Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1969)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Second Thoughts On Meter Shop Design
Author(s): George L. Moore,
Abstract/Introduction:
Shartly after I entered the Meter Shop in 1963, we began to design new facllities. Even to my inexperienced eyes there were some problems in the existing shop that could only be corrected by design change.. Ideas to eliminate these faults came from publications and visitations to other shops as well as from discussions within our own group
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Document ID: 48297D55

Usasi B3I.8 Code Requirjements For The Control And Limiting Of Gas Pressure In Distribution Systems
Author(s): Frank A. Couch
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States of America Standards Institute B31.8 Code for Pressure Piping, as amended by the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission Rules and Regulations, sets forth basic engineering requirements for the design, construciion, operation and maintenance of company-owned facilities located in the State of Washington. Each operating company has developed operating policies and procedures based on the code provisions, experience and knowledge of its facilities and operating conditions to protect both employee and public health, safety and welfare
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Document ID: CE0F1C6F

Remote Control Of The Distribution System
Author(s): Fred E. King
Abstract/Introduction:
As the demand for natural gas i n c r e a s e , , the distribution systems and their control becomes more complex. Remote control of the key regulat o r s and their relationship to gas dispatching is an important part of this growth Gas dispatching may be defined as the centralized control of the daily operation of a gas system. This function may be performed by a man or department operating under anyone of several names, such as Load Dispatching, Gas Control, Pressuee Control, Gas Dispatching, or Operations
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Document ID: 1D4876CD

Spring Loaded Vs. Pilot Loaded Regulators
Author(s): Bobleidig
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpobo of this paper is to develop a framework within which to facilitate the selection of industrial regulator.. All gas pressuee regulators are composed of three basic elements. These are the measuring element, the restricting element, and the loading element. Measuring Element This is the element that receives a signal or senses when an increaee or decrease in downstream pressuee is taking place. The measuring element responds to the signal by exerting a force against the standard or loading force and thereby maintaining the downstream control pressure.
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Document ID: C363174B

Monitor R E G U L A T I On
Author(s): Ralph E. Boyd
Abstract/Introduction:
The word monitor comes to us from the Latin word monitus which means one that warns, or o v e r s e e . . The Gas Industryss usage applies to the second meaning, o v e r s e e .. The monitoring regulator is installed in s e r i e s with the primary regulator. In the event the primary regulator allows the system pressuee to r i s e above the set point of the monitor, the monitor will r e s t r i c t the flow and limit this pressuee r i s e. A working monitor must be pilot-loaded and must be installed upstream of the primary regulator. A non-working monitor may be installed either upstream or downstream of the primary regulator, and may be either spring or pilotloaded
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Document ID: 24E46361

Automatic Shutoff Valves
Author(s): John Kullberg
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance for safety in the Gas Industry, especially in protecting of systems downstream of regulators (distribution or industria)) or against overp r e s s u r e, has increased proportionally with the increasingly higher p r e s sures upstream. This concern for safety has been manifested basicaUy in four overpressure protection systems: series regulation, monitoring systems, relief valves and automatic shutoff valves. This presentaiion will deal with automatic shutoff devices, their applications, advantages, disadvantages and demonstration
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Document ID: 1CAC60B7

Relief Valves
Author(s): Milton Shannon
Abstract/Introduction:
It is known that public safety is of vital concern to the Gas Industry. This was depicted by the Gas Industryss voluntary adoption of a national piping code many years ago. Some of the code sections define the acceptable methods of pverpresuure protection. These methods include the following: 1. Series Regulators 2. Monitor Regulators 3. Automatic Shutoff Valves 4. Relief Devices
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Document ID: 1D4FFD05

Field Maintenance Of Regulators Distribution System Regulators
Author(s): Ray Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Maintenance in the field of customer meter regulators is generally held to a minimum. Most of the necessayy repair work is done in the shop. This is economical and expedient because of the ease of removing the regulator from service and installing a spare regulato..
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Document ID: E3405381

