Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1970)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Computerized Dispatching System
Author(s): N. Takahashi
Abstract/Introduction:
Most distribution utilities have utilized, and still have in operation, the common pulse-duration telemetry systems which are economical and simple. Today there are several distribuiion utilities that have computerized their dispatching operation. The Consumers Gas Company of Toronto, Canada, is one of these utilities that has a fully computerized dispatching system. This paper will include the description and operation of ttje new facilities and some of the experiences encountered.
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Document ID: A1596633

Consumerism And The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Richard A. Rosan
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a most happy occasion for me. It is my first opportunity to visit this University, which has trained so many key men in the gas industry. This auditorium, part of the Creative Arts building, is one of the finest auditoriums I have ever seen and a marvelous cultural facility. This meeting also gives me a chance to meet many men of the industry who perform a most essential function -- namely that of measurement. Unless the gas industry can measure accurately what it sells, there would be no economic basis for our industry. It has occurred to me that we frequently fail to appreciate the need for accuracy in the measurement of gas. We speak of 2% (plus or minus) as a permissible tolerance for the accuracy of our measuring equipment. Even within these tolerances, the effect on the economy of our industry can be tremendous. All gas consumed in this country is measured a number of times. In the case of our operations, gas is measured at least six times in the course of movement from the producing areas of Southern Louisiana to the consumers meter in New York State. But, if we assume that the fourteen plus billion Mcf of gas sold by the industry last year was measured only three times and assuming a two percent error at each measurement each going the same way, we would be talking about either a failure to measure or to over measure 840 million Mcf. Assuming an average price of 50-60c per Mcf, we would be talking about almost a half billion dollars. Consequently, no one can overemphasize the importance of the role of gas measurement and the need for the utmost accuracy in such measurement. This gives emphasis to the importance of this Course and I join the other speakers in hoping that you reap new ideas from your attendance.
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Document ID: 7E79BD37

Application Of Densitometers To Orifice Meter Installations
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of flowing density is, therefore, attractive for telemetering and online computer systems as a means of reducing the number of data variables measured and transmitted. The weight equations apply equally well for liquids although the above presentation includes terms which are specific to gases. Density can be measured by several techniques. Common methods include weight of a known volume of sample, buoyancy of a body of known volume or constant volume (Archimedes Principle) and centrifugal momentum. The methods of interest lo flow measurement involve specific hardware to make the density measurement. Therefore, this presntation involves the use of manufacturers information, pictures, diagrams, slides, etc., which were generously made available for this class and paper. Each will be discued briefly to describe its principle of operation and how an indication or signal proportional to density is obtained. General considerations for the application of densitometers to an orifice meter and how the desired flowing density may be obtained by measurement and compensation are included.
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Document ID: 34E7A900

The Swirlmeter For Natural Gas
Author(s): John G. Kopp
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been observed that a rotating body of fluid will precess when the flow is introduced into an enlargement. This has the general name of Vortex Precession (a hydrodynamic oscillatory motion). Initially, the vortex center, the axis of fluid rotation, is the center line of the meter, but a change in the axis of rotation occurs (precession) when the rotating body of fluid enters an enlargement. It has also been observer that the frequency of the precession is proportional to the volumetric flowrate. The Swirlmeter provides the means to generate the vortex, develop the precession, and defect the frequency of precession. Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view of the Swirlmeter and shows the various components necessary for the development and detection of vortex precession.
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Document ID: 94E0A5ED

Roto-Seal Maintenance And Testing
Author(s): James J. Fitzpatrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary type gas meters are not, by far, new gas metering devices. However, over the past decade, the demand for this type of meter has increased to the level where meter manufacturers felt it necessary to put more emphasis and expenditures into the design, development and production of this type meter. This increased demand resulted from the need of the gas industry for more accurate and compact as well as for higher capacity and high pressure meters. The original positive displacement rotary meters were developed in the early I920s and consisted of the two-iobe rotor construction. These are still in existence today. In the early 1950s, Rockwell began reviewing the potential and merits of the rotary metering principle for both liquid and gases. Various studies were made and several designs attempted during the i950s and it wasnt until 1960 that Rockwell accepted the rotary piston design as being the most promising design for accurately metering gases.
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Document ID: E26779C5

Turbine Meters And Continuous Integrators
Author(s): James Henn
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter is the industrys newest acceptable method of measuring large volumes of natural gas. Its popularity is understandable as it is a very compact, ruggedly built device whose rangeability increases with increasing pressure. It is adaptable to measuring large volumes of production, transmission, distribution or industrial gas.
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Document ID: 397C08BD

