Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1969)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

What The Field Group Expects From The Office
Author(s): D. L. Booth
Abstract/Introduction:
Travellers Warning-Flash floods are expected throughout the area. Blinding sand storms, snow packed roads, narrow winding trails-where every curve presents the possibility of a head on collision, axle deep mud, car trouble, rattlesnakes, bad tempered range bulls sounds like something out of High Lonesome? No, it isnt. Nor is it the Isast bit melodramatic. If you work in an office that conducts measurement work in any part of the southwest, youve heard variations of these calamities recited over and over by field people.
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Document ID: D6A3648A

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas
Abstract/Introduction:
A definition of unaccounted for or unaccountable gas would be in order at this point. Unaccounted for gas is simply gas lost due to leaks and/or poor operation or maintenance procedures over and above the expected accuracy of measuring devices used in a specific system. In accounting terms unaccounted-for-gas expressed
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Document ID: 5E44F652

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): E. J. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of specific gravity is an important function in the work of Gas Measurement. In measuring gas by orifice meters, the specific gravity of the gas being measured is certainly one of the major variable factors in determining actual volumes measured, if not the greatest. Unless the coefficient is corrected to an accurately determined specific gravity of the gas being measured, the measurement will not be correct.
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Document ID: 5B9C50A6

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): W. R. Bogard
Abstract/Introduction:
The heating value of natural gas is of prime consideration in purchasing or selling this product in that a considerable range in the chemical composition and consequently a considerable range in the heating value is encountered. The basis of measuring this heating value is the British Thermal Unit. One (1) B.T.U. is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one (1) pound of water one (1) deg. fahrenheit. The conditions specified may be the standard conditions of 14.73 p.s.i.a. (30 Mercury) for pressure, 60 deg. F. for temperature, one cubic foot saturated for volume, or the same conditions corrected to a contract base.
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Document ID: 213318CE

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the water vapor content in a natural gas stream has probably been one of the most published and discussed subjects that has presented itself at all levels of gas measurement. Yet, it continues to remain a semimysterious topic worthy of inclusion in almost every short course or publication concerning the gas measurement field in general. It has deeply involved the top management level of gas producing companies where tens of thousands of dollars of processing equipment may be at stake, and it has also deeply involved the gas measurement field representative for the gas transmission company who is trying to do his job by assuring his superiors that contract quality gas is being purchased or delivered. Through this maze of published and unpublished material one fact seems to consistently emerge. This fact, stated very briefly, seems to be that it is impossible to make any sweeping statement as to the exact optimum method of determining the water vapor content of a natural gas.
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Document ID: 4126D18E

Settlement Tests For Natural Gasoline Content
Author(s): C. L. Peiffer
Abstract/Introduction:
Its a wonderful world we live in. Of all people who have trod the corridors of time we have been privileged to walk through more of historys pages than any other. Many of us listened in horror and unbelief as we were informed that man had literally blown himself into the atomic age. The specter of Hiroshima forever haunts our memory. Most of us have witnessed the technological advances that now bring us to the threshold of the space age. We have watched, loved, and admired the brave men who have offered themselves as sacrifices for mans rendezvous with the stars.
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Document ID: 7E026A25

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): John E. Beutler
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most critical problems facing Measurement and Regulation personnel, especially during the winter months, is the possibility of hydrate formation build-up in metering and regulating equipment. The term hydrate r e f e r s to a mixture of hydrocarbons and water which form a solid similar to ice. As this formation occurs, it can cause inaccuracies in metering equipment and the loss of pressure control in regulation equipment which can lead to the most feared of all problems-the loss of continuity of gas.
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Document ID: B76DCC69

Methods Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): D. H. Rainey
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, within the oil and gas industry there has always been a need, at least for statistical purposes, to compare the size of gas wells within the same field and from field to field and state to state. In 1931, Texas, by statute, determined that no gas well would be permitted to produce in excess of 25% of its Absolute Open-Flow Potential. The Texas Railroad Commission established potential as one of the criteria in the allocation formula in the West Panhandle Field as early as 1932. Although this was originally thrown out by the courts, it was readopted in somewhat different form in 1938. In 1943 and 1944, the states of Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas established deliverability of the individual gas wells as one of the criteria in the proration formula for the Hugoton Field. The New Mexico Oil Conservation Commission in 1954 placed a factor of deliverability in the proration formula in most of the fields in the San Juan Basin of Northwestern New Mexico. Most gas purchase contracts, after World War II when the long distance interstate gas pipelines began to be built,
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Document ID: 485F7EF5

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): J. W. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word safe will have infinitely different meanings when applied to a variety of subjects and wheu interpreted by a number of individuals. For instance, driving safely to one individual may mean the absence of wrecks regardless of near misses, while another driver considers any speed over 50 as reckless. In the transmission and distribution of natural gas there are equally as many ideas of what constitutes safe practice.
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Document ID: 9093E064