Workshop On Valves And Controllers As Operators
Author(s): J. Fowler. W. Ridgway
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas companies have been looking for ways to increase pipeline capacities as the demand for gas has increased. The least expensive method was to operate the lines at higher p r e s s u r e . This presented two p r o b l e m s - n o i se due to pressuee drops at regulator stations and how to increase the capacity of the station without major revisions. The noise problem was solved by soundproofing vaults. To solve the pressue drops, gas companies have used three types of valves as regulator.. These a r e plug, butterfly and ball valves
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Document ID: 6D6D8E8F

Natural Gas The Chromatograhh The Digital Integrator, The Computor
Author(s): John Light
Abstract/Introduction:
As natural gas compositinn becomes increasingly important more and more analyses are required in the day-to-day business of natural gas production processin. transmission, and distribution This obviously means an increased work load in the quality control laboratory Usually, an increased work load means more people but if some forethought goes into the laboratory needs, the increase in personnel can often be a minimal consideratonn In mostinstances a small highlv trained work force with sufficient high-quaiity equipment is preferable to a larger force of nontechnicll people, regardless of equipment
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Document ID: C5C49D92

The Honeywell H2S Analyzer
Author(s): H. P. Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most objectionabee impurities found in natural gas from certain producing areas is hydrogen sulfide (from here on lets refer to this compound by its chemical formula -- H2S) In addition to imparting a very objectionabee odor to natural gas (H2S smells like rotten eggs), H2S is corrosive and deadly. It reacts readily with water or water vapor to form hydrosulfuric acid In the presence of iron and water, it combines to form iron sulfide and atomic hydrogen Hydrogen embrittlement of the steel pipe ensues as atomic hydrogen is absorbed at the grain boundries which ultimately can lead to fracture. The iron sulfide itself can produce electrolytcc corrosion which will result in deep pitting of the steel Further, the iron sulfides, which may take the form of a hard closely adhering scale or a loosely adhering powder, are troublesome.
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Document ID: 3F0A74E6

Vaults. And How To Avoid Them
Author(s): G.S. Stron
Abstract/Introduction:
The net result of this is that utilities are being forced underground because our eauinment is considered bulky and unattractive. It should be out of sight, in a vailt. Is this what is reaUy meant? TTe writer doesnt think so. Lets take the complaint and examine it. me equipment is bUlky and unattractive. If we are honest with ourselves, we must admit, at least, that some of the older sets are unattractive and overly large. The manufacturers of this equipment are working on this problem
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Document ID: 0D7921E3

U.G.C.r. Gravitometrr With Telemetering
Author(s): Ronald J. Campa
Abstract/Introduction:
The first portion of this paper will deal with the basic Gravitomeeer. The unit is an automatically continuous recorder operating on the principle of a mechanical beam balance system. The manufacturer of this -instrument employed a unique method of-eliminating the effect 5f environmental changes by the use of identical tanks, These tanks are hung from the balance beam, assembled at equal distance from the pivotal axis, but create equal but opposite torques.
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Document ID: DEB72BAB

Basic Telemetry
Author(s): Tom Schriver
Abstract/Introduction:
The word telemetry is derived from the Greek words te1e (distant), and metron (to measure) so, the basic definition is distant measuring or measuring from a distance. The word te1emetering is also quite often used, The two words have the same basic meaning and are quite often used interchangeably. It should be remembered that telemetry involves the measurement of some quantity, converting that quantity to some form which can be transmitted to a distant point, then converting the received signal into a usable form for observing or recording the measured quantity. Nearly all telemetry is used for the same basic reasons that is, to transmit information from a remote or inaccessible location to a more convenient point, or to centraliee information from several different locations
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Document ID: 1EB97980

Chart Processing Procedure
Author(s): R. D. Magagna
Abstract/Introduction:
Mountain Fuel Supply Companys major market area is the Salt Lake valley located in the northern portion of UtaJi- We also distribute gas to other cities and industries in utah and Wyoming which are located along our transmission system, Mountain Fuel gathers gas from northern Colorado and western Wyoming and transports it into utah. We also gather gas from eastern utah and transport it into the southern portion of our market area
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Document ID: 3954C83B

