Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1968)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Richard A. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
It was considered an honor and privilege to be asked to present a class concerning New Ideas in Measurement and Regulation. As you might imagine, the question confronting me of greatest concern was what approach should be used to gather up these new ideas. After due consideration the four approaches considered were: (1) Conduct research using the latest magazines an trade journals, (2) Discuss some of the evaluation work accomplished at the Columbia Gas System test site and solicit from each Columbia Operating Company new techniques of operation. (3) Prevail upon individuals of the industry with creative reputations to ask that they demonstrate some of their new devices and gadgetry, and (4) Conduct an extensive survey of all phases of the industry to ascertain what new developments are under evaluation or in use.
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Document ID: F1C3FA0E

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): G. S. Donaldson
Abstract/Introduction:
A chart reaching the integration office should have recorded correctly the differential and static pressures of a stream of gas. It should have no smudges, smears, skips, or runs of ink. It should also be properly identified as to the assigned station number, producer, hase name, system, and the correct on-and-off dates. These results can only be obtained by the proper attention of a good measurement man. It should be the goal of all measurement men to see that their charts meet these requiremsnts. The purpose of this paper is to help with the detection and correction of the various problems that must bs solved for these results to be obtained.
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Document ID: F59394FC

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gasss. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: D98CB761

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
The manufacturer of kinetic type gravitometers developed the improved portable gravitometer illustrated in Figure I and introduced this instrument at the 1967 Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. Soon after introduction, this improved gravitometer was tssted in applications requiring easy portability, including offshore measurement. Tests were so successful that several producing and transmission companies encouraged ths manufaclurer to continue the development toward a more compact and lighter design. In addition, recent trends in vehicle design have reduced the available space, particularly the trunk height, and some measurement people have experienced difficulty installing test equipment in their cars.
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Document ID: 12E63A1B

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide And Total Sulphur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. m. Rinn
Abstract/Introduction:
It is commonly necessary to measure sulfur levels accurately to maintain low hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan concentration, for protection of costly transmission and distribution lines, stabilization of odorant injection, and monitoring of numerous gas conditioning processes. New and more sensitive measurement procedures have been developed to meet the need for reliable analytical data. One such device, the Barton Recording Sulfur Titrator, provides this data while combining high sensitivity and wide rangeability.
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Document ID: AF2771D7

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): T. L. Hillburn
Abstract/Introduction:
A few years ago it would have been difficult to find any sizable number of people attending this school who would have been interested in liquid measurement. More and mmore, however, the various companies are becoming involved in liquid extraction plants, and therefore, the importance of liquid measurement is receiving considerably more attention. As an added incentive, there continues to be a rapid growth in the LNG field and, of course, this development vitally affects everyone in the natural gas integration, since both types of measurement represent the same basic phenomena, and it is my feeling that this will tend to eliminate some of the artificial differences which have appeared in the past.
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Document ID: D90F6173

Measurement By Orifice Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. m. Beavens
Abstract/Introduction:
An orifice meter is a combination of a primary and secondary measuring device for the purpose of determining flow rate through a closed channel. The primary device takes the form of a nozzle, venturi or thin sharp edged orifice to provied a restriction to fluid flow and to produce a pressure drop which is related to this fluid flow. The secondary device is a device to convert this differential pressure information into a usable flow indication, transmission, recording or control signal. In order to use an of these devices for measurement, it is necessary to empirically calibrate them. That is, to pass a known volume through the meter and note the reading in order to provide a standard for measuring other quantities. Due to the ease of duplicating and the simple construction, the thin sharp edged orifice has been adopted as a standard and extensive calibration work has been done so that it is widely accepted as a standard means of measuring fluids.
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Document ID: 5EC073E6

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Meter Man
Author(s): Frank Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
Ths gas industry has continued to play a major role in delivering energy to industrial and domestic consumers in the United States. During 1967 the gas industry supplied 31% of the total consumption of energy, 18.8 trillion cubic feet. Measuremsnt and accounting functions have played a vital part in the purchase and sale of this great natural resource. In order to effectively accomplish this, the measurement office and field office must work together for a common goal, accurate measurement. Just as the field man relies on the office group for leadership, the office groups efficiancy depends on how well the field meterman carries out his activities.
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Document ID: CBDA665C

Specific Gravity Instruments-Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of Specific Gravity - Definition-The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: F3343621

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the natural gas industry one of the most often used words you will hear is accuracy. The common goal of all persons connected with gas measurement within the industry is that of achieving complete accuracy in all phases of gas accounting. In measuring a gas flow volume the one single item having the greatest effect on the much desired accuracy is the orifice plate. The orifice plate, orifice fitting, and meter tube together make what is commonly referred to as the primary element. A complete orifice meter set-up consists of the primary element with a secondary recording instrument.
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Document ID: 72E68061

Design Of Positive Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): E. E. Bagley
Abstract/Introduction:
Tlie gas industry has utilized an infinite number of different meter and regulator station designs during the past sixty-five years. It would be foolish to claim the ultimate solution to station design has been worked out and will fit into each gas companys operation. This presentation will explain a plan that has worked and may assist you in developing the ultimate plan of station design for your company. The following design and simple plan for constructing and installing measurement stations may be acceptable as a basic starting plan. Management will buy this plan because of the savings, as well as many other benefits.
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Document ID: 1EA64DDD

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): K. C. Yost
Abstract/Introduction:
The measuring station inspection program must be designed to meet the requirements of each individual company. The operating conditions of one company may be entirely different from another consequently an entirely different program may be required. This applies in particular to companies which are exclusively either Production, Transmission, or Distribution companies. Measuring stations which are susceptible to slugs of liquid in the gas stream may require frequent inspection. Stations measuring large volumes of gas may require frequent inspection and test. Town border stations where the gas pressure is cut from a high pressure (transmission pressure) to a low pressure for distribution may require frequent inspection. These statements lead to one conclusion-every station (or at least type of station) has its own peculiarities and must be given individual consideration.
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Document ID: 313BAD7C