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): J. m. Hamilton, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Every Gas Company in the country has its own ideas as to the best design for a measuring and regulating station. This paper will discuss only the stations that the author has had experience with, either in designing, planning or operating, or a combination of all. We all know that there is not a universal station to fit all needs for all companies, so with this in mind, we will attempt to explain how and why Transco designs its stations.
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Document ID: ACD8E9AE

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): John W. Askevs
Abstract/Introduction:
Today you and your children are influenced by processes that were unheard of twenty years ago-color television jet planes, freezers, space ventures, pollution, computers, and chromatography. Did you know that twenty years ago over 80% of todays jobs were nonexistent? Technology has advanced at such a rapid speed when compared to the Industrial Revolution that it would be like comparing the T Model Ford to the jet planes of today. Now you can span the USA in a matter of hours. This is progress! Time is of great importance, man-hours saved may mean the difference between whether a company makes a profit or folds its doors because of a loss, this has made chromatography important.
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Document ID: A7BB2390

Gas Cleaning
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas cleaning is a fundamental part of conditioning natural gas for market. At a casual glance, the separation of pipe line dirt from gas seems to be a simple operation. Unfortunately, this is not often true. It is equally unfortunate that, thus far, it is impossible to measure, directly and reliably, the dirt content of a flowing gas stream so that gas cleaning gets less attention from management than it deserves until it is reflected as an excessive operating expense.
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Document ID: A0098658

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure. The best data available are the pressure, specific volume, and temperature values given in thermodynamic tables of pure substances. Tables are available for steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane, ethane, propane and several other substances. The tables should always be used when working with pure substances.
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Document ID: 5D102060

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): E. J. Burgin
Abstract/Introduction:
In an era of space age technology improvements in equipment and techniques are being felt in all areas of scientific activity. Certainly the fuel gas metering field has felt the effects of many new and improved devices. In the following discussion emphasis has been directed to the more conventional forms of equipment. Equipment that is not entirely new but has recent modifications is also included.
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Document ID: C0879BAB

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. R. Weston
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas in gathering and distribution systems often contains a variety of substances which would have to be classified as undesirable. One such substance is liquids. Liquids in a gas system are undesirable for several reasons. They require a different kind of pumping for transmission they collect in low spots of the system reducing its capacity and some of them either change to solids or encourage formation of solids during cold weather. They also present troubles at the metering stations. It is here that the measurement man will have his chief concern.
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Document ID: 51DBEE05

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is P a p a l l y accomplished by means of orifice l y p f loTm tors. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressur Z ZZ2BS.exact know,edge of p-e pS cause operational difficulties at meter s t a i and regulators. Pre2 water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a valua low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: F30A899A

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
The manufacturer of kinetic type gravitometers developed the improved portable gravitometer illustrated in Figure 1 and introduced this instrument at the 1967 Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. In accordance with the need for small, lightweight equipment, the manufacturer continued the development program to produce the compact portable gravitometer illustrated in Figure 2. This instrument was introduced at the 1968 Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. By redesigning the air drier and relocating the selector valve and gas flowmeter, a reduction of about 25% in height and weight was accomplished.
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Document ID: 1AC2CCE7

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide And Total Sulphur By T.TRAT.ON Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin, PH.D.
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine ,as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in natural g a T w i introduced to the industry nearly twenty years ago Sw n?d iT uJ t0 t t e E e r n and MvvesTn markets through high pressure transmission lines for a few years when the demand for gas brought more sour gas into production and treating plants for desulfurization were installed on these suppliers to bring hydrogen sulfide concentration down to contract limits. A continuous record of hydrogen sulfide concentration was found to be necessary to ins-ore the quality of delivered g a f Photo electric measurement of lead sulfide in impregnated paper tape was widely used as was electrolytic tiLtlon ?
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Document ID: 570E28AD

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
This is the fourth time the subject of MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS has been discussed in this seminar so it is relatively a new-comer. As plant liquids become more volatile, measured at higher and higher pressures with automatic custody transfer being used, the need for special equipment has arisen. This presentation will encompass two things: (1) the experience the author has had in measuring natural gas liquids, and (2) selected comments subject that have come to the authors attention and were of interest to him.
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Document ID: E19A0D9D

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Meter Man
Author(s): John E. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
In an organization as complex as a gas company there are many agencies that are interdependent, and full interdepartmental cooperation and coordination are essential. From the initial discovery of the gas to its final delivery to the distributors there must be teamwork to insure maximum ultimate profit from the minimum amount of effort. The resulting chain of coordinated effort for our purposes starts with the field meterman. He provides the information which is passed directly to the measurement office.
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Document ID: FE24FDA8

Specific Gravity Instruments-Installation And Operation
Author(s): R. W. Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition-The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressura
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Document ID: 6D07104D