Pipeline Efficiency Testing
Author(s): F. F Bassani
Abstract/Introduction:
Tests to determine the efficiency of Mountain Fuel Supply Company-s main transmission lines have been conducted for a number of years -Zese Ssts 1 Determine the relative efficiency of the pipeline sections compared with one another and to the theoretical-Weymouth.fomula-hichw use - in our calculations. 2. With the efficiency of the sections knowni, all calculations using the Weymouth formula are corrected to give a more realistic value of the pressure drops to be expected with a given volume of gas flowing through the system.
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Document ID: 3F606EE1

The Turbo Meter
Author(s): Gerald Christensen
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems a measurement man constantly runs into is the erratic load. Part of the day it is large, near the limits of conventional orifice metering. Then, it drops to such a. small load as to make it difficult to measure even with a ten-inch orifice meter If you use positive displacement meters, you usually need two or more and then a series of meter run valves or regulators to close on low loads
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Document ID: FBE4D1C2

Basic Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): D. L. Hagen
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of orifice metering spans a broad field and to cover all its aspects in detail would involve several texts rather than a paper. It is my intent to briefly cover only the majcr aspects with the hope that the beginners will gain a general grasp of the subject and that the experienced metermen will find it a worthwhile review. I have included a bibliography at the end of this paper which should be useful for a detailed study of the subject. The many types of meters used for gas measurement can, in general, be separated into two classifications which are
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Document ID: 1766AE1C

Mercury Am) Dry Flow Meters
Author(s): H. J. Terry David Dahl
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is often mistaJeenly thought of as just a differential pressure gauge. In reality the orifice meter is a combination of the orifice plate, meter run, gauge lines, differential gauge and pressure element This combination forms the orifice meter and enables us to measure the flowing gas The orifice is designed so that the flowing gas is restricted at a specific location in the meter tube by an orifice p5te known as the primary element. The readings above and below the orifice plate are then transmitted by gauge lines to the recorder The pressure difference that is to be recorded is so minute that it is found convenient to relate this pressure to the displacement of water in a 1/2-inch water column. The ratio was found to be one pound differential pressure is equal to 27.7-inches of water displacement in the column. Therefore, the differential pressure being scribed on a chart by the recorder is referred to as inches of water column
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Document ID: 40D826A6

Orifice Metering Of Mtural Gas
Author(s): Jerry Hayiies Merle Porter
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement with an orifice meter can only fall in one category, Large Voltone, There have been many tests performed on the flow characteristics of an orifice and there always will be. The conclusion of the findings from these research projects show each of us the necessity for maintaining a tolerance of one hundred percent, that only we as measurement men can attempt to duplicate, I would define the purpose of measurement as one hundred percent return on a one hundred percent purchase. This is the only way to measure large volume gas. There are many variables affecting measurement through an orifice
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Document ID: 18446370

Turbine Meter Workshop
Author(s): G. W. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent research and development has resulted in the application of the turbine concept to gas flow measurement. The turbine meter applied to gas measurement is an axial.flow turbine The direction of flow is pallel to the rotor axis of the meter and the speed of rotation is nominally proportional to the rate of flaw The turbine meter unlike other inferential meters, converts the velocity directly into an integrated reading by means of the rotating impeller. That is, there is a linear relationship between volume and the output reading
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Document ID: D5DFDF87

Digicon
Author(s): Philip C Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Several methods have been developed for determining a value for each of the flow variables during the flow time The Digicon Averager supplies all the indexes required for the calculation of flow time in hoSrs and average absolute static pressure (Pf) and differential pressure (h). The word index is used as the true time and pressure values depend on the chart range Just . as the chart index-counter reading is multiplled by a machine constatJo determine a true chart extension for the flow equation
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Document ID: 27CBC1C0

