles Columbus Laboratories, acousticemission monitoring (AEM) is being developed as a tool for the evaluation of structural integrity. Loading structures to their design load while monitoring for acoustic emissions provides an immediate measure of the quality of the entire volume of the structure. This technique has been applied successfully to nondestructive tests of steel and fiber glass-epoxy composite pressure vessels. AEM has the potential of routinely determining the soundness of fiber-glass booms in aerial basket equipment.
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Document ID: 25C94593

1970 Communication Revolution For Customer Service
Author(s): John K. Dahlberg
Abstract/Introduction:
President Roosevelt was going to meet Churchill in the North Atlantic and they were going to set up the Atlantic Charter. Churchill was on one of the big naval ships in the North Atlantic, and he wanted to have all the top admirals and generals of the world on the ship so they had to toss off all the lower grade men in the Navy that were normally part of the ships complement. The only one they kept on the ship was a second class signalman. They had set up a signal code system consisting of a radio message setting up the rendezvous. The second class signalman was the only one who was to handle this message at the radio shack. They sat him down in the shack to wait for this message. This 19-year-old signalman had never seen so many stars. Then suddenly out of the vastness of the night came this signal which started the key to go Beep-Beep-Beep-Beep-Beep, The kid actually froze to the key. The Admiral finally said, Speak man Speak. What did the message say? The kid gulped and said, Well Sir, it said Beep-Beep-Beep- Beep-Beep.
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Document ID: 374CE8F9

Lets Stop The Metering Contest
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement standards are not creating the metering contest. It is the accumulation and subsequent computation of data that causes the difficulties. The authors definition of the metering contest is the fact that flows measured in the gas industry are used for different purposes. It is accepted practice to use one set of instrumentation for measurement for billing purposes, and a second set for telemetering for operating or dispatching purposes. The problem is compounded when the customer adds his instrumentation to the system. As an example of defining the metering contest, a recent visit to a major gas companys sales station disclosed the following metering instrumentation: The transmission company utilized two 16- meter tubes with round chart recorders for measurement, and a second set of instrumentation for telemetering.
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Document ID: 7DC13294

Cathodic Protection Monitoring By Aerial Patrol
Author(s): Charles W. Roellig
Abstract/Introduction:
Western Microwave was formed in 1962 to develop and produce microwave components for the military market. These components were used in radar equipment, ECM gear, missile fuses, and so on. In time we expanded into other areas of military electronics. Tn the late 1960s, we had a lot of highly-technical, highly-paid engineers silting around with not too much to do. So we made the brilliant decision, along with about 18 million other firms, to apply our technical capability in electronics to the needs of commercial industries. At this point, the question became What to do? It was decided to develop data communications equipment-specifically, equipment and systems that would be used to transfer data and information from point to point. Once that decision was made, an amazingly wide range of rather unlikely applications seemed to pop up.
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Document ID: B9647D80

Pipe Depth Locator
Author(s): E. D. Laughren
Abstract/Introduction:
In our business there are many occasions when it becomes necessary to know, with considerable accuracy, the depth of cover to the top of a buried pipe, either a main or a service. Typically, these occur when roads or streets are to be regraded, or when they are to be improved by the installation of curbs and gutters. These occurrences generally require many depth checks at numerous locations within a block, or extending several blocks. One such recent job in the Southern California Gas Companys area required 50 checks for service depths in a three block area for curb and gutter installation.
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Document ID: 23B1AD07

Big Leaps From Small Steps
Author(s): W. A. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Five years ago, when we first introduced programmed instruction in our serviceman training program the reaction of our instructors generally was negative. Some resisted because tiiey felt it threatened their jobs, others because it was a strange and radical innovation. Even those who admitted that it might have some value fell that it would restrict their teaching and lessen the importance of the instructor in the training process. All of our efforts to allay these fears were viewed with skepticism. A few months ago, due to an excessive delay in obtaining reprints of two programs, our instructors had to revert to our previous methods of teaching these subjects for a short period. Utter Chaos. They reacted as if a calamity had befallen them. Their main complaints were more work for the instructor, it took longer, and the results were not as good!
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Document ID: 1192B05C