A Forward Look At Volumetric And Mass Flow Computing
Author(s): John S. Boynton
Abstract/Introduction:
As new techniques in gas flow measurement are explored, it is well to remember that the basic principles and methods remain the same. Only the technique changes. The differential head meter principle is now, and most likely will remain for some time, the most common method of large line, high-pressure gas flow measurement. However, the form and system combination of basic measurement and computing instruments are definitely undergoing changes. We can now foresee the demise of the time-honored 2-pen differential and static recorder locally mounted at an orifice meter run. New instruments and techniques have to occur to keep pace with new methods of data handling.
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Document ID: 78021FC7

Introduction To Testing And Inspecting Orifice Meters
Author(s): Thomas G. Voisey
Abstract/Introduction:
The very nature of orifice measurement involves huge sums of money. It is plain to see that the slightest deviation from the designs and standards governing orifice measurement could cost the gas industry large sums of money. Therefore, with this fact in mind we will proceed, in this paper, with ihe various tests and inspections which have been developed to insure that the lost revenue, due to inaccurate orifice meters, will be held to a minimum. The standards for the design, installation and calculation of flow of orifice meters, have been set forth in the publication entitled Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, Gas Measurement Committee Report Number Three, sponsored by the American Gas Association. The facts and figures contained in this report were derived by running many actual tests on orifice meters under various conditions that would be found in the field. The specifications, and tolerances indicated in this paper were based on information contained in this report.
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Document ID: CE05204C

Fundamentals Of Regulation
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
To the problem of providing sufficient strength in regulator components to withstand the static pressures which may be imposed, there must be added the problems of mass and velocity. These factors introduce difficulties which are ofttimes surprising and just as often puzzling. Natural gas, with its specific gravity of less than unity, does not ordinarily impress us with its weight. A cubic foot at standard conditions weighs only 5/100 of a pound. This we might be tempted to ignore. When we consider also the quantities, as well as the weights of the gas in a specific situation, we begin to realize that it would be a gross error to overlook the mass involved. Even a relatively small pressure reducing valve, such as a 1 house service regulator, can pass 1,000 cubic feet per hour and thus must be designed to handle a weight totaling 50 pounds each hour.
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Document ID: A396E679

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows type orifice meter gauge has widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas systems.
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Document ID: CBD3252A

Supervising A Meter Shop
Author(s): Walter H. Browning
Abstract/Introduction:
The supervision of a meter shop falls into two broad areas. The first area has to do with people the leading, instructing, and directing of the detailed operation of the group. The second has to do with the mechanical and technical details of the job: the application of planning, scheduling, production and quality control techniques. Each is equally important. They will be discussed in the order indicated above.
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Document ID: 0F71E253

Dispatching - A Real Time Function
Author(s): Terry D. Ray
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to maintain and control the operation of a gas system, one must be fully aware of what is taking place. To do this effectively, information must be gathered and stored on a real time basis. By real time it is meant that the information is available, but not displayed, at all times, as compared to the time delay which we now experience. In this day and age of transducers and solid state computers, this goal is not unrealistic. There have been several companies who have realized this and have proceeded down the road of closing the loop. Algonquin Gas Transmission Company of Boston, Massachusetts, first began thinking in terms of a Data Acquisition System in the spring of 1967. At that time, a feasibility study was initiated by Algonquin to update the present telemetering system which consisled of ten strategically located stations.
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Document ID: B61CA899

Field Repair And Adjustment Of Large Capacity Diaphragm Type Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. W. Aivalotis, A. B. Cimino
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is designed primarily for those individuals involved directly in field testing and repairing diaphragm type displacement meters. We shall begin by taking a few minutes to briefly explain the high points of policies of the Columbia Gas System in reference to (a) Meter badged capacities. (b) Merits of a field testing program. (c) Station design to facilitate field testing (d) Test schedules (e) Methods of field proving meters The extent of field repairs to be made in the field is somewhat governed by the time and distance involved in relation to the meter repair shop. Areas in close proximity ttlthe meter shop generally make repairs of a minor nature, while in more distant area repairs are more extensive.
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Document ID: 512C6604

Shop Testing Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): Norman R. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters are the most tangible objects of gas utility property visible to our customers. The meter has the distinction of being the sole arbiter as to the amount of gas sold and the agency thru which the gross revenue from gas sales is obtained. Management of meters and measurement, therefore, warrants continuing executive, financial, and technical interest. Meters represent a sizable portion of the money invested in gas utility plant properties and account for a significant part of operation and maintenance cost of these properties. American Gas Association member companies own approximately 40 million meters representing close to one billion dollars of investment. The yearly operation and maintenance of gas meters is estimated to be in the neighborhood of 60 million dollar and these Temples of Accuracy result in payment by customers of over 8,000,000,000 annually.
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Document ID: 98D4D0E0