Turbine Meter And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): James Henn
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter is the industrys newest acceptable method of measuring large volumes of natural gas. Its popularity is understandable as it is a very compact, ruggedly built device whose rangeability increases with increasing pressure. It is adaptable to measuring large volumes of production, transmission, distribution or industrial gas.
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Document ID: 7834EC6C

Design Of Positive Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): W. m. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
When you, as measuring station designers, are confronted with a gas metering problem, you must first apply judgment as to the type of hardware best suited to he metering requirements. You would most certainly not capriciously decide that a positive meter station was the most suitable selection to do the job without first considering certain factors.
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Document ID: 5580D1C4

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): R. E. Kudlik
Abstract/Introduction:
The title assigned for this discussion is Measuring Station Inspection Program and Guide and we will endeavor to cover the schedules and procedures followed in complying with Safety Codes and inspections required for the determination of accurate measurement and reliability of equipment operation. Inspections of Measuring Stations should be predicated to the accuracy of gas volumes passed, continuity of service to the consumer, and all coupled with safe operations. Safety Code inspections and tests are included as they cannot be separated from operational procedures anymore.
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Document ID: 0A13B69C

Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. E. Lindgren
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of pulsation induced orifice meter error has long been recognized in the Industry. Even after measurement of peak-to-peak pulsation across the orifice taps, the error cannot always be reliably predicted. The existence of pulsation at the orifice is however good reason to suspect that errors do exist and field pulsation measurements can often make a solution considerably easier. The surest way, and often the only way, of eliminating pulsation error in measurement is the elimination of the pulsation.
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Document ID: DD4C6D3F

Liquified Natural Gas Operations( Application)
Author(s): L. P. Seaton, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Transco LNG Storage Facility was put in operation officially in October 1965. At the time, it was the only LNG Plant this far advanced in the United States. At present there are twelve plants in the U.S., eight of which are operating and four in various stages of construction. The Transco Facility uses the cascade system with Ethylene and Propane as refrigerants and this paer will be concerned with the specific operation and problems encountered there-in.
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Document ID: 47B0EFD8

The Distribution Serviceman And Accurate Measurement-
Author(s): Walter H. BROWNING,ROBERT m. BROWN,VERNON Percell
Abstract/Introduction:
The typical distribution servicemans contact with meters is primarily in the setting and removal of domestic sizes, and the maintenance of the associated installations. There are others, however, who are responsible for the installation, maintenance and field testing of commeroal and industrial meters. It is this latter group toward which this discussion is directed particularly with regard to factors which affect the accuracy of field testing and measurement.
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Document ID: 3C567071

Application Of Densitometers In Gas Measurement
Author(s): John H. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the densitometer has provided equipment that can be conveniently used on existing orifice meter runs to enable mass measurement. Expensive modification of existing facilities is not necessary. The extent of modification required will depend upon several factors: 1. Whether the rate measured in mass units is to be converted to volume units. 2. Whether existing orifice meter gauge with manometer body is retained or changed to a bellows body, or force balance elements. 3. Whether pneumatic or electrical equipment is used and upon availability of electrical power. 4. Upon the configuration of existing orifice meter and desired location of density sensing point. 5. Make of densitometer.
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Document ID: C0E62D02

Management Development
Author(s): James C. Horger
Abstract/Introduction:
The test of a companys ability to survive the rigors of competition and change, to continue enjoying public acceptance of its products and services, to maintain the confidence of investors, to develop new markets, and to attract new capital for expansion is not the accumulation, of equipment, physical facilities, or other material assets. It is the kind of men it has employed and how well their talents are being developed to assure a sufficient number of skilled managers for the companys need-now and in the future. More than ever, the strength of an organization lies with its people. The question of how to insure success through the development of people, particularly managers, is a prime concern of executive management.
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Document ID: 169A8F6F

Odorization
Author(s): Harry LEE,IRV HARVEY,BOB Watson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years there have been many basic methods developed for introducing odorants into natural gas streams. And, for each method, there are usually several variations which have been used. Each company must decide what method, or methods, and equipment are best suited for its own operations.
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Document ID: F52C0ACF

Regulators, Controllers And Related Equipment
Author(s): Harold F. Kruzan
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure regulator is designed to reduce and control pressure. This is done primarily to provide an adequate safety factor, increase the accuracy of measurement and efficiency of the utilization of the gas, and to increase the economy of the transmission and distribution of gas. A gas pressure regulator must be capable of reducing either a constant or variable pressure to a constant discharge pressure of a lower value. This paper will deal with various subjects concerning gas pressure regulators including definition, basic design, types of loading, caputcity, proper sizing, and proper selection. For purposes of this paper, we consider any pressure in excess of one pound as high pressure, and any pressure less than one poand as low pressure.
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Document ID: 3FB4D39C