Aerial Device Maintenance
Author(s): Clifford T. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
When one starts to think about maintenance of aerial equipment, he has to lake into account the rapid growth of bucket trucks in the utility field. My first look at an aerial bucket truck was 15 years ago when 5 to 10 units were considered to be a large fleet. From this beginning our history has been one of reading many articles, listening to papers and discussions at group meetings and trying to establish the best maintenance procedures for our aerial fleets.
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Document ID: 01D51F47

Training Program For Contract Construction Inspectors
Author(s): Harry J. Fork
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1959, the Philadelphia Gas Works did all main and service installation and replacement work with its own forces. Only a few specialized jobs, such as bridge or river crossings were let to outside contractors. Then, in 1959, our management decided to stabilize the size of the distribution work force based on winter operating and maintenance needs and to contract that portion of work beyond the capability of this force. We have been contracting approximately 93% of our new main additions, 65% of the new service installations, and 53% of our main replacements. Considering the cost of such work, to be assured that we were getting our moneys worth from the contractor and to maintain our standards of safety and quality, management recognized at the outset the need for a comprehensive inspection program.
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Document ID: AF34C818

Planning For Mechanization Of Automotive Statistical Reports
Author(s): W. G. Goninan
Abstract/Introduction:
With the responsibility for maintaining, servicing and scheduling replace menls for fleets numbering in the thousands and embracing vehicles of many different types and sizes, the typical utility fleet manager must of necessity rely heavily on statistical data for evaluating the effectiveness of his policy decisions. In light of current clerical labor costs, the only reasonable way for him to obtain these statistics is to make maximum use of whatever data processing assistance he can obtain from the EDP and Systems Design facilities available in his company. As a result of increased availability of computers and the corresponding proliferation in software, the development of systems for accumulating and reporting statistical data for any area of a companys operations has become a fairly routine procedure. The Systems people in your company are most likely capable of designing almost any degree of sophistication you wish into a reporting system, providing you can get your management to sustain the cost. This, of course, assumes that you know exactly what information you want and can justify the effort involved in having this information recorded and transmitted to the computer.
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Document ID: 91C099C1

Alternating Current Problems Of Pipelines
Author(s): C. A. Royce
Abstract/Introduction:
The presence of high voltage electric lines in close proximity to gas pipelines produces induced a-c voltages on the pipelines. Practical means for predicting the a-c induction and solutions to minimize these voltages are available. The results of an a-c voltage protection system constructed by Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corporation for a pipeline are discussed.
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Document ID: 4FF84AA9

Manpower Requirements To Conduct Periodic Testing And Corrosion Control Maintenance On Distribution Systems
Author(s): Gaylord L. Quincy
Abstract/Introduction:
Cathodic protection should be applied to gas distribution systems simply because leaks cost more than their prevention. One company has experienced a great reduction in the corrosion leak rate frequency since engaging in this type of corrosion control. The work at the outset is sometimes easy and good results come almost automatically. At other times, progress must be slow and painstaking, and the results are often frustrating. The job must usually be accomplished through the cooperation of many, and the man-in-the-field, regardless of his regular vocation, is very important.
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Document ID: 806D4416

LNG Transportation In The U.S.A.
Author(s): Kenneth L. Paul
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG has opened an exciting new field in I the use and distribution of natural gas. Previously limited to movement by pipeline only, the natural gas industry is experiencing a totally new concept in the movement of its product. Where is the technology and experience coming from to provide the gas industry with the equipment and experience to move natural gas in liquid form? There can be only one answer: the industrial gas industry. The movement of LNG in over-the-road transports has had the unique opportunity of having a background on which to draw in developing its technology. Basically, the movement of a cryogen, whether it is oxygen, nitrogen or LNG, falls into the same pattern. There are differences, of course, due to the markets being served.
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Document ID: 4C28E2DB