Gas Quality Instrumentation
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality control in the gas industry is of prime importance. To achieve high quality gas, we must eliminate or control any undesirable constituents, if such are present. Before being able to eliminate or control these undesirable constituents, we must determine their presence and degree of concentration. Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water vapor, liquid water, liquid hydrocarbons, and any other liquids or solids that would affect the measurement, transportation, or utilization of gas are generally considered undesirable. Some of these are virtually impossible to eliminate but can be controlled to acceptable levels. These levels are stated in the contracts for the purchase and sale of the gas.
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Document ID: 176823BB

Regulation For Pressure Compensated Metering
Author(s): Patrick H. Loughran
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure compensated metering is a relatively old method of gas metering but has been used to a limited extent despite its advantages and simplicity. It has recently been receiving increasing attention and use, particularly for the 2 PSIG domestic metering and house piping systems and for customers requesting elevated utlization pressures of several PSIG. It has been known by various other names such as fixed factor metering, pressure factor measurement, constant pressure metering, and pressure compensated metering, Although there are variations in these methods their common essential is constant and accurately known meter pressure at higher than normal meter pressure. This requires adequate regulation of meter pressure, accurate pressure measurements, and some degree of inspection and records. The vital key is the regulator on the meter inlet.
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Document ID: 6A18A27C

Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
An understanding, and proper application, of the basic physical laws which govern the behavior of gases is of fundamental importance to those engaged in the production, transmission and distribution of natural gas. In every phase of operation. from the wellhead to the burner, the basic gas laws are applied several times. They must be understood when designing the gathering system, when designing a compressor station, a regulator station and most certainly when designing and operating a gas measuring facility. The operating revenue, the income that pays your wages, is determined by the measuring station and it is here that the gas laws take on the greatest importance.
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Document ID: 54F5B410

Instruments For Demand Billing
Author(s): D. L. Maret
Abstract/Introduction:
Every year classes are held in different short courses, as well as the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course, to discuss the basic gas laws. Usually the discussion will end with this fact established if we know the volume of gas at one condition of temperature and pressure, we can determine the volume at any other condition of temperature and pressure. This is accomplished by use of recording demand instrument and indicating demand instruments.
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Document ID: 6A6B0324

As Measurement By Roots Meters With Emphasis On Maintenance
Author(s): G. R. Kunze
Abstract/Introduction:
Two styles of lobed-impeller rotary meters will be discussed in this paper. Figure 1 shows a small line-mounted meter which is supported by the piping system. Figure 2 shows a sectional view of a larger capacity meter which is self-supporting.
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Document ID: 3600739C

Appearance Of Meter Sets
Author(s): James J. Burns
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper is limited to appearance of the outdoor meter set for a single-family dwelling. The large number of meter sets for single-family dwellings, and the great concern for preserving beauty of architecture and landscaped grounds in residential areas make appearance of ourdoor meter sets very important in residential areas.
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Document ID: 2BE52393

Static Electricity
Author(s): Anthony Puskas, Gary G. Perry
Abstract/Introduction:
The phenomenon which we call static electricity, or more simply static, is perhaps the oldest known manifestation of electricity. Electricity is a physical agent used to convert energy from one form to another it is not a form of matter, but a form of force. The types of electricity are (1) static electricity, the study of electric charges at rest, and (2) current electricity, the study of the effects produced by moving charges.
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Document ID: A900A1B5

Effect Of High Differential On Diaphragm Meter Accuracy
Author(s): H. J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
Good meter accuracy can be obtained when operating meters at elevated pressures but more care must be taken in making meter size selection, basic meter calibration and proper application of equipment for obtaining pressure and temperature records. Care must also be exercised in applying the proper correction factors to the volumetric record.
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Document ID: 7609EB5D

Field Supervision Of Measurement Personnel
Author(s): H. J. Hendrix
Abstract/Introduction:
The responsibilities of Field Measurement Supervision vary with each gas company, but most operations and procedures can be applied generally. All gas companies are involved in gas measurement and normally cover an extensive area, The Field Supervisor, of measurement personnel is usually located in a central part of his area of responsibility or district. The district is then divided into several measurement areas in which are located at strategic points a Measurement Technician and perhaps an assistant or helper.
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Document ID: 1DC86826