New Concepts In Industrial Regulators
Author(s): Harold F. Kruzan
Abstract/Introduction:
With increasing growth in population, the gas utility distribution system experiences greater deviations in system pressures. At the same time, there is increasing pressure on the utility for more accurate measurement of gas sold to industrial customers. The very nature of a pressure regulator is such that its outlet pressure will vary in some proportion to inlet pressure fluctuations. Coupled with this is the desire of many utility companies to measure gas supplied to industrial customers at high pressure (2 p.s.i. to 20 p.s.i.) which permits the use of smaller, less expensive meters. In this metering pressure range, the use of constant pressure factors is common. However, the metering pressure must be extremely accurate or the pressure factor will not provide accurate measurement. For example, if the metering pressure is 10 p.s.i. and the pressure deviates 0.5 p.s.i., a 2% error in measurement is experienced (Figure 1).
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Document ID: 643FF5C5

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters
Author(s): Frank St. Amand
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its inroduction in 1967, the Typa 310-32 sliding sleeve regulator has become a valuable tool for the gas engineer in controlling a wide variety of pressure reduction applications. This concept of a sliding sleeve, downstream bleed regulator provides high capacities, pressure drop capabilities to 1440 p.s.i.g. with tight-shut-off, and a compact size. Functionally, it is identical to the familiar pressure balanced, downstream bleed regulators. Since its introduction, approximately 2,000 have been installed throughout the world.
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Document ID: ECFA69CF

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
herein as 2 and above in pipe size. Admittedly, there are many 2 regulators that could hardly be called large capacity. 2 pips has come to be so standard that often it is used for applications that do not begin to use all its available capacity. And, therefore, many 2 regulators are designed to satisfy requirements other than large flow. Also, at high inlet pressures and large cuts, many regulators smaller than 2 can flow such huge quantities of gas that it would be an injustice to arbitrarily ban them from the large capacity club simply because of pipe size.
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Document ID: 55787CFB

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control
Author(s): Milton H. Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure regulation and flow control may be accomplished by any number of devices. We will deal only with th.3 two types with which I am most familiar the expansible tube type valve and the ball valve.
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Document ID: F00FFA22

Measurement By Orifice
Author(s): L. P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Though the practice of flow measurement is centuries old the nature of gas and the difficulties in handling it. It must we find history records many ancient water systems- be totally confined in a pipe or closed tank, lest it float away, the measurement of gas is relatively recent. This is due to unlike water and other liquids which have a well defined
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Document ID: C8DDFC0F

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): E. W. Sanders
Abstract/Introduction:
The basis of this paper is to describe several kinds of district regulators and control methods in use at Houston Natural Gas Corporation. The prime function of a district regulator is to control gas pressure and flow from a high pressure system into a distribution system. A high pressure system is defined as one where the pressure may vary from 60 o.s.i.g. to 150 p.s.i.g., and a distribution system is one where the operating pressure is between 20 and 60 p.s.i.g. These operating pressures vary within these ranges from summer to winter, from day-to-day, and from hour-to-hour with the changes in system loads.
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Document ID: 2CEF49C5

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): Lee Gandy
Abstract/Introduction:
The Southern Division of the El Paso Natural Gas Company is primarily concerned with the long distance transmission of gas. This discussion will describe the Supervisory and Telemetering System of this Division. The Measurement Department has the responsibility of all sales meters and checkmeters while the Communication Department has the responsibility of the Supervisory and Teh-metering System. This paper will discuss the problems encountered special telemetering equipment the use of existing communication links, and some of the special circuits designed to enable the telemetered information to approach the accuracy of the Measurement Department.
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Document ID: 91BA58FC

Trouble Shooting In Metameter - Telemetering Systems
Author(s): W. R. Grime
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering is measuring at a distance. In Figure 1 we have a simple analogy of what Telemetering is. As the man who picks up the desired information or measurement, opens and closes the circuit with a telegraph key, the opens and closures are transmitted along the wires to the coil or sounder at the receiving end, and these, in turn, are transformed or decoded into meaningful intelligence. Thus, the man, or any measuring device at a distance from, the place where the information is desired, can transmit this information, and it can be indicated, recorded or otherwise displayed.
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Document ID: 28BDF0D2

Telemetering - Advance Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
We all realize that the Gas Industry has been rapidly changing, and effective gas dispatching requires that more information be available to the dispatcher than ever before. This information has become so voluminous that the mere presentation of raw data is no longer an acceptable method of providing this information. We must keep in mind that the primary function of the dispatcher is to make decisions to insure that an adequate supply of gas is available at minimum cost to meet the load requirements of the system.
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Document ID: 70422595

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A rubber plug as the inner valve of a regulator was first introduced in 1958 to provide unique features that were unobtainable with the regulators of that day. This is a regulator designed specifically for the Natural Gas Industry, which provides a straight and streamlined flow path for the gas in every position of the inner valve. By being able to handle the flow of gas, after the point of regulation, in a straight line and with no sharp abutments after the point of regulation, it is possible to offer a quieter regulator operation in addition to maximum capacity for a given opening and less possibility of cutting. Notice that these features are just a result of the streamlined flow path and that there are even more important considerations in the regulators operation as a result of the rubber plug. One of these would be the type of positive shut off that is possible with a large and resilient rubber plug, another is that, due to the rubber plugs being able to assume an indefinite number of shapes, it gives the regulator the ability to control throughout its entire capacity range in every size.
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Document ID: B369F3D1