Human Relations And Motivation
Author(s): Albert N. Logan
Abstract/Introduction:
In the entire picture of human relationships the most important point is this--and I think Mr. Shakespeare stated it far more eloquently than I can: This above all to thine own self be true and it must follow as the night the day, thou canst not be false to anyone. Socrates stated the same philosophy in two words: Know thyself. The main theme of my talk will focus upon knowing ourselves unless we do know ourselves, it is virtually impossible to create atmospheres where good human relationships can flower.
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Document ID: 73691BE6

Control Valve Noise Abatement
Author(s): Ernest E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
An increasing awareness of the physical and mental stresses that the human body is subjected to as a result of exposure to excessive noise levels has prompted man to demand that more effort be expended in noise control. Demands have come in the form of: compensation granted workmen for loss of hearing, labor grievances, and a rash of anti-noise legislation by local, state and federal governments, These demands have provided the impetus for the acute interest prevalent throughout the gas industry concerning the abatement of noise. The objective of this presentation is to present general information that will facilitate the comprehension and solution of acoustical problems inherent to gas meter and regulation stations.
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Document ID: B1FC07A4

Committee Activities Report
Author(s): Charles C. Curtis
Abstract/Introduction:
If I were running for re-election as chairman of the Distribution Design and Development Committee, I would feel pretty safe and sure in view of the record of the past year. Not thai its my record, rather its a record of the committee members, and it is a good one. The fact is, of course, Im not running for re-election. However, I do want to look back briefly with you at whats happened since last May. Its probably the most important task as chairman that remains before me. Our 33 members worked mainly through eight task groups and seven outside committee activities. A year earlier we had 14 task groups and eight outside committee activities. This reduction was intentional. In a committee with so broad a scope as ours, it is easy to find many worthy pursuits. We began to realize last year, however, that the number of task groups had grown so large that each member had to serve on at least two. This resulted in meeting conflicts, undue burden on the individual and the risk of retarded action within the various task groups.
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Document ID: 15F08BEB

Industry Survey Of Gas Company Laboratory Facilities And Services
Author(s): J. P. Cencer, W. H. Bishop
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in 1968, at the Winter Meeting of the Chemical Services Committee, we reviewed a preliminary laboratory questionnaire sent out to committee members only. Because of the members enthusiastic response, we asked Mr. Henry Long, then Chairman of the Operating Section, for permission to send the questionnaire lo all gas company members of the American Gas Association. Permission was subsequently obtained.
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Document ID: 538332DB

Scratch This Flame And Sniff It
Abstract/Introduction:
That odor is CAPTAN. Its the chemical put into odorless natural gas so you can detect even the smallest amount that might escape. Let others in your family scratch this flame and sniff it, too. Everyone should be able to recognize it. If you ever smell this odor, call Cascade Natural Gas right away. Natural Gas has a safety record we can be proud of. We are working to keep it that way! More people depend on clean, quiet, economical natural gas than any other heating fuel. It is used in over 40 million American homes. Thank you for choosing natural gas.
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Document ID: D3896EF5

Summary Of Image RP-01 -69: A Guideline For Control Of External Corrosion On Gas Transmission And Distribution Piping Systems
Author(s): V. Dale Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The official numerical designation NACE RP-OI-69 has been given to the first standard issued explicitly for the prevention and control of external corrosion on underground metallic piping systems. Issued in September 1969 by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, this standard is in the form of a Recommended Practice and is entitled Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems. This standard documents the recognized and successfully proven engineering approaches to identifying the need for corrosion control: the practices for implementing control the criteria based on industry experience that should be achieved to obtain control of corrosion the construction practices that affect corrosion and the recommended methods to prevent and eliminate corrosion interference between underground metallic structures.
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Document ID: 21B5C289