Effects Of Rounded Orifice Edges, Dirt And Other Foreign Materials On Orifice Meter Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Jerry A. Roth
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this demonstiation is to show the effect on orifice meter measurement created by undesirable conditions that may exist in a meter tube. For the purpose of illustration, these undesirable conditions may be somewhat exaggerated. By means of this demonstration I hope to show that smalt deviations from perfect metering conditions can result in inaccurate measurement. Also keep in mind that more than one of these undesirable conditions can exist simultaneously in a meter tube thus possibly creating an additive or compensating error.
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Document ID: EBFA6B9B

The Bell Provers
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
During the early years of the gas industry, the bell prover was developed primarily for determining the accuracy and hourly rate of flow or capacity of positive displacement gas meters. Its best function is to deliver a knnown volume of air at a constant pressure to the meter or either device being tested. It has since become the volume measurement standard of the gas industry.
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Document ID: 03A03B5F

Newberry Testing Facility
Author(s): L. J. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of the Southern California Gas Companys large volume high pressure testing facility has recently been completed. It has been designed for an extremely wide range of testing capabilities and to be virtually independent of normal pipeline operations. Both long term run-in and short term accuracy testing can be accommodated. For instance flow rates from 750 MM cf/day to near zero at pressures from 400-700 psi can economically be run 24 hours a day for months at a time. Short term accuracy tests can be economically run at any flow rates and pressures, This facility located near Newberry Springs, California has been under development for over three years. As shown by Figure I, its location is about half way between Los Angeles and Las Vegas, near the junction of the Pacific Lighting Service Company Transmission Line 235 and the Southern California Gas Company Transmission Line 3O0O. The Southern California Gas Company Newberry Compressor Station is located at the junction of these two lines.
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Document ID: 2E92386E

Regulator Valve Sizing
Author(s): S. W. Prince
Abstract/Introduction:
Almost 40 years ago, 1929 to be exact, some of the first work in the study of gas regulator capacity was started at the University in Ames, Iowa, under controlled laboratory conditions. More rapidly then, in 1930, capacity information became available on large valves, size 6 thru 16. Information was soon available on all body sizes, and in 1934 the first Alignment Capacity Tables were made available to industry.
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Document ID: 88EAA813

Meter Repair Practices
Author(s): Carl B. Goodman
Abstract/Introduction:
I am sure many of you present today have been in the business of repairing gas meters for many years, and no doubt are better qualified to conduct this class than I. However, it is not my intention to tell anyone how they should repair gas meters, or how they should operate their meter shop. Rather, I would like to conduct this class with the primary purpose of obtaining a comparison of ideas on the various operation procedures of meter shops - and with this goal in mind, perhanps we can gain from each others experiences and problems.
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Document ID: 81D1BBCA

Measurement And Regulation In An LNG Plant
Author(s): James A. May
Abstract/Introduction:
Many papers on LNG plants and equipment have been written and presented at various conferences during the past few years. Because LNG is a relatively new phase of the gas industry a great amount of literature is available, and the interest is encouraging with more and more people becoming involved in LNG as time goes by. The operation of an LNG plant is similar in many ways to other types of operations in the industry in that such variables as gas flow rate, temperature, pressure, specific gravity, composition, RPM, liquid level, and electrical measurement are utilized. Most of these are used daily throughout the industry. The primary difference in LNG plants and the rest of the industry would be, of course, the low temperatures encountered as natural gas goes from the vapor phase to a liquid and then back to a vapor. This transition necessitates special equipment and materials.
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Document ID: 94E31C58

Analog Digital Computers For Gas Dispatching
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has observed rapid changes in telemetering over the last several years. Many of the changes are due to the advent of low cost electronic components which have allowed highly sophisticated electronic equipment to become economically feasible for installation by gas utilites. The industry trend in the future appears to be one of an even higher degree of sophistication as the dispatching problem becomes more and more critical. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the various types of telemetering systems and gas flow computers, along with the appreciation techinques for utilizing the various types of equipment.
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Document ID: 1FA39F86

Use Of Telemetered Data For Gas Volume Calculations
Author(s): William R. Loll
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper is presented on data and experience taken by the author while he was working on the installation, maintenance and operation of a gas Data Acquisition System for the Consumers Power Company of Jackson, Michigan. The Consumers Power Company-Michigan Gas Storage Company system consists of a wholly Michigan located transmission, storage and distribution gas handling system. The Data Acquisition System is installed in the Transmission-City Gate Measurement and Regulation System only, but somewhat overlaps into storage and compression areas. The purpose of the system is to help in dispatching at the central dispatch point, calculate flows for system measurement, monitor city gate outlet pressures and gather engineering data for engineering studies. It has been operating for three years.
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Document ID: FA91933C