Meter Performance Statistics By Computer
Author(s): C. A. Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 110 years the Northwett Natural Gas Company has purchased many different makes and sizes of meters. However, tin meters were used almost exclusively until the early fiftie,, at which time some of the earlier models of hard case meters were added. Meter accuracy was considered to be good for the tin case meters with leather diaphragms when operated on manufactured gas, but with the advent of dry natural gas the meters started to run fast. This is the typical situation most distributinn companies have experienced. Synthetic diaphragms now have for most meters replacdd leather with varying degrees of reliability especaally with eariier materials. Since the arrival of natural gas only hard case meters predominantly with aluminum cases have been purchased
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Document ID: 309BFBDF

Two Years With The Transfer Prover
Author(s): Henry C. Judd
Abstract/Introduction:
Two years ago our Company bought the first transfer prover in the Northwest. To my knowledge it is still the only such prover in the area, and I am often asked - 1. How does it work? 2. Is it faster and more accurate than LP and Critical Flow Proving? 3. Is it as accurate as the bell prover? 4. How do we carry i t? 5. How would you know if it was in error? 6. Are we satisfied with it?
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Document ID: A02089AA

Operation Of Roots Transfer Prover
Author(s): Ken Polen Dick Nancarrcw
Abstract/Introduction:
In one of the preceding lectures, Mr. H. Judd of Northwest Natural Gas Company related his companys experience with the transfer prover after two years of use. The purpose of the shop presentation that followed was to (1) explain in more detail how the prover worked, and (2) to show the new one-ton van truck that Northwest Natural Gas had built for transporting the prover. Questions most often asked were: 1. Question: How much investment did Answer: About 5,000 in each. 2. Question: Answer: we have in the prover and truck? 3. Question: Answer: In comparing our transfer prover to our 20 Bell in a number of tests the Bell Prover gave proof results about .4 of 1% faster or higher than did the transfer prover. In other words, if the Bell Prover showed a meter to be .2 of 1% fast, the Transfer Prover would show the same meter to be .2 of 1% slow, on an average
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Document ID: 1D22EBBC

Operation & Adjustment Of Temperature Compensatdd Meters
Author(s): Don Kuest John Phalen
Abstract/Introduction:
Since there have been an increasing number of temperature compensated meters installed in the Northwest, oarticularly by companies operating east of the Cascades, it was felt that a shop presentation on this type meter would be both timely and informative. Mr. Kuest and Mr. Phalen indicated after four years of using temperature compensated meters that they had experiencdd no problems with either their operation or incoming proof.
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Document ID: 04DDDDAA

Repair Of Pressure Compensating Indexes
Author(s): Bob Stapleton
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this shop oresentation was to relate the exoerience Northwest Natural Gas Company has had with approximately 300 Pressure Compensating Indexes. These indexes are both American and Rockwell manufacture and range in ae from one to 13 years. Mr. Stapletonss job during the past two years is to bring the older indexes back into the shop and give them a complete overhaul. His presentation covered: (1) the theory of their operation, and (2) what tyne repairs had to be made.
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Document ID: D22B19AC

New Concepts In Measurement
Author(s): Al Hilden Jim Henn Charley Bernitt
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this shop presentation was to give those people attending the Short Course a chance to see and discuss some of the new measurement equipment on the market Americanss CVM and Turbine Meters and their Continuous Integrating Pressure Correttigg Indexes and Mercurys Pressure Correcting Index. Questions most often asked were: 1. How does a continuous integrating index operate? 2. How does Americanss turbine differ from first turbine meters on the market? 3. What are the advantages of having a replaceable module? 4. What are the additional costs for the new pressure correcting indexes?
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Document ID: 3DA9A8BE

Pressure Limiting Devices
Author(s): Ralph E. Boyd
Abstract/Introduction:
The problems faced by the gas industry have many unique features which place it apart from other industries. The gas industry operates under federal and state laws, and just as binding, good business sense, which all requiee that the servcee to our customess be as safe as sound engineering will provide. This paper will predomnnatyly r e s t r i c t itseff to presuure limitigg devices which protect against overppressure by natural gas relating to large commercial and large industrial customess served from high or intermediate presuure natural gas pipeline
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Document ID: 81A4BA3A


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