New Applications Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of existing and/or new equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve differential gauges, both Dri-Flo bellows and mercury type pneumatic control with or without telemetering, pressure recorders, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators. The time alloted to this paper does not permit a detailed discussion of orifice meters nor of control therefore, since actual installations will be discussed, the description of the instruments used in these installations will be limited. It is assumed that the operation of the orifice meter is familiar to the reader. It is also assumed that the basic principles of pneumatic controllers, pneumatic circuits and telemetering are understood.
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Document ID: 35E90987

Discussion Of A Common Pressure Base
Author(s): Harry P. Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
Twelve-ounco pounds and Super, Giant and King-Size cartons are bewildering the buyers in grocery stores throughout the nation as long-time standards of weights and measures are being changed by todays frenetic packaging techniques. But the undisputed confusion champion, when it comes to packaging, is the natural gas industry. We have many standards, but one we do not have is a standard pressure base for gas measurement. Back in the gay 90s each group set up its own standard for measurement. This resulted in a multiplicity of pressure bases which have persisted so that even today we have over twenty different standard bases in use.
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Document ID: AFFADAFF

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of changing charts dates back further than most of us can remember. In fact, the first problem encountered in changing charts was probably with the first recorder placed in service. From the early days of recording variables on circular charts until 1958, many changes were made in recording instruments. Yet, each chart still had to be manually removed upon completion.
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Document ID: 971A8575

Measurement And Operation For LNG
Author(s): Ira C. Stanfill
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas industry personnel involved in the field of measurement are already familiar with most of the variables found in an LNG plant. For instance, personnel in gas distribution encounter daily such variables as gas flow rate, temperature, pressure, specific gravity and composition. Personnel in a compressor station would encounter in addition to the above RPM and some electrical measurements. In an LNG plant, one encounters all the above variables plus liquid levels, liquid flow rates, and sophisticated electrical measurements.
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Document ID: 7B58BEAB

The Distribution Serviceman And Accurate Measurement
Author(s): John R. Julian
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gas company employees can remember back just a few years ago to the time when natural gas was flared in the oil fields to get rid of the nuisance. During this period and for several years afterward natural gas was cheap so inexpensive that distribution system leakage and unaccounted-for gas was more economical than isolating the leakage problems and correcting the measurement errors. Today most distribution companies are faced with a different set of circumstances. The price of gas is constantly increasing and has become one of the largest single entries on the distribution companys expense statement.
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Document ID: 27CAEDBE

Orifice And Other Flow Meter Comparison Tests
Author(s): R. m. Breedlove
Abstract/Introduction:
Test and evaluation programs for new measurement devices at the Southern California Gas Company are designed to develop and document data as evidrnce that we are fulfilling our responsibilities as users of the equipment. These responsibilities are to the customer, ourselves and corporate owners, regulatory agencies and the industry. Stated in objective terms, they involve our responsibility to provide the highest accuracy of measurement possible commensurate with costs and returns through the use of equipment and procedures recognized and accepted by the industry. In addition to documenting justification for use of new equipment and procedures, the data developed in the test and evaluation programs is quite useful in promoting down the line confidence within the company that the new device or procedure will be better or cost less. It will also provide us data and experience necessary for the development of usage requirements and field training.
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Document ID: 9A34BBF7

Application Of Densitometer In Existing Gas Measurement Systems
Author(s): Troy E. Mccraray
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the orifice tube as a primary device for the measurement of gas flow is universally accepted by gas producers, users and state regulatory bodies. The purpose of this paper is not to question the accuracy of present gas flow measurements practices, but to present easier and more direct methods for measurement of some of the variables involved. In the measurement of natural gas in the United States, the universal practice is to express the flow in cubic feet, What does it take to measure flow rate in cubic feet with the standard orifice? The primary measuring device (meter tube, orifice fitting and orifice plate) should conform to all specifications set forth in the A.G.A. Committee Report #3.
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Document ID: 3C75BD9C

Management Development
Author(s): Richard E. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition: A system of activities structured and conducted by a company to foster optimum current management productivity (performance), insure continuity of leadership and, for the individual manager, provide important ingredients for a satisfactory career. Philosophy: The success of a company is directly dependent upon the skill, dedication and commitment of all of its personnel . . . . especially its leadership (management) group. Objectives: For the company: the best possible current management performance, and a pool of replacement talent (reserves) ready to meet turnover and expansion needs. For the individual manager: a variety of planned experiences combining to implement career management and provide opportunities for self-actualization.
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Document ID: 7C8076C2

Odorization
Author(s): Seth Roberson, G. E. Woolfall
Abstract/Introduction:
I dont think it is necessary to go into a long discussion to explain why we odorize gas. Some of the problems we have in handling odorants are of interest and this paper deals with a few of the problems.
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Document ID: AF965551

Regulators, Controllers And Related Equipment Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
To the problem of providing sufficient strength in regulator components to withstand the static pressures which may be imposed, there must be added the problems of mass and velocity. These factors introduce difficulties which are ofttimes surprising and just as often puzzling. Natural gas, with its specific gravity of less than unity, does not ordinarily impress us with its weight. A cubic foot at standard conditions weighs only 5/100 of a pound. This, we might be tempted to ignore.
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Document ID: E6145B79

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools. It is the purpose of this class to help the gas companies reduce the unit cost of repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been
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Document ID: 88E59F5D

Industrial Regulators
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
Every regulator manufacturer and designer strives to develop a regulator capable of maintaining a constant outlet pressure with varying inlet pressures. Almost every gas distribution system today is confronted with widely fluctuating pressure conditions. Holding constant meter pressure is becoming more important to utilties in their measurement programs. By using a constant pressure factor and measuring at higher pressures, they can install smaller meters. However, the metering pressure has to be extremely constant or the pressure factor will not afford accurate measurement. As an example, if the pressure factor being used on a meter is 10 p.s.i. and the meter inlet pressure increases or decreases 0.5 p.s.i., a 2% error in measurement would be experienced (Figure 1).
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Document ID: 38236734