Large Capacity Meters
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity displacement meters have found increasing acceptance as a measurement tool. This acceptance is undoubtedly due to their ability to accurately measure a wide range of flow rates at elevated line pressures. Large capacity displacement meters operate on exactly the same principle as small meters however, there are many mechanical refinements included in their design to assure long life and accurate results under more severe operating conditions. The valve gear and timing mechanism of the large meter are more elaborate to decrease the angular movement of the various bearing surfaces and to allow more accurate valve timing. Points of heavy load in large displacement meters are equipped with high quality sealed ball bearings which require no lubrication. Large displacement meters are also arranged so that they can accept more sophisticated index equipment, thus allowing better accuracies in totalizing flows.
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Document ID: 6305300A

Selective Or Sample Testing Of Gas Meters
Author(s): Frederic Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
Basically the best change-out policy from the standpoint of both the utility and the customer would be the one which would produce accurate metering at the least possible cost. In most states, the age change or mileage method is employed for testing and maintaining gas meters. This method results in mass removal without regard to the individual need. The sole purpose of this method of testing meters on a fixed age schedule is the detection and correction of those meters operating outside of prescribed limits at the end of the period. However, the majority of meters tested are found operating within limits. Thus, the ENTIRE meter population is tested periodically for the sole purpose of discovering those which are inaccurate. No consideration is given to the fact that a meter or group of meters might require more or less frequent maintenance than the average.
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Document ID: 4BD7BF55

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London about 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so-called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning the inspector would turn the service off. This practice was then changed and the gas light customers were charged for the quantity of gas used based on the number, and possibly the size of light burners in the homes. Thus, the first gas meters developed were rated as Five-Light, Ten-Light, etc. A gas light burner was based on a consumption of 6 cubic feet per hour.
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Document ID: 687B4128

Noise Abatement At Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
First let us define some terms. What is sound? Sound is an alternation of compressions and rarefactions in an elastic medium, it can be called a physical disturbance that creates a sensation in ones ear. Sound may be pleasant, or unpleasant, soothing, exhilarating, disturbing or painful. Hence, one may insert a psychologic auditory sensation into its definition when humans are involved. Thus, when sound becomes disturbing or painful it becomes unwanted sound which is the definition of noise. One cannot talk about sound intelligently until the terms which describe its measurement are understood. A decibel is the unit of level which denotes the rato between quantities proportional to power or pressure.
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Document ID: 068BA68C

Mass Flow Measurement
Author(s): E. Loy Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement does not require a set of base conditions and can be accomplished at any set of flowing conditions. Remember the old saying A pound is a pound the world around. To this we might add A cubic foot of gas is a variable the world over. So, mass measurement gives us a unit that is definitive without further qualification. Gas bought in Texas at 100 psig, iOOF., and .600 specific gravity, by the pound, can be sold by the pound at any other conditions of pressure and temperature such as 100 psig 30F. and .600 specific gravity, with no correction required. Volume measurement would have to he mathematically reduced to standard conditions before a measurement balance could be obtained. Also, regulatory bodies and gas contract departments who seem to delight in setting up different standard conditions, would have a unit of measurement in the pound that would be truly standard.
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Document ID: B02695DF

Theory And Operation Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Joseph L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The original rotary meters, developed in the 1920s, consisted of two oppositely rotating impellers of two-lobe or figure 8 contour, operating within a rigid casing having inlet and outlet gas connections on opposite sides. Impeller contours were of a form which provided a continuous line seal between the impellers and the body wall at all positions during rotation. The impellers do not push against each other. Clearance between the impellers is maintained by timing gears.
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Document ID: 5FF549C7

The Use Of Butterfly Valves As Regulators
Author(s): Edward G. Holtgraver
Abstract/Introduction:
Rather than devote my talk strictly to specific applications of the butterfly valve as a regulator, I have chosen to attempt to show you just why a butterfly valve must be considered for this application. Later, I will give a few specific butterfly valve applications. The butterfly valve is one of the oldest known valves. Yet, despite this, it has only been in the past several years that it has taken its place alongside other valves, such as the plug, globe, ball, or gate. What was once thought of as stricdy a damper valve is now capable of handling many severe services. Uses on high pressure, high temperature, and throttling services are now common.
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Document ID: AEC4E0BB