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement accuracy today is of greater concern than ever before and is a direct result of regulator accuracy or performance. Even if a meter is 100% accurate and the upstream regulator is incorrectly sized, misappli:d or inaccurate, the resulting measurement accuracy is affected. Before discussing the selecting and sizing aspects of spring loaded domestic regulators, a brief review of regulator terminology and fundamental principles of operations must be covered.
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Document ID: AF1B5C1E

Flow Measurement With A Densitometer
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
How can the direct measurement of gas der.sity benefit the gas industry? This question is always foremost in the minds of measurement people when they are confronted with the suggestion of altering conventional measurement techniques to include density. Many persons think of the determination of gas density as an added measurement to be concerned with or as a brand new, unorthodox approach to flow measurement. Quite to the contrary, density is the primary property of a gas which relates the differential pressure across an orifice plate to the velocity of a gas flowing through the orifice.
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Document ID: 40B7F9F4

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): Robert V. Mcafee, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the application of the CAMCO Model 464-A Computer Flow Measurement System to the measurement and control of fluids. Most of the applications to date have been on natural gas systems, but it has also been used for liquid measurement. The 464-A Measurement System may be installed on any measurement point which uses a pressure drop for computing flow. This includes orifice meter runs, flow tubes,
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Document ID: BDDE18F8

Theory And Operation Of Pilot Controls
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is important for gas men who work with pneumatic controllers on a day to day basis to really understand them. Not to understand the controller under these circumstances can be a continual burden to the operator in addition to presenting circumstances for an operation of lower quality than generally desired. Therefore, the obj?ctive of this paper is to try to help develop an understanding and attitude towards a device that is absolutely essential to gas control. When we speak of controllers, we want to differentiate them from the Pilot type of control. In general terms a pressure controller is a separate unit from the control valve and it has some constant bleed to atmosphere.
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Document ID: F8F9E5A4

Tone Telemetry Application
Author(s): Charles A. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetry today does not belong solely to the electronic engineers. The average persons daily conversations include topics concerning some form of telemetry, which include subjects from police radar check points to the trip to the moon. Even though many of the telemetry systems are very exotic and require a lot of technical knowledge, industry is making wider use of the simple tone signals. The manufacturing companies of tone equipment can continue to spend money on research in making the simple tone equipment more reliable.
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Document ID: 38287F11

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal wasintroduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London about 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States.
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Document ID: 5060BE13

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Most volume measuring devices in current use utilize the positive displacement principle of measurement. In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. According to this definition, a grocer measuring a pound of jelly beans is utilizing positive displacement measurement. A dairy filling quart milk bottles is also utilizing the same basic principle. Over forty million gas meters in current use in the United States also are based on a positive displacement principle.
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Document ID: F30EE57A

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The modern domestic gas meter has changed considerably since it was first introduced in this country over 100 years ago. Although the basic principles of measurement are still the same, the materials and manufacturing techniques now used have brought about major improvements in accuracy and dependability. Todays aluminum case meters have higher working pressures, resist weathering in nearly all climates, and operate for longer periods with- Figure 1. out repair (Figure 1). The development of a .synthetic rubber diaphragm material to replace leather brought about a significant improvement in stability. The introduction of diecast aluminum bodies and covers eventually permitted the utilities to install meters outdoors in areas where tin meters were normally installed indoors. This, of course, greatly reduced the time required for meter reading. The positive displacement gas meter is rated and badged on the number of cubic feet of .64 specific gravity gas it will pass with W W.C. differential pressure across the meter. These meters will accurately measure flow rates from below one cubic foot per hour (the pilot light flow rate) up to and above the badged capacity.
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Document ID: 7222B1F0

Domestic Meters
Author(s): J. L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
Most volume measuring devices in current use utilize the positive displacement principle of measurement. In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. According to this definition, a grocer measuring a pound of jelly beans is utilizing positive displacement measurement. A dairy filling quart milk bottles is also utilizing the same basic principle. And, over forty million gas meters in current use in the United States also are based on a positive displacement principle.
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Document ID: 35F744A9

Latest Proving Room Innovations
Author(s): N. W. Bruenemg
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary objective of all proving rooms is to maintain a constant and uniform temperature. By meeting this goal, the possibility of a gas meter proof error caused by temperature variations is eliminated. Meter testing may be performed with the same relative degree of accuracy, at any permissible working temperature between 60F. and 90F. but it is essential that the meter, the air in the provers, and the sealing oil in the prover tanks be maintained at the same temperature during the test. There is not a standard proving room design as each individual manufacturing plant or gas utility has its own special requirements. As a result, all proving rooms are custom built to satisfy a given set of requirements.
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Document ID: 730B4E1C