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): W. R. Henry
Abstract/Introduction:
Ths need for accurate measurement increases in direct relation to the value of the product metered. As commodities become more valuable, the necessity for accurate measurement assumes prime importance both for successful operation and accounting purposes. Certainly, natural gas fits this category, as it has become increasingly more costly through the years. In all cases it is desirable to measure with accuracy in a dependable and economical manner for the conditions encountered. Proper initial design of the primary element enables continued accuracy by means of thorough, regularly scheduled inspection of the primary element.
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Document ID: EA42FFA4

Basic Elements Of Field Proration
Author(s): D. H. Rainey
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increasing emphasis that all companies are placing on earnings and efficient operation, as well as the increasing importance of natural gas as a source of energy and income, it is apparent that all of us in the oil and gas industry must become more familiar with the philosophy and practices of gas proration as well as the specific mechanics of the calculations included in proration. Proration, itself, may simply be defined as the allocation between wells in a common reservoir of a proportionate share of current or future market demand when the market from a particular field is less than teh capacity of teh wells to produce. Stated more simply, proration is the allocation of allowables to permit each well to produce its share of the market.
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Document ID: AB4B9015

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): John Liechty
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate metering of widely varying flows is still one of the basic problems confronting the gas industry. We are all probably aware of a number of different schemes to solve this problem, but each one has its limitations which have resulted in, at best, mild acceptance. The old standard, flow controllers and automated shutoff valves, requires rather elaborate and expensive equipment, and the instrument type controllers require atmospheric bleed. Another method of meter run switching utilizes a number of regulators and relief valves, but associated with this system is ths cost and complexity of the equipment, not to mention the fact that the downstream pressure has to change to effect the switch-over.
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Document ID: D8AAB88C

Specific Gravity Instruments-Care And Operation A- Demonstration
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
DEMONSTRATION OF THE ARCCO-ANUBIS GAS SAMPLER This instrument is a device used to automatically accumulate samples of gas into a container at any pre-determined pressure up to 500 p.s.i. The design of this sampler is based on the principle that the maintenance of a constant rate of increase in gas pressure within a closed vessel, from zero to a selected maximum pressure, will result in a constant rate of flow of gas into the closed vessel.
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Document ID: BFD20DF0

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C x HwPr where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pr the static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, super-compressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: 02CA2AA5

Gas Service Regulators-Installation And Operation A- Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
For the duration of this class the subject of gas service regulators was covered for the many styles, types, construction, and application of such regulators. Actual operation of regulators was demonstrated by the use of a regulator test stand using compressed air and a manometer to show reduced pressure. Sectional regulators, their component parts, weather and bug-proof vents and other allied items were used to assist in this demonstration. A projector and slides were used to demonstrate actual regulator installation, view of sectional regulators and capacity charts.
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Document ID: AAD0FDE5

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): O. W. Heyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is the simplest of instruments for measurement of prsssure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard form which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated. How fortunate we are to have this measuring device. Containing no mechanical moving parts, requiring no calibration, needing nothing but the simplest of measurements, the primary standard manometer is available almost off the shelf at modest cost. The principle of the manometer has not changed since its inception, however, great strides have been made in its arrangement and the application of the instrument to industrial measurement requirements. Whereas, formerly the manometer was considered a laboratory instrument, today we find the manometer commonly used to mrasuro pressures ranging from as high as 600 inches of mercury to space vacuums.
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Document ID: 16EBEF6C

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Ralph E. Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator selection begins with an analysis of an application. If it is standard, if it is essentially something that has bern done before analysis can be brief and, thus, consist of hardly more than reference to a manufacturers capacity table. On the other hand, an application can be of such a nature as to make detailed and lengthy analysis a must. Whatever the situation, the starting point for satisfactory gas pressure regulation is a realistic and accurate evaluation of requirements. Selection consists of deciding on the type of regulator that should be used, as well as its size.
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Document ID: D7C142A0

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): m. R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The Recording Calorimeter is the instrument used by the gas industry to indicate and record gas heating values. In order to understand the factors involved in the installation and operation of the instrument, it is important that the definition of the unit being measured and the fundamental principle of operation be understood.
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Document ID: 05CAC9AC

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators-A Demonstration
Author(s): Joseph P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms-High and Low Pressure Gas Regulator could have different meanings to people of different areas of the country. For the purpose of discussion, we will relate the regulators with the type of operating system on which they are to be used. This is necessary because what is high pressure in one part of the country could be intermediate or low pressure somewhere elss. However, the terms- Transmission, Distribution and Appliance Regulators are common to the industry and not the area.
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Document ID: 9879B6CF

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
If all the gas fields in the United States were adjacent to the markets they serve, there would hardly be a need for underground storage. But this is not the case. Most of the gas used comes from Louisiana, Texas, and the southwestern part of the country, whereas the major gas markets are in the central and northern sections where colder weather generates a heavy space-heating load. In many instances, gas fields are a thousand or more miles from where the gas is consumed - about a three-day trip through the pipelines. Yet gas transmission companies and local utilities must be ready to deliver large volumes of gas on short notice when the weather suddenly turns cold.
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Document ID: 02C42672

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for pressure regulation of high pressure gas first became necessary with the transportation of gas from distant producing fields. The gas had to be compressed many fold to give it the energy to travel the many miles to its final destination. The process of compressing gas and the dissipation of energy through pipelines in a large number of transmission lines is repeated many times before the gas had reached its terminal point. Pressures upwards of 1000 pounds per square inch are not uncommon in this transporting process. Here the need exists to reduce these pressures at points throughout the transmission network for distribution to gas utilities and consumers. It is these applications of regulators we would classify as high pressure.
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Document ID: 84DBFB04