Chart Calculation With A Scanner
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Industries Electioscanner has been developed to automatically integrate orifice meter charts for companies now using several people to perform the job manually. Its high speed will quickly produce the desired chart readings and free several highly trained chart office personnel from a tedious, exacting, mechanical task. As in many automation applications, the output from the automatic instrument is superior to the manual production in ways other than economic. The personnel effort formerly used in the manual methods can be devoted to more responsible chart work that required human judgment and decisions. The economic advantage to he realized by busy chart offices from using the Electroscanner is outstanding. Its initial cost is soon amortized and chart integrating costs are reduced sharply. The Scanner easily reads 240 charts per hour and in many cases, will read a chart offices total chart load in a few hours operation. The fact that it may sit idle for most of the time does not prevent significant savings from being realized.
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Document ID: 768EDF50

Methods Of Odorization
Author(s): Louis Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization has become an important function of the transportation and marketing of natural gas. Gas companies odorize to build customer relations by providing a safer fuel. The Public Utilities Commission departments in most states have taken a firm stand for odorized gas. Gas companies repair numerous leaks found through odorizing. These leaks, formerly charged off as unaccounted-for-gas suddenly became a source of revenue.
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Document ID: 0BCA2340

Design Of A Combination Positive And Orifice Metering Installation
Author(s): E. J. Burgin
Abstract/Introduction:
FUNCTION - In the design of a meter and regulator station, regardless of size or type, the first consideration should be that of obtaining consistently accurate measurement and dependable pressure regulation. Whether or not this function is dependent primarily upon the people who develop the design. Of course, once the equipment has been installed, it must be properly maintained for our purpose, we asume this is done. The achievement of accurate measurement and dependable pressure regulation is obtained by proper consideration of the specific requirements as they are known and developed, existing conditions, and the future requirements. One of the factors that must be considered in the design of meter and regulator stations is that of cost. In considering cost, we are concerned with the cost of operation and maintenance as well as the initial cost. Too often, initial cost becomes the prime consideration because of its effect upon the feasibility of the project. However, if the feasibility can not support an adequately designed station that will result for all flow rates and pressure conditions in accuracies to within one-half to one-fourth of one per cent, then perhaps the project is not feasible at all.
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Document ID: A4B2BD6B

Testing Orifice Meters Under Flowing Conditions
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
The title assigned my topic will mislead, if taken literally. If we assume an orifice meter consists of an orifice plate and its holder, then we should not suggest its inspection under flowing conditions. An attempt to do so would surely clash with the intent and purpose of pipeline safety legislation and the Department of Transportation. Therefore, in discussion, I will limit my remarks to conventional flow recorders found in typical orifice metering installations and allow more adventuresome types to explore inspection of primary metering elements under pressure. In my remarks about calibrating static and differential pressure elements of a typical flow recorder, I will also avoid any suggestion leading to calibration of these elements under flowing conditions. It follows that static pressures are something less than static in operating practice and differential pressures are seldom characterized by lack of movement. Therefore, any attempt to precisely measure and compare pressure readings with a reference standard must be undertaken under conducive circumstances. If meaningful resolutions are sought, pressures must be gaged under truly static conditions. This involves valve manipulations to isolate recorder indicating elements from any degree of pressure variation, something expected in a flowing stream. An accomplished technician will appreciate the requirements for gauging static pressures under conditions that approximate flowing conditions. Otherwise, test objectives are defeated, particularly when there is appreciable flow variation.
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Document ID: 8B4FDFE8

Compressor Station Measurement And Control Instrumentation
Author(s): William L. Busch
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes some of the applications of instruments and controllers to the needs of compressor stations. The paper narrates only Manufacturers Light and Heats use of instruments and controllers, and no attempt will be made to discuss all possible applications of these proven pieces of equipment. Our prime objective in applying instrumentation and control systems is to use tried and proven techniques with heavy emphasis on reliability, safety, minimum service interruptions, simplicity of operation and maintenance and lowest annual cost.
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Document ID: 057840BF

Transfer Proving Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert S. Snyder
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity displacement meters have historically been one of the primary measuring devices utilized by the natural gas industry. Because of the high reliance placed on gas meters, a satisfactory method of periodically checking their accuracy was necessitated. This method, developed as an off-spring from orifice metering and referred to as low-pressure flow proving, has now become firmly established as the most common technique for determining the accuracy of a natural gas displacement meter. Low pressure flow proving, although proven to be a reliable, accurate method of testing, requires a thorough understanding of the basic testing procedure and proper application of the numerous measured quantities in order to obtain accurate results. As a result of the search for an improved method of testing gas displacement meters, the coneept of transfer testing utilizing a transfer prover was developed. This discussion will be devoted to an explanation of this relatively new approach to large capacity displacement meter testing.
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Document ID: 9D948B54