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Emil Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the Gas Company is to a great extent dependent on the accuracy of its meters. Meter testing is one of the more important functions of the gas meter shop. Accuracy and efficiency can be maintained by the use of the three tests we are going to cover. -The Tank Test-A Low Light Test - and the Accuracy
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Document ID: 93718BBE

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): W. R. Addy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the basic principles of gas measurement with rotary meters and discusses selection, calibration and test methods. Additional information on maintenance and meter construction is also presented along with the meters accuracy data
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Document ID: 27728366

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. V. BRYAN,HOWARD DUCKWORTH,JOSEPH A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
This method was so named because it is used to test meters at pressures which are slightly above atmospheric pressure but slightly less than 15 p.s.i.g. At pressures above 15 p.s.i.g. the critical flow method is generally used. Either gas or air may be used as the test medium, and this method can be used both in the shop and field. The principle of the low pressure flow prover test is essentially the same as the orifice meter measurement principle the prover itself being an orifice meter tube with either pipe or flange
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Document ID: 0E60102A

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
Imagine a colony of earthlings on the barren surface of the moon. Obviously, they will use gas for generating power, for heating and for cooking. Thus lightweight orifice fittings, perhaps of plastic, will someday make the moon scene inhabitable. This may be a bit far out at the present. But here on earth, orifice measurement is as modern and technically sound as the space program itself. It is safe to say that the enduring principles of orifice measurement will continue to be of prime measurement importance through the foresssable future.
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Document ID: 30B6D081

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): A. R. MILLIRON,FRED GOWAN,WAYNE G. Mccleave
Abstract/Introduction:
We have shown many slides of meter repair equipment here today. It must be remembered that this equipment is just a tool to gain more productivity from the greatest asset to any shop: the highly trained, motivated meter repairman. The expsrts tell us that motivation is a pyramid of values an employee wants and needs psychological needs are the base followed by safety or security needs, ego needs and, finally, the need for self-fulfillment.
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Document ID: 87F72FDD

Large Capacity Displacement Meters And Auxilliary Devices
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity displacement meters operate on exactly the same principle as small meters however, there are many mechanical refinements included in their design to assure long life and accurate results under more severe operating conditions. The valve gear and timing mechanism of the large meters are much more elaborate to decrease the angular movement of the various bearing surfaces and to allow more accurate valve timing. Points of heavy load in large displacement meters are equipped with high quality sealed ball bearings and stainless steel sleeve bearings where required. Large displacement meters are also arranged so that they can accept correcting equipment that automatically and continuously corrects the measured pipeline volume to base conditions of pressure and/or temperature.
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Document ID: 1EDECDB3

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject for our portion of this program, is Domestic Meters, and therefore it might well be a good place to start, by defining that segment of the gas measurement field, that we intend to concentrate upon. The generally accepted concept, is that when we use the term Domestic Meter, we are describing those positive displacement gas measuring devices having a capacity of 500 cubic feet per hour or less of 0.64 specific gravity gas, when operating at a differential pressure across the meter of 0.5 (%) water column. We might question the use of some of these parameters as being unrealistic under todays operating conditions. A specific gravity of 0.60 is actually closer to that of the natural gas being measured today and the use of a 0.5 water column differential pressure across the meter can also be considered as arbitrary, however these factors do serve to give us a means of comparison, and to that end, serve their purpose. Having a standard set of conditions as a yard-stick, makes it relatively simple to convert to conditions other than standard.
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Document ID: 0578E6AD

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meters And Regulators
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the designing of the Combination Meter, our special aim has besn simplicity of construction, combined with perfect functioning of the mechanism as a whole. One unit performs two major requirements-accurate gas measurement and pressure control.
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Document ID: 2B22A8CA

Fundamentals Of Turbine Type Meter Measurement
Author(s): J. L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 1963, the Rockwell Manufacturing Company, culminated fifteen years of engineering research and development with the introduction of the 6 T-30 (30,000 cfh 4 oz.) Rockwell Turbo-Meter. The subsequent expansion of the Turbo-Meter product line to include smaller and larger models in both low and high working pressures has extensively broadened the applications on which Turbo- Meters can be used. Several thousand Turbo-Meters are currently in use by the U.S. gas distribution utilities on services ranging from industrial boilers to large power plants and city gate stations. Market preferences for the turbine-type of gas meter have necessitated even mora extensive broadening of the Turbo-Meter product line.
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Document ID: 6FDC7401