Gas Conditioning-Report
Author(s): David P. Corkill
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. Pipeline Committee has several subcommittees which work on assigned projects for the benefit of the gas industry. One is concerned with gas conditioning. Gas conditioning has always been of importance to the gas industry but it is of increasing significance now, In the early days of the industry, gas was in abundant supply and only the belter quality sources were utilized. The main contaminants in these supplies were water and liquid products. Pipeline transmission pressures also were comparatively low. The quality of the gas supplies being discovered today and the system pressures used for transmission of gas have made gas conditioning more important than ever. Many of the new pipeline supplies are coming from individual wells where the gas needs to be conditioned at the wellhead before entering the gathering system. Economical methods of treating this gas are essential.
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Document ID: 610111FA

Odorization Practice
Author(s): W. H. Donnelley
Abstract/Introduction:
Laclede Gas Company is primarily a natural gas distribution company, having approximately 500,000 customers in the City of St. Louis and about 100 smaller municipalities in St. Louis County and two adjoining counties. We have a peak load of approximately 1.000 MMCF/day. half of which comes from Mississippi River Transmission Corporation via pipeline 350 million cu ft/day comes from our own underground storage field and the remainder is propane delivered directly by pipeline from Phillips Petroleum Company.
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Document ID: 485520C9

Use Of Natural Gas For Mobile Equipment
Author(s): J. L. Oberseider
Abstract/Introduction:
Someone has said that ihe gas industry may not have the best and final answer to the driving publics needs but it is a truism that there is no better time to sell a new idea than when the buyer is ready for a change. The government and the public want a change and are willing to listen to any reasonable offer. The use of compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel is not new. And let me here define merchantable natural gas as a misture of naturally occurring saturated hydrocarbons, principally methane, and acceptable traces of certain impurities. Compressed natural gas has been used in Italy since after World War I. But the reason for its use in Italy was its relatively low cost and associated low taxes. This is different from our prime target for today-the mitigation of atmospheric pollutants.
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Document ID: 6C1474DA

What Can The Small Gas Company Do To Initiate A Corrosion Prevention Program?
Author(s): John H. Fitzgerald
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control in gas distribution systems is becoming increasingly important. As pipe, labor and construction costs continue to rise, as the hazards from leaking gas become of greater interest in the eyes of the public and as the Department of Transport regulations approach reality, it becomes evident thai underground plant must be protected against corrosion. The purpose of this paper is to present guidelines for the establishment of a corrosion control program in a gas company of generally less than 100,000 meters.
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Document ID: 52100F17

View Of An Exporting Country
Author(s): Avdelkader Chanderli
Abstract/Introduction:
Algeria and Sonatrach, the national oil company, have been associated for many years with the business of liquefied natural gas, perhaps more than any other country or company. In fact, Sonatrach, in partnership with others, owns facilities which, since 1964, have been producing and delivering to England, Krance and other markets the largest quantities of LNG in the world. The total export from these facilities as of April 30, 1970 amounted to 11.7 million cubic meters of LNG-equivalent to 250 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Although the topic of this paper is to discuss LNG from the view of an exporting country, it is proposed to go beyond this subject and attempt to answer some of the questions that an importing country might have.
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Document ID: 98B66338

LNG Imports Into The United States: View Of A Gas Distribution Company
Author(s): Michael W. Anuskiewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
A distribution company must grow to survive. Relaxation in promotional efforts, giving up the search for new markets and applications, the stagnation of growth, could lead to disaster. The leveling off of sales does not mean capital expenditures will necessarily decrease or that financing will not be required. Many of us have had our distribution systems in operation for over one hundred years. The age of the components of the existing installations runs the full gamut of this period. There has been a continuous upgrading, replacement, relocation and additions. This will continue whether load growth continues or stops. In fact, in these days of a growing consciousness of safety, the rules and regulations of various codes, regulatory bodies and commissions will call for ever increasing expenditures in the future on any system as it now stands.
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Document ID: 699B5C30

Underground Storage Statistics-1969
Author(s): George C. Crow, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past several years different analogies have been used in these reports to illustrate the effectiveness of underground gas storage in meeting market requirements of the gas industry during the winter months. For example, the total capacity of storage reservoirs in the United States has been shown to equal the capacity of an assemblage of standard gas holders covering an area three times the size of all five boroughs of the City of New York (more than 1,000 square miles) -or a lineup of gas holders criss-crossing the nation to the extent of more than 18,000 linear miles. In a continuous underground reservoir, the nations storage capacity would require a porous formation at least 10 feet thick with more than 10% porosity that would underlie an area larger than the entire State of California.
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Document ID: BDC9CBD6