Optimum Use Of Communication Circuits For Contorl & Telemetering
Author(s): Graham D. Bogel
Abstract/Introduction:
The use and growth of telemetering in industrial control has closely paralleled the growth of the communications systems within the country. Telemetering, which literally means measuring at a distance, must certainly have been practiced from earliest times. From the time men learned to signal at all, they signaled the size of armies and herds of animals during the hunt. Our interest, however, is in automatic telemetering. Automatic telemetering depends on the availability of dependable electrical communications. As telegraph tie-ups between communications systems came into use, they were first used to send ON-OFF type of information, particularly in the presence or absence of trains on railroad tracks, and the familiar fire and burglary alarm functions. These direct current type systems grew tremendously, until all types of nation-wide and international networks were in use.
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Document ID: 7D8733D9

Specific Gravity Instruments And Their Use
Author(s): Alfred B. Cawthorne
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper identifies and discusses the principles, use and problems of instruments used to determine the specific gravity of gases in general. Also discussed is the value of accurate specific gravity determinations. It is not the intention of the writer to recommend or condemn any particular type or make of instrument but rather to try to identify the principles, use, and problems of specific graviy instruments in general and the value of accurate specific gravity determinations in a manner that can be understood by persons with little previous experience in these fields.
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Document ID: 83E97265

Basic Electronics
Author(s): Thomas A. Fountain
Abstract/Introduction:
The A, B, Cs of electronics and the theory and components compared to their counter-parts in pneumatic measurement and control. Gas and electricity have a great deal in commontheir behavior, appearance, the manner of handling and their measurement. I will attempt to show how one is like the other and perhaps a better understanding of electrical phenomena and terms can be brought about. Their physical appearance is a good common point to start. I have never seen an electron in motion and I doubt if anyone has ever seen a molecule of gas or even a standard cubic foot of them. The effects of either yes, but those effects we will look at later. You will note even in talking about gas and electricity we find another likeness-electron and molecule. In definition a molecule is made up of atoms and the atoms are made up of electrons and protons, but the smallest unit of gas that can be discussed is the molecule and the smallest particle of electricity is the electron. A cubic foot of gas is a whole lot of molecules and a watt is a whole lot of electrons but bath are a standard quantity for sale.
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Document ID: 8AD72B54

Measurement Of Manpower Performance
Author(s): William C. Minger
Abstract/Introduction:
Businesses exist to make money-money for the investor and money for the employee. To continue making money, management must constantly increase its productivity through the effective utilization of materials, manpower, equipment and dollars. Most of you are acquainted with terms such as measurement and manpower performance and have some knowledge of the subject matter, so my purpose is to review the basic concepts of manpower performance and then explain, in some detail, our particular program. Manpower performance, in a broad sense, is the result of applying work measurement principles to projects performed by assigned personnel and comparing the results with predetermined goals.
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Document ID: 5B1967E4

Protection Of Above Ground Steel Surfaces
Author(s): W. A. Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
The paint industry offers a variety of Heavy Duty Coatings for the control of corrosion on above ground steel surfaces. The generic types range from conventional oil modified alkyds to chemically cured two component epoxy coatings. The applied cost of the various available systems can range from a few cents per square foot of surface to a dollar or more. Paint systems for above ground steel as employed by the gas industry for the transmission, regulation and measurement of gas flow are generally confined to those thai can be applied in two or three coats. The selection of the system for the many exposure conditions common to a gas distribution system requires an evaluation of all factors for reasons of economy. The purpose of painting is two fold. First you consider the protective value, then the appearance factor. We all know a public utility is always subject to all kinds of personal objections, and we also know all can not be appeased.
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Document ID: B0DD5120

Regulator Inspection Procedures
Author(s): E. J. Rohanna
Abstract/Introduction:
From the late 1940s to date teh Natural Gas Industry has enjoyed an enviable growth record. The Gas Industry now markets several times more gas than it did in the late 1940s. To meet this ever increasing demand of the Energy Market for natural gas the gas companies have continually expanded, modified and qualified their facilities for higher pressures and larger flows.
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Document ID: D3C0EFED

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meters And Regulators
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the designing of the Combination Meter, our special aim has been simplicity of construction, combined with perfect functioning of the mechanism as a whole. One unit but performing two major requirements accurate measurement and pressure control, The Combination Meter is of the same size and shape as our standard #175, #240 and #250 meters. The center front and back castings, index box, all gaskets, diaphragms and internal parts are identically the same in both types. The marked difference between the two types is that the Combination Meter has the regulator built in as an integral part of the meter top, thus combining the regulator and meter into one compact unit-a pressure regulator and a gas meter.
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Document ID: 857DB0B3