Uses Of Densitometer In Orifice Metering
Author(s): J. R. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
A Densitometer is an instrument which measures absolute density in tirms of weight per volume. Usages includs mass flow measurement, volume flow measurement and supercomprsssibility factor determination. Its application is advantageous on any single phase hydrocarbon flow, either vapor or liquid with an orifice, positive displacement, or turbine meter however, this paper will cover only its use as a component of an orifice meter for measurement of gas. Its usage for the determination of supercompressibility factor is available elsewhere and is beyond the scope of this paper.
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Document ID: CFB3C0A7

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Milton H. Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
The Grove Flexflo is a valve of unique design. The operating member is an expansible tube. This tube is slipped over a cylindrical metal core having a series of longitudinal slots at each end, with a separating barrier between. Action of the expansible tube is determined by control of the differential pressure across it. In its operation the Flexflo valve resembles a diaphragm motor valve with the expansible tube acting as both diaphragm and inner valve. The tube is made from a Grove formulated synthetic elastomer especially compounded to assure a high degree of tear and abrasion resistance, flexibility and strength.
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Document ID: B30ED575

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): C. W. Gates
Abstract/Introduction:
District regulators and load distribution are areas of much interest and lively discussion. Basic throughts on district ragulation and load distribution hava changed very little over the years. The primary concern is to provide good, safe, reliable, efficient, and economical service to the customer. From these essential ground rules, the latitude extended depends on individual needs and desires. It is not the intention of this paper to discuss in depth the intricacies of regulation. These will be presented in other papers at this meeting in detail.
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Document ID: F6A9ECFA

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas In Distribution Systems
Author(s): Andrew B. Mccurdy, B. G. Nichols, W. B. Richardson, III
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and control of leakage and un-accounted for gas has always been important, but during these modern times of the profit squeeze, it can conceivably be the difference between an adequate or inadequate profit. Everyone should be fully cognizant of the importance of an adequate profit to each of our companies- our very livelihoods depend on it. Another important reason for controlling the leakage is the safety aspect. Each of us is quite willing to do all possible to alleviate human suffering caused by explosions and fires. We also must not forget the direct monetary losses due to these accidents nor the indirect losses such as increased insurance premiums, stepped-up public relations programs and damage to the industrys image, which all hava a bearing on the profit or loss figure.
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Document ID: 0198D54E

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): W. R. Kane
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of gas regulation is practically unlimited and could never be completely covered in a paper such as this, therefore, this discussion will be limited to regulating stations found in Gas Transmission Systems, where main line or inlet pressures are within the range of 500 p.s.i.g. to 1000 p.s.i.g. The first thing to be considered in the design of a regulating station is its location. It is often found that when the stations are, built inside of a municipality, codes for their construction specified in the local laws and regulations are more rigorous than the type of construction that would be used in remote areas. Should the location be in a residential area, elaborate housing may be required, also more thought must be given to designing a noiseless installation when the station is located in a residential area. There are many things which can be done in the design of a station in order to reduce the noise. A few of these which have been used are sound proofing of buildings, lagging headers, installation of silencers and use of sleeve type regulators. We have found that by using sleeve type regulators in place of conventional regulators we have been able to reduce the noise level as much as 25% in the high frequency ranges.
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Document ID: 2A3AB2D0

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Charles J. Stallings
Abstract/Introduction:
Before attempting to discuss the methods of determining specific gravity, perhaps specific gravity should be defined. Specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of gas at a definite pressure and temperature to the weight of an equal volume of dry and carbon dioxide free air under the same pressure and temperature conditions. The term density is used frequently in gas measurement and should not be confused with specific gravity. The density of a gas will vary according to the conditions under which it is determined but the specific gravity remains constant when using dry and carbon dioxide free air at unity as a standard. However, specific gravity can be defined as a ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air when both densities are determined under the same conditions of pressure and temperature. Natural gas with a specific gravity of .600 is 60% as heavy as air. A gas such as propane with a specific gravity of 1.522 is approximately 150% as heavy as air.
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Document ID: 3A0C41CB

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): G. E. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording calorimeter is a precision instrument and, as such must command careful thought and planning as to proper installation and subsequent testing. The product of this instrument is a recording on a strip chart of the heating value, expressed in British Thermal Units per standard cubic foot To the Natural Gas Industry, the use of this instrument is becoming increasingly important. Gas contracts usually have reference to a heat value expressing minimum maximum and minimum, or at a fixed value, the B. T.U. per cubic foot of gas purchased or sold. The importance of the recording calorimeter, used in the natural gas industry today, cannot be over emphasized.
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Document ID: CE7E69D6

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): J. G. Parsons
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1950s Northeastern Gas Transmission Company, a subsidiary of Tennessee Gas Transmission Company, started building a pipeline into the New England area. During the early years of operations the dispatching center controlled the system strictly by pressure points that were called in by operator at remote compressor stations. As there were more pipeline and sales stations added to the system there became a greater need for more control by ths dispatcher. At that time telemetry was just starting to be used in the pipeline industry and was very basic in that individual readings wers arriving at ths dispatching center on separate telephone circuits. Then Multiplexing Telemetering came into use and several Telemetering readings came into use on one telephone circuit and opened the door of our present supervisory control systems that are still in use today.
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Document ID: 9405F9ED

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Ralph E. Schreiber
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of Water Vapor in Natural Gas is required not only from a measurement standpoint but, because of operational difficultiss arising when excessive water vapor is present. Although water vapor content is usually specified as pounds of water per million cubic feet of gas, the Dew Point Test is probably the most common test run in determining the water vapor content of natural gas.
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Document ID: 9C879EDF

Instruments For Automation-A Gas Powered Gas Flow Computer
Author(s): J. E. Hewson
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years both analog and digital gas flow computers have been applied in the gas industry to improve measurement techniques and provide information from the field faster and in more readily usable form. About 1963, the electronic gas flow computer began to receive recognition as a useful tool in the gas industry. An analysis of the gas industrys future at that time also indicated that there was a need for a device which measured the pressure corrected flow of gas without using charts or electricity. Such a device needed to include some form of documentation, that is, to provide a machinemade record of the variable being measured.
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Document ID: 03A40679