Direct Driven Integrators
Author(s): Charles C. Bernitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Many different instruments are used to measure volumes of natural gas through rotary and displacement meters and the direct driven integrator is of interest to the gas companies as well as users of gas because this device performs a number of functions essential to measurement. The integrator is placed directly on to the meter so that the wriggler (normally used to drive an index) is driving the mechanism consisting of cams, linkage and gears to a direct reading counter or index. The flowing gas through the meter provides the mechanical force necessary to operate this device and the pressure within the meter operates the pressure element and linkage while the temperature system responds to the changes in temperatures of the flowing gas, The changing pressures and temperatures are automatically integrated into a total corrected read-out of volume in MCF by means of cams within the integrator.
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Document ID: 1F047333

Roto-Seal Meters And Transfer Proving
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Roto-Seal Meter is a rotary type positive displacement meter designed to accurately measure and record the volume of gas flowing through it. The volume of gas measured by the meter is the volume at flowing conditions of pressure and temperature, and accuracy is unaffected by gas specific gravity. The metered volume can be converted to volume at standard or base conditions of pressure and temperature by application of the common Gas Laws. This can be accomplished by use of Multiplier Tables or by use of Instruments driven by the meter which will give the corrected volumes directly. The sustained accuracy of the Roto-Ssal Meter and its compact size make it well suited for a metering device used for transfer proving.
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Document ID: C4D729EC

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
At this time, the prime cash register of the gas industry is still the orifice meter. It records the pulse of the field production, the humming volumes of high pressure transmission and the busy day-sleepy night town border sales. Every scribe of the gauge pens in these metering stations means dollars, big dollars. The calculation of these charts must be exact so much and so many depend upon it being so.
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Document ID: 9679E182

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Darais
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice metering installations in most cases could be considered the cash register between two parties We therefore cannot overstate the importance of these installations which consist of a primary and secondary element. This demonstration will cover the primary element which basically consists of three parts the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the meter tube. These parts are covered by specifications and tolerances in the A.G.A. Committee Report #3 which must be followed in order to obtain consistent accurate measurement.
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Document ID: D0C7EE37

Manual Procedure For Calculation Of Gas Measurement Charts
Author(s): J. E. Graman
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy is the prime goal of any Measurement Department. To maintain an efficient and accurate department, chart calculation has an important role. In obtaining gas volumes, the various stages of chart processing will be discussed.
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Document ID: F9E5F44A

Elements Of Gas Contracts Purchase( And Sales)
Author(s): Marvin A. Wilson, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Good measurement is good business. Northerns cash register, miaking settlements to gas producers, rings on the basis of intricate field and office measurement calculations associated with our gas purchases. Gas purchase costs represent the largest single expense item in my Companys budget. During 1968, this figure amounted to some 130 million. When you, concerned with gas measurement for either the seller or the buyer, perform in an efficient manner, there is a minimum of time and trouble to correct accounting deficiencies and operating relationships are properly cemented. As you are aware, a great deal of the direction gas measurement takes finds its basis in our respective gas purchase documents.
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Document ID: 99BEE9D1

Application Of Electronic Computers For Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): Charles W. Bartlett
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic computers in calculating gas volumes and factors is not only an advantage but in many instances a necessity. Not only the factors which are used in computing volumes, but also other useful information can be calculated by machine. The use of a computer in performing the calculation of the gas measurement factors and ultimately the volum? will reduce the complex problems of gas measurement to a routine operation whereby it may be handled by persons having a limited knowledge of the subject.
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Document ID: BF9C57CC

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
When evaluating or S2lecting the components of an A.G.A. qualifying Meter Tube, individual attention is, of course, focused on the three basic components. That is, the orifice plate itself, the approach and discharge tubing and the plate holding device. The selection of the proper orifice plate is relatively simple as well as being easily procured. This is also tru2 of the upstream and downstream piping, which can easily be selected to meet A.G.A. minimum requirements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3 readily spells out the minimum upstream and downstream lengths, as well as internal diameter tolerance.
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Document ID: 83C66F3F

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. F. Downey
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has been for the past 50 to 60 years, is today and I predict it will be for sometime in the future one of the most dependable and acceptable means of measuring gas and liquids. The use of this type of measurement is very desirable due to its flexibility in the measurement of small or large volumes at wide ranges of pressure from a vacuum to several thousands of pounds p.s.i.
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Document ID: 20D4CFF9

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): Glenn D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic and most troublesome problems involved with gas measurement in the field today are those of measuring gas at high pressures. Conservation practices, higher operating costs, the scarcity of free gas supplies, and the increased value of natural gas have made greater efficiency and more accurate gas measurement important factors. Any error made in high pressure gas measurement tends to magnify itself in regard to larger volumes.
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Document ID: 70926FB6

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the operation of offshore gas pipe lines is no longer a possibility but instead is a necessity in order to actively compete in the market. The offshore area is cne of many unknown and untapped reservoirs. At present, we are drilling in 300 to 600 feet of water but the trend is to move on past the continental shelf and all indications are that quantities as large as our present reserves may exist at these locations in water depths of approximately 1000 feet. It has been estimated that at least 300 trillion cubic feet await discovery offshore according to a talk by Mr. Roger Stanwood, gas supply vice president of Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems of offshore gas measurement now and also to look into some future problems that may exist.
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Document ID: C5058D82