Turbo Meter Maintenance And Testing Procedures
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
In lale 1963, the Rockwell Manufacturing Company culminated fifteen years of engineering research and development with the introduction of the 6 T-30 (30,000 cfh @ 4 oz.) Rockwell Turbo Meter. The subsequent expansion of the high working pressures has extensively broadened the applications on which Turbo Meters can be used. Several thousand Turbo Meters are currently in use by gas distribution utilities on services ranging from industrial boilers to large power plants and city gate stations. Market preferences for the turbine type of gas meter have necessitated even more extensive broadening of the Turbo Meter product line.
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Document ID: 0935E14A

Usas B31.8 Pressure Control Requirements
Author(s): Eugene J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
USAS B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems is the basic document for minimum standards of design, fabrication, installation, operations and testing used in the Gas Industry. This code is a living code and hence, revised periodically to reflect developments in materials, constructions and usage. Some of the pending revisions to B31.8-1968 dealing with pressure control which have been approved will be discussed later on. Although B31.8 was developed by and for the Gas Industry and set up as a voluntary standard, it is now mandatory for all practical purposes as a result of Federal legislation. At the urging of the U. S. Department of Transportation all but a couple of the fifty Stales have adopted it in some form. Some as is and others with additional provisions. By DOT decree, those States which have not adopted their own State codes are also governed by the requirements of B31.8.
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Document ID: 416D9ABA

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
When evaluating or selecting the components of an A.G.A. Qualifying Meter Tube, individual tention is, of course, focused on the three basic components. That is, the orifice plate itself, the approach and discharge tubing, and the plate holding device. The selection of the proper orifice plate is relatively simple as well as being easily procured. This is also true of the upstream and downstream piping, which can easily be selected to meet A.G.A. minimum requirements. The A.G.A. Committee Report Number 3 readily spells out the minimum upstream and downstream lengths, as well as infernal diameter tolerance. The third component is the plate holding device which requires more care in its selection, due to the task it is to perform. The improper selection of this one component can easily Insult in many unnecessary operational costs.
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Document ID: 45DE6E2D

Effect Of The Pipeline Safety Bill On Future Design Of Gas Transportation Systems
Author(s): Norman W. Stone, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Judging by some recent statements the public may have developed teh opinion that pipeline safety is something new. This is somewhat similar to the situation in which a star is born overnight - after 15 years of stage/screen experience.
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Document ID: 7BD034AF

Abatement Of Control Valve Noise
Author(s): Ernest E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
An increased awareness of the physiological and psychological stresses that the human body is subjected to as a result of exposure to excessive noise levels has prompted man to demand that something be done about noise. Demands for noise abatement have been presented in the form of: labor grievances, compensation granted workmen for loss of eharing, and anti-noise legislation.
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Document ID: 9D8FA6DA

Pilot Operated Plug Valve Regulators For Pressure Control
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
The plug valve has been used to throttle fluids since its conception as a valve. This throttling was manual for short durations. The inherent characteristics of the plug valve as a throttling device were not recognized because the normal application of a plug valve was on the typical on-off type service. The increased use of gas and the resulting larger pipelines required more pressure regulating equipment and larger equipment. Conventional throttle valves were available in sizes up to and including 12, and some 16 were available on special order but these were very expensive and had massive top works. The need for a good large regulator forced some operating gas companies to start experimenting with the plug valve as a regulator as far back as the 30s, and there may have been unrecorded earlier attempts. The early experimenters were intrigued with plug valves due to their experience with this type of valve as a manual means of regulating pressure in a pipeline system. In addition, some of these experimenters were faced with the problem of installing large valves for specific controls and the cost of such a system was almost prohibitive,. These early experimenters employed hydraulic power systems and even some electrical power systems. The hydraulic systems were gas-hydraulic or electric-hydraulic and various schemes were devised to control the plug position. Most of the problems associated with these systems were the result of having to start hydraulic pumps and stop them with little or no time delays and also the problem of controlling the speed of the valve operator. The operators were generally piston operators but other types were used also. In the early 50s. additional experimenting was done
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Document ID: 5AA6B05A

Overpressure Protective Devices
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
Every pipeline, main, distribution system, customers meter and connected facilities, if connected to a gas source where the failure of pressure control or other causes might result in a pressure which would exceed the maximum allowable operating pressure of the facility, shall be equipped with suitable pressure relieving or pressure limiting devices.
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Document ID: 60A29810

Measured Steps For The Measurement Man
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement means different things to different people. Gas accounting personnel may understand gas measurement as columns of figures which, when properly fed into data processing equipment, will produce a dollar value.
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Document ID: 0955F1FF


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