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Gilbert R. Igo
Abstract/Introduction:
Mention Primary Element to anyone familiar with orifice measurement and he will immediately think of an orifice plate. While the orifice plate is one of the most important single items in the Orifice Meter, research, calculations, and actual flow tests have shown that referring to the orifice plate exclusively as the Primary Element is not entirely correct. The Primary Element is in fact a precision combination of three equally important components, which should be manufactured, purchased and inspected to the same rigid requirements of an orifice plate alone.
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Document ID: 4B346351

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas
Author(s): G. E. Greiner, Sr., C. W. Matheny, Jr., C. L. Peiffer
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss a general outline of the compression method used in determining gasoline content of natural gas.
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Document ID: 0CBD891C

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty, C. m. Turner, Robert Magee
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in measurement and regulation equipment is the most critical problem faced by measurement personnel during the peak winter period. In gathering systems, warm saturated gas comes from the formation along with free water, condensate, and heavy end hydrocarbons. When the equilibrium of the gas is upset due to temperature reduction, pressure reduction or turbulance, hydrates are likely to form. Hydrates are ice-like complex, crystalline solids which form when a hydrocarbon gas, usually methane, ethane or propane, combines with water vapor. Hydrates are normally composed of seven or eight molecules of water per molecule of hydrocarbon gas. Hydrate formation temperatures are well above the freezing point of water alone.
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Document ID: A3210841

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Frank St. Amand
Abstract/Introduction:
It might help all of us to consider this section of the program as an extension of the class on Fundamentals of Gas Pressure Regulators, because we will explore the application of thoss fundamentals to service regulators and to farm tap regulators. These regulators are hydrids and should be treated as such. Improving our understanding of the variations in the basic components will help us to knowledgeably predict regulator performance. During this class, we will examine the guidelines involved with the selection of farm tap and service regulator components bodies, orifices, discs, diaphragms, springs, vents, boosting and over pressure protection.
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Document ID: 30C92AF3

Methods Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): James G. Ellis
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas tester of today continues to use a combination of the multi-point test and one-point test to establish and update the individual producing characteristics of gas wells within his responsibility. The isochronal test is an alternate method of testing which allows the determination of a more accurate n factor when applied to unsteady-state conditions. Current technology and increased computer use, coupled with increased demand for gas and entrained liquids, will require additional testing to account for any change in the C factor and/or n factor so that up-to-date gas well deliverability and liquid availability programs may be maintained by both pipeline and producer companies.
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Document ID: BB308694

Troubleshooting In Telemetering And Remote Supervisory Control Equipment
Author(s): Wilson K. Grime
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will concern itself with troubleshooting of two types of measurement and control equipment. The first type will be telemetering equipment which transmits measured variable readings from a remote point to a central dispatch or information collecting point. The second will be supervisory control equipment which, for this paper, will cover the tone or frequency type of telemetering supervisory equipment. In discussing troubhle shooting of the telemetering type of equipment, it is assumed that the personnel attending this lecture, or reading this paper, are familiar with the transmitting and receiving equipment known as pulse duration telemetering units.
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Document ID: 2F0F5402

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): J. V. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors involved in the practice of safety in the many phases of measurement and regulation and because this subject covers such a broad fieId of operation, an attempt will not be made to present a detailed discussion of this subject in the time and space we have allotted. The matter of safety is something we should be vitally interested in because serious bodily injury or loss of life could be the result of a careless and negative attitude toward safety.
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Document ID: 842F362D

Telemetering-Advanced Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has observed rapid changes in telemetering over the last five years. Many of the changes are due to the advent of low cost electronic components which have allowed highly sophisticated electronic equipment to become economically feasible for installation by gas utilities. The industry trend in the future appears to be one of an even higher degree of sophistication as the dispatching problem becomes more and more critical. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the various types of telemetering systems and gas flow computers, along with the application techniques for utilizing the various types of equipment.
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Document ID: D463B707

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): N. B. Lansverk
Abstract/Introduction:
In the design of a meter and regulator station, the first consideration should be that of obtaining consistently accurate measurement and dependable pressure regulation. Whether or not this function is achieved is dependent primarily upon the people who develop the design. Of course, once the equipment has been installed, it must be properly maintained for our purpose, we assume this is done. The achievement of accurate measuremsnt and dependable pressure regulation is obtained by consideration of the specific requirements as they are known and developed, the existing conditions, and the future requirements.
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Document ID: FF56451F

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Is your mind on gas control? Think of a regulator designed specifically for the natural gas industry. Think also of a regulator built entirely around a cylindricar solid rubber plug. Why the rubber plug in a regulator? Thats what we want to cover, and in a manner that we trust will leave no doubt as to why such a regulator exists. As we glance over the cutaway, (Fig. 1), two thoughts are likely to come to mind. One has to do with the question of why this regulator was not designed prior to 1958, and two, the fact that this is sure a nice looking piece of equipment.
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Document ID: F749B0D1

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): R. D. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
In 16 years, gas chromatography has become the most powerful and versatile technique for the analysis of volatile materials. Analysis involves the separation, identification and measurement of the components in a sample. Gas chromatography offers the analyst good separating power and measurement. Identification by chromatography often requires the use of supplementary spectroscopic methods. Because this course has been presented for several years and because chromatography is so well established, we shall very briefly review the essentials of the method and then consider some of the newer developments which are of interest to measurement personnel in the gas industry.
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Document ID: 2614C5BC

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement accuracy today is of greater concern than ever before and is a direct result of regulator accuracy or performance. Even if a meter is 100% accurate and the upstream regulator is incorrectly sized, misapplied or inaccurate, the resulting measurement accuracy is affected. Before discussing the selecting and sizing aspects of spring loaded domestic regulators, a brief review of regulator terminology and fundamental principles of operations must be covered.
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Document ID: A92D74FB