New Applications Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of existing and/or new equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve differential gauges, both Dri-Flo bellows and mercury type, pneumatic control with or without telemetering, pressure recorders, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators.
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Document ID: 1535B681

A Comparative Review Of Bellows Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): John m. Quirk
Abstract/Introduction:
An engineering evaluation of existent differential pressure sensors undertaken in 1985 resulted in the development of the first truly dry bellows meter. V/ith the advancement in modern technology, it became apparent improvements could be offered to meet the demands of the user for a simpler, trouble free meter, providing increased output force and faster response for the operation of recorders, transmitters and controllers. The dry bellows meter as shown in Figure 1 has a single bellows, assembled by tungsten inert gas welding from carefully selected diaphragms. It is designed to be selfsupporting when exposed to high external pressure and when compressed the convolution nest one within the other to produce a solid column of metal. A valve stem passes through the metsr base and the center of the bellows. It supports two valves, the lower located between the meter base and the upper, or pop valve, below the bellows plate.
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Document ID: 3F3D0CDE

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers have proven time and time again that they will save money for operating companies when used judiciously. Use of automatic chart changers relieves the operating personnel of the necessity of being at a given location at a given time. They can be utilized to save payment of overtime on holidays and weekends and will change charts automatically regardless of the time of day or night that they are set to change. Each chart will be changed on time, instantly upon completion of recording.
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Document ID: 86FDDEA5

Field Experience With Turbo Metering
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of the turbine meter is reviewed. Installation standards, field testing, and maintenance of turbine measurement, including comparison of spin test times versus actual proofs are discussed.
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Document ID: 14B905A3

Application Of Statistical Sampling To Meter Testing-
Author(s): Douglas McKEAN,CLEMMIE W. LeCURE,ROBERT Krumm
Abstract/Introduction:
American industry in recent times has adopted a new management technique based on the principles of statistics. This technique is known as statistical quality control. The methods employed had their origin in the 1920s, but World War II led to their widespread adoption by producers of war materials. Manufacturers were faced with demands for vast quantities of acceptable products in a short time. Specifications were more exacting than ever before. The quality control techniques developed to meet this need proved outstandingly successful in speeding work, reducing manufacturing waste, improving produce quality, and bettering product designs.
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Document ID: 14ECDF8C

Specific Gravity Insturments-Care And Operation-A Demonstration
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
The gravitometer is constructed to measure the difference in specific gravity of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing through the instrument. The instrument consists of two identical bells, an air bell and a gas bell, which are suspended at equal distances from the fulcrum of the balance beam. The purpose of the air bell is to compensate for the weight of the gas bell and the surface tension of the sealing liquid in which the two bells are suspended. The interior space of the air bell is open to the atmosphere through an air inlet and outlet which contain a drying agent.
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Document ID: 8D07CC89

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by oriiice meter, is made by using the formula Q C X VHwPf where G is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor ,the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, super-compressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: 0E7BCB2E

Introduction And Application Of Fluidics
Author(s): Charles W. Bowden
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluidics, as the name implies, is a technology based upon flowing fluids which can be either gas or liquid. Mo.t of the flr.idic devices and systems in use today use air or gas for power because of convenience and speed of operation. The physical principles upon which fluidic technology is based have been known for years. The whole science begins with the Bernouli Theory which was postulated in the 18th century. Even the wall attachment phenomenon or the Coanda effect was discovered by Henri Coanda more than a quarter of a century ago.
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Document ID: 2A70FE56

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): A. R. Feierabend
Abstract/Introduction:
Th3 manometar is the simplest of instruments for measurement of pressure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard from which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated. How fortunate we are to have this measuring device. Containing no mechanical moving parts, requiring no calibration, needing nothing but the simplest of measurements, the primary standard manometer is available almost off the shelf at modest cost. The principle of the manometer has not changed since its inception, however, great strides have been made in its arrangement and the application of the instrument to industrial measurement requirements. Whereas, formerly the manometer was considered a laboratory instrument, today we find the manometer commonly ussd to measure pressures ranging from as high as 600 inches of mercury to space vacuums.
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Document ID: A4496B4E

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): m. R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The Recording Calorimeter in most general use today in the Gas Industry is the most precise instrument available for the indication and recording of gas heating values. The accuracy guarantee is 0.5 per cent and with proper installation and maintenance results within 0.25 per cent can be expected. In order to achieve this performance a knowledge of the principles involved in the instrument operation is essential. With these principles understood, the requirements for the installation of the Calorimeter can be established. Achievement and maintenance of accuracy depend on many design features incorporated in the instrument. Some of the most important of these will be explained so that better understanding of the accuracy attainable in the determination of gas heating value will be possible.
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Document ID: BA23F536


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