Report Of The Operating Section-1969-1970
Abstract/Introduction:
Consideration was given this year to the necessity for emphasizing the rising importance of non-technical matters affecting operations in the industry. Prominent examples of these matters were consumerism, public and employee safety, and new regulation concentration on operation rather than design criteria. Throughout the year, the Section Executive insisted on regular and more effective communication among all of the Sections Standing Committees. Increased interest on the part of the Board in Section activities was welcomed. The Section Chairman attended three Board meetings during the year: The past year has been both active and productive. It was participated in by a broad cross section of our industry, including large and small companies, geographically diverse representation and broad customer representation. Our committee members came from 89 member companies representing over 29.6 million gas customers, or approximately 74% of all the gas industry customers in the United States. Overall Section membership approached 2800.
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Document ID: AE46E36D

Facility Design For Critical Delivery Periods Based On Statistical Weather Analysis
Author(s): Alan H. Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently, Consumers Power Company has maintained a noninterruptible, fixed-source gas system. This dictates the utilization of underground storage to meet winter conditions experienced in the months from November to April. Also, because pipeline source gas is contracted in excess of one year ahead of the date required, gas has to be scheduled for the storage fields so that total system deiiverability can be obtained as needed. Since the majority of the annual gas requirements are temperature sensitive, weather analysis is an important factor in facility planning. Utilization of weather analysis actively aids in determining storage field inventories required to serve system demands for design day and design winter conditions. At Consumers Power Company weather analysis is used to help set design criteria levels. Based on these criteria, future gas supply and gas transmission facilities are scheduled.
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Document ID: C0FEB978

Staffing And Establishing A Corrosion Control Program
Author(s): Michael D. Orton
Abstract/Introduction:
The adoption of any corrosion control program should be based primarily on the safe, economic and efficient operation of metallic facilities. Now, with the impending Office of Pipeline Safety corrosion control code, it appears that even greater emphasis will be placed on corrosion control related to gas pipelines. When corrosion control procedures are initiated, an organizational plan should be adopted and job classifications established. The wide variance in the size of gas companies, the way existing organizations have evolved and the differences in operational practices will define the type and size of organization required as well as the number of personnel. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of the corrosion control program at Pacific Gas and Electric Company, with particular emphasis on how and why our organization is the way it is and what is tentatively planned for the future.
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Document ID: C3D6D24F

Computing And Operational Research Support For Marine Liquefied Natural Gas Projects
Author(s): B. Matthews
Abstract/Introduction:
A marine LNG project spans a series of activities from production through liquefaction, transportation and regasification to marketing. At each stage a different corporate entity may be involved. Projects also entail the crossing of international boundaries with all the attendant complications of different fiscal systems. Owing to the exceptionally capital- intensive nature of the business and because of the constraints imposed by the need to deliver LNG into the market at a price competitive with alternative fuels, the planning of a project must consider all the various activities, companies and countries involved. All phases of a project are interdependent and the project analyst faces the formidable task of having to consider the eventual operation of the entire supply system in order to eliminate potential bottlenecks or diseconomies at the outset. Operational research (O.R.) and computing techniques are an indispensable aid for analyzing such problems. This paper sets out to illustrate how they can be applied, from the preliminary planning studies, through the detailed development phases and finally to a full operational scheme.
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Document ID: 8FB60856

Glossary Index To The Gas Engineers Handbook
Author(s): Charles E. Ball
Abstract/Introduction:
Although most definitions can be found by consulting the logical arrangement of the Handbook, many cannot be located by simple reference to the index. The index presented here will permit a rapid referral to the proper page for all terms except those concerned with gas utilization (Section 12) and for which adequate dictionaries already exist.
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Document ID: 6CE6C109


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