Applications Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): Robert V. Mcafee
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic computation of flow through a meter run has been accomplished three ways to date: 1. With a digital computer scanning transducer values at one or more points, 2. With an analog computer computing the flow from multiple points using the time share principle. 3. With an analog computer at each measurement point giving real time measurement. This paper discusses the application of the CAMCO Model 464A Computer Flow Measurement System to the Measurement of fluids using the real time principle. Most of the applications to date have been on natural gas systems, but it has also been used for crude oil, water, and steam measurement.
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Document ID: 3DBC04B9

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): 0. F. Nelson, H. Vernon Reaves, W. P. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
Valve regulators have been accepted by gas transmission and distribution companies for more and more regulator applications. These units have been used for basically one of two reasons their ability to economically regulate large capacities and their adaptability to buried installation, which helps to minimize noise. While almost all types of shut-off valves can and have been utilized to produce a regulator, our interests here today are to be confined to ball valves as regulators.
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Document ID: 4D2E82E6

Theory And Operation Of Pilot Controls
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In any attempt to describe the behavior of a mechanism, it may be necessary to ignore some characteristics of that mechanism so as to avoid an intolerable confusion. This does not mean to imply that a pilot controlled regulator is a hopelessly complex device. At the same time, we can better approach an understanding of how it works if we hold some quantities constant which are never truly so, and if we ignore certain facets of behavior which do make themselves quite obvious in real life. In this discussion we choose to proceed as if the area of a flat sheet diaphragm stayed the same throughout the travel of the valve plug. Actually, the area varies and in such a way as to augment spring effect with which we shall deal at some length. We choose to ignore ths transient effects upon pressure of an upset in operating conditions. We cant do this if we wish to have a worthwhile grasp of pilot controlled regulator behavior.
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Document ID: CD9C3443

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows type orifice meter gauge has widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas systems.
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Document ID: B8FD621F

Telemetry-Tone Generators And Discriminations
Author(s): W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetry is the measurement, transmission, and recording or indication of intelligence between two or more remote locations. The term has come to include remote control as well. Telemetry has far ranging application in all fields of communications however, this article will confine its discussions to industrial telemetry as employed in the gas industry, and specifically the application of tone equipment in such systems. A telemetry system can be divided roughly into five components: the measuring device, the transmitter, the transmission media, the receiver, and the recorder or indicator. Typical components are shown in Figure 1. Pipeline transmission has found only a limited application due to complex impedence characteristics, but has been under constant scrutiny for a number of years.
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Document ID: C12EB9E5

Gas Cleaning
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas cleaning is one of the oldest of the gas conditioning processes and perhaps the most neglected of all. No management group in the gas industry will admit to selling dirty gas and to even discuss the possibility is to be indelicate. It seems reasonable to assume that if dirt cannot be seen, then it does not exist. This is a comforting assumption which, unfortunately, is rarely true. Every operating gas company has pipeline dirt problems and these vary only in the degree of severity. Usually, they are called by other, more palatable names such as low transmission efficiency, scored cylinders, oil-poisoned adsorbent, excessive lube oil consumption, poor measurement, entrainment losses, et cetera.
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Document ID: 7E55FAFE

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Merle J. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
A displacement meter, by definition, would be one that measures volume directly without regard to its temperature, pressure, or density. It does this by physically displacing a volume of gas by the action of the meter. We will consider in this paper how the gas meter, as used today, displaces this gas volume to make the meter operate, and at the same time, determine the gas volume that has passed through the meter. Although there have been many designs of gas meters over the last 100 years or more, the present day meter was brought forth by Thomas Glover in 1841. This meter is one that uses the familiar D-slide valve, 2 diaphragms with four compartments.
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Document ID: 93AC4C66

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure. The best data available are the pressure, specific volume, and temperature values given in thermodynamic tables of pure substances. Tables are available for steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane, ethane, propane and several other substances. The tables should always be used when working with pure substances. These tables can also be used with mixtures of gases if the chemical analysis of the gas is known. However, in many cases this analysis is not available, so other methods must be used. One of the most convenient and satisfactory methods is to make use of the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 77CE5BAB

Operation And Maintenance Of Orsfice Meters
Author(s): Carroll E. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover a discussion of operational and maintenance problems encountered in the component assemblies and accessories of orifice meters. The relation to associated equipment for the purpose of maintaining accuracy of the instrument recording will also be covered.
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Document ID: CF6CBE8E

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. Over 40 million gas meters of the diaphragm type currently are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement in the U.S. Of this total of 40 million diaphragm meters, by far the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers. In discussing Large Capacity Displacement Meters of the diaphragm type, it is first necessary to define the topic.
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Document ID: 38D1B96D

Domestic Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic gas meters are commercial devices which constitute a functional blend of laboratory instruments, piping equipment and billing machines. These devices must be rugged, accurate to what really are extreme limits - from pilot light rates to full badged capacity, and be capable of retaining that accuracy for 15 or 20 years without servicing or other attention. They measure an elastic fluid whose volume is constantly varying with pressure and temperature, and which fluid might contain some contaminants -either from its original composition, or purposely added to allay main dust, seal pipe joints, or to give to the odor desirable to identify possible leakage. Gas meters may be installed in quite inaccessible locations indoors, or when outdoors, they may encounter widely fluctuating temperature, from winter temperatures of 40 below zero to 140 above-when absorbing the direct sunshine of a summer day. They must do all this, be inexpensive, and still be esthetic in design and capable of installation so as not to detract from the well-kept premises of the gas companys customer.
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Document ID: F01130E5

Positive Displacement Domestic Meters
Author(s): Kenneth G. Agosti
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 100 years, gas has been measured by means of a positive displacement meter. There have been various types and sizes but the basic principle is still the same. In addition to this, the basic difficulties are also the same that were encountered in 1850. Let us dig deeper and see how the present day domestic gas meter overcomes these difficulties.
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Document ID: D6191BB0

Latest Proving Room Innovations
Author(s): N. W. Bruening
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary objective of all proving rooms is to maintain a constant and uniform temperature. By meeting this goal, the possibility of a gas meter proof error caused by temperature variations is eliminated. Meter testing may be performed with the same relative degree of accuracy, at any permissible working temperature between 60 F. and 90F. but it is essential that the meter, the air in the provers, and the sealing oil in the prover tanks be maintained at the same temperature during the test.
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Document ID: D44CB503

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Emil Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the Gas Company is to a great extent dependent on the accuracy of its meters. Meter testing is one of the more important functions of the gas meter shop. Accuracy and efficiency can be maintained by the use of the three tests we are going to cover. - The Tank Test - A Low Light Test - and the Accuracy Test.
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Document ID: 948550A6

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): R. B. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Decades of operation in a variety of applications have made the lobed impeller rotary meter a familiar and useful gas measurement tool. The fundamental principles of measurement of this rotary positive displacement meter have not changed, but design improvements and operating experience have enabled use of rotary meters on more measurement applications in gas distribution, production and transmission.
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Document ID: FCDD9D70

Domestic Meter Shop Operations And Testing Hardcase Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Haupt
Abstract/Introduction:
In any discussion concerning the operation of a modern domestic meter shop, the number of items involved are almost limitless. The basic problem which confronts all of us is: How to do the best job of meter repair at the lowest possible cost to ensure the highest degree of accuracy and performance. The following discussion will not cover all facets of meter repair but is meant to describe our approach to solving some of the major problems. Our company operates in what is called the Piedmont Section of North and South Carolina. In 1951 we had three small meter shops in opsration one in Greensboro, North Carolina, one in Charlotte, North Carolina, and one In Greenville, South Carohna. These shops were operating until 1955 when our re-diaphragming program of tin meters was completed. The Greensboro and Greenville shops were then closed and some of the personnel were moved to the Charlotte Shop, This shop now repairs meters for all districts.
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Document ID: 8F34DFA4

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. G. Woods, H. P. Powell, D. L. Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the years the accuracy of measurement has become increasingly important. The rising cost of our product, further distances to market, and higher cost of operation and equipment have forced us to strive for greater accuracy. The efficiency of a companys measurement section can mean the difference between profit and loss for the entire company opsration. Since the revenue of of our industry, for the most part, is determined by the registration from meter indices, then without exception or question a testing and maintenance program of the highest degree should be adopted that will result in accurate measurement at the lowest operational cost.
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Document ID: B1DC3375

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): T. E. Smith, H. F. Lee, D. L. Maret
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, meter shops have come from the dim back rooms out into the modern automated factories that many of them are today. This has been no easy accomplishment but rather the work of many dedicated people m the measurement business. Ideally, a meter shop should be designed so that a meter will travel the least possible practical distance in its journey through ths shop. Larger shops have automated this movement to a considerable degree by means of conveyors and mechanized equipment. Smaller shops may not be able to justify mechanization but the basic idea of smooth and concise flow of product should be maintained no matter what the size of the shop.
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Document ID: E1F74AB7

Large Capacity Displacement Meters And Auxiliary Devices
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe some of the techniques necessary to size and operate large positive displacement gas meters and will discuss the auxiliary equipment required to correct the measured volumes to base temperature and base pressure conditions. Large displacement meters are differentiated from domestic size meters on a capacity basis. Normally any meter passing more than 500 cubic feet per hour is classified as a commercial, industrial, or large displacement meter. It does not necessarily follow that the large meters will operate at higher working pressures than domestic meters however, more often than not this is the case. Positive displacement gas meters are devices that measure volumes under pipeline conditions of pressure and temperature. If we are to accurately determine volumes at elevated pressures, the volumes totalized from the gas meter must be modified to take into account Boyles Law, Charles Law, and deviation from Boyles Law.
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Document ID: C83A0501

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): L. S. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
I feel sure I would receive many different answers if each of you were asked what you considered high pressure. This paper will deal with field measurement at pressures from 6OO to 3000 p.s.i. The ever increasing price and demand on our systsms have made it necessary to measure gas accurately at extremely high pressures. The most common method of measuring gas at high pressure is with the orifice meter which is composed of a primary and secondary element. To obtain accurate measurement both must be of good quality and in good condition at all times.
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Document ID: 27D49E0A

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
When we use the term Domestic Meters, it is a matter of general acceptance that we are describing those positive displacement gas measuring devices having a capacity of 500 cubic feet per hour or less of .64 specific gravity gas, when operating at a differential pressure across the meter of .5 (1/2) water column. As currently manufactured in this country, meters in this general category fall into one of two basic genetic designs. One design is based on the three chamber, two diaphragm, rotary oscillating valve concept and is produced in Cast Iron and Aluminum Hardcase versions, The second type, which enjoys by far the greater popularity of the two, uses the four chamber, two diaphragm, D slide valve principle and is available in tinned steel case as well as Cast Iron and Aluminum Hardcass varieties. For our purpose today, we shall limit ourselves to meters of this later design, most commonly referred to, as the Glover type.
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Document ID: EAA82AF9

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meter And Regulator
Author(s): Robert C. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the designing of the Combination Meter, our special aim has been simplicity of construction, combined with perfect functioning of the mechanism as a whole. One unit but performing two major requirements-accurate gas measurement and pressure control. The Combination Meter is of the same size and shape as our standard #175, #240 and #250 meters. The center front and back castings, index box, all gaskets, diaphragms and internal parts are identically the same in both types. The marked difference between the two types is that the Combination Meter has the regulator built in as an integral part of the meter top, thus combining the regulator and meter into one compact unit - a pressure regulator and a gas meter.
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Document ID: E8A24A3D

Fundamentals Of Turbine Type Meter Measurement
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Rockwell Turbo-Meter is a compact, light weight, line mounted meter capable of measuring gas accurately over an extremely wide range of flow conditions. The general acceptance of this measurement principle has led to the development of a line of meters to cover flows from under 3000 scfh to well over 10 million scfh at working pressures up to 1440 p.s.i. The Turbo Meter is one of the newest developments in gas measurement devices to be in general use. This type of meter does not fit the true definition of either a differential type meter (Orifice Meter) or the Positive Displacement Meter. It would be considered as a device to sense the gas velocity through a fixed flow area, Use of appropriate gearing provides a mechanical totalization in units of volume at flowing conditions of pressure and temperature. The metered volume must, therefore, be corrected to base volume conditions.
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Document ID: C85DBE1C

Meter Driven And Clock Driven Pv And T Gauges
Author(s): Charles C. Bernitt
Abstract/Introduction:
When natural gas is measured by means of a large positive displacement meter, some means of recording the pressure and temperature as well as tha registration of the index is necessary if we want to know the actual volume of gas that has passed the meter. Several classes are held in different short courses, as well as the Southwestirn Short Course, to explain the basic gas laws. The facts can be narrowed down to this: If we know the volume of gas at one condition of temperature and pressure, we can determine the volume at any other condition of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: A7A4AF7B

Roto-Seal Meters And Transfer Proving
Author(s): J. J. Fitzpatrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the increased demand for more compact meter sats, meter manufacturers have concentrated much of their efforts, the past several years, to the design and development of rotary type meters. To satisfy this need for compactness, Rockwell has designed and developed two types of rotary meters, each having their own specific applications. These meters are the Roto-Seal Meter and the Turbo Meter. Here we will concern ourselves only with Roto-Seal. The Roto-Seal Meter having proved itself to meet the normal requirements for gas measurement, has also proven itself because of its compactness and proof stability, to be adaptable to a portable transfer proving system as a test standard.
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Document ID: 87815E18

System Of Transfer Testing
Author(s): G. R. Kunze
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for a portable transfer testing system has come about with the growth of the gas industry. With growth has come the desire for better methods of testing. The capability of rotary meter transfer systems has been shown by their use in Europe by government meter testing and certification agencies. During the last decade, a number of transfer testing systems have been designed and used in this country using a rotary meter as the master meter. Important work in developing a rotary meter transfer testing system and establishing it as a useful field test method was done by the Southern California Gas Company. The advent of the new compact rotary meter and the use of lightweight material has made a truly portable transfer testing system a reality.
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Document ID: E851C92A

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industrty has standardized on most applications, methods and definitions as compared to the knowledge possessed just twenty short years ago. Within the measurement field, two important areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the individual persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the lack of an industry standard definition for a standard cubic foot of natural gas and second is the lack of an industry standard for diaphragm meter capacity ratings at elevated pressures. There are presently in use a minimum of ten different base pressures, each of which defines a standard cubic foot of natural gas. There are many different methods of gas measurement in use today - the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters and inferential or orifice meters.
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Document ID: 0FF7E7AE

Gas Accounting - Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
The volume of gas passing through the meter run during the recorded time on the chart varies directly with the sum of the instantaneous square root of the product of the static and differential pressure. The mathematical relationship between differential pressure and flow depends on the construction of the orifice, related pipe characteristics and static pressure of the gas. The first two variables are physical and determine the orifice characteristics. Published tables list the orifice flow factors for every orifice and pipe size generally used in the gas industry.
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Document ID: 536D00C8

Manual Procedure For Calculation Of Gas Measurement Charts
Author(s): Stevens G. Herbst
Abstract/Introduction:
In approaching the calculation of gas volumes from orifice meter charts, one should be thoroughly familiar with three basic areas of knowledge, as follows: 1. An understanding of the basic orifice flow equation and the derivation of the various factors which are included in it. 2. An understanding of the operation and installation of the metering equipment and associated field facilities. 3. A knowledge of the gas sales or purchase contract under which the gas is to be measured. If any one of these three important ingredients are missing, it would not be impossible to arrive at an accurately computed volume, but it would be most difficult. In this paper, I will try to point out the detailed reasons why a basic knowledge is needed in these three areas.
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Document ID: 01425DDA

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): J J. Heitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Thousands of years ago in the Orient, the Chinese using Bamboo pipes as a means of transportation, began to utilize natural gas. From this small beginning, the use of natural gas has grown and expanded until it is now the fuel that powers our 20th Century progress. Natural gas and the heavier hyrdocarbons derived from natural gas are used in many ways in our modern day living. Although space heating is still the number one use for natural gas, we are now using great quantities in the manufacturing industry. Natural gas is the principal feed stock in the manufacturing of plastics, synthetics, anhydrous ammonia chemicals and many more man made products that have become so fundamental to our every day living.
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Document ID: BB0BEFC1

Problems In Off Shore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the operation of offshore gas pipe lines is no longer a possibility but instead is a necessity in order to actively compete in the market. The offshore area is one of many unknown and untapped reservoirs. At present, we are drilling in 300 to 600 feet of water but the trend is to move on past the continental shelf and all indications are that quantities as large as our present reserves may exist at these locations in water depths of approximately 1000 feet. It has been estimated that at least 300 trillion cubic feet await discovery offshore according to a talk by Mr. Roger Stanwood, gas supply vice president of Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems of offshore gas measurement now and also to look into some future problems that may exist.
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Document ID: 7523C738

Application Of Electronic Computers To The Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): Glenn Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic computers in the determination of gas measurement factors has resulted in several advantages: 1. Increase in accuracy and reliability is obtained, 2. Minimum of data input is required, 3. Manual effort is minimized, 4. Overall control is improved, 5. Convenient and timely reporting is accomplished.
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Document ID: 36FAF00F

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): J. Lee Fulks, L. L. Hackler, Jack Fort
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to discuss the equipment found in a chart processing office. Not all of this equipment will be found in any one office, but generally spaaking, every office will include a part of it. This would include even the office that manually reads the pressure and differential to an extension, accumulates the chart extensions, applies a corrected coifficient and arrives at the volumes. Industrial technology is now in the space age where electronic brains are at our command. Gas measurement techniques are no exception. We have come a long way in the last forty years to our elaborate Data Processing Centers and the Electronic Scanner with its related equipment. We have reached a new plateau.
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Document ID: D23F975C


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