Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1968)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

New Pressure, Volume And Temperature Devices
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years high pressure positive displacement gas meters have been equipped with instrumentation that would correct the pipe line volume of gas registered by the gas meter to some known conditions of base pressure, base temperature or base pressure and temperature. These devices for the most part have consisted of circular cams with a raised profile that designated the amount of correction to be applied for my measured condition of pressure and temperature
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Document ID: 979E74BF

Explosion-Proof Equipment
Author(s): P. N. Fitzhugh
Abstract/Introduction:
The explosive hazards associated with electrical equipment and apparatus first made itself felt in the Grain Belt of this country many years ago. The Insurance Companies refused to insure the granaries and elevators due to the explosive nature fo grain dust.
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Document ID: C3018852

Bellows Type Instruments & Meters
Author(s): Arthur m. Beavens
Abstract/Introduction:
The Rupture-Proof Bellows-Type Orifice Meter was conceived, patented and first produced over twenty-three years ago by the Barton Instrument Corporation. The contemporary bellows-type meter is the result of continuous refinements and improvements, based on field use and experience. The revolutionary idea of 1944 is now a widely recognized standard of measurement in the gas industry.
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Document ID: B2FF381A

Field Measurement Devices
Author(s): Joe Vest
Abstract/Introduction:
The Increased value of natural gag as a fuel has accelerated the Industry accept -ance of many changes and Improvements In means of accounting for volumes produced, gold and transported. Since gas Is a val -uable commodity the gas Industry realizes that gas measurement must be a precise science. Equipment manufacturers have kept pace with Industry requirements by developing new products ihich allow great -er facility and provide conditions for exacting measurements. This paper will describe some of the measurement products in current use, and some which will undoubtedly prove to be valuable additions to the gas measurement field In future years.
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Document ID: 9C120BD9

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. R. Herrington
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject natter of this paper will deal primarily with the field testing and maintenance of large positive displacement meters. This is one of the nost important functions in the industry as of course the revenue derived fron these meters is dependent upon the accuracy with which the gas is measured. The cost of field testing and maintenance is an operating exoense which must be deducted from these revenues, therefore, it is imnortant that the testing program be continually reviewed and improved, taking full advantage of any and all technological advances available.
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Document ID: E5CFE2B9

High Pressure Measurement
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper on measurement at high pressure is to relate experiences of the author in the design, installation and operation of measurement equipment and to elicit discussion from those present regarding their operating measurement problems and their solutions there to. For this discussion we will consider high pressure measurement to be at a pressure of 500 psig or greater, which will include most gas used for gas lift. Measuring gas for gas lift is probably as troublesome as any other type of field gas measurement. My philosophy of measurement, which includes gas-lift measurement, Is this: If a measured volume is required , then provide equipment to measure it with the same degree of accuracy as is required for other gas measurements within the area. There are cases where gas is used to lift oil on the same lease from which the gas is produced where no special effort is made to obtain accurate measurement of gas injected for gas lift because the volume injected for gas lift plus formation gas is later measured when delivered to a gasoline plant.
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Document ID: 6236993B

Evaluation Of Gas Metering Systems For Oil Field Production
Author(s): D. G. Perkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past several years, the oil and Gas Production Industry has bee involved in the evaluation and installation of automated production systems. These involve both measurement and control. Measurement involves chiefly oil and gas with associated temperatures an pressures. Control involves mainly valve operation for well switching and flow regulation. However, when using new concept and equipment, the following questi ns are usually of concern.
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Document ID: F293746E

Dispatching Relates To Measurement
Author(s): John H. Odom
Abstract/Introduction:
The requirements, conditions, and procedures that must be considered for transmission of natural gas are veirled and sometimes complex. However, there are government, industry, and company standards established for guidelines. Gone are the days of the old time pipeliner who by brawn and pioneer dedication helped form the backbone of the Industry. Weve progressed through the years by cognizance of valid engineering, operating, and safety needs in order to make this an outstanding industry.
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Document ID: 9B3CF53F

Design And Operation Op Primary Elements
Author(s): Claude E. Sams
Abstract/Introduction:
Although men have understood the principles of orifice measurement for centuries, it has not been until modern times that the science has been refined to the point where consistent results could be predicted. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the equipment and the care taken in its manufacture to achieve the accuracy in orifice measurement required today.
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Document ID: 607BF966

Measuremewt And Operation At An LNG Plant
Author(s): R. G. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past few years, several LNG Plants have been built in the United States. There is no doubt that this segment of our industry will grow. With this growth will come new challenges to gas measurement men. At the present time, the LKG facilities in this country are generally for peak shaving purposes. The result is that LNG measurement involving custody transfer is not usually required. Since these measurements are for intra-company purposes, great precision in measurement is not required. However, in the future there may he base load facilities such as those now being built in Europe and LNG measurement will involve custody transfer.
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Document ID: 5D29BCC7

Chart Integration And Calculation
Author(s): 0. E. Hannesschlager
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas is hard to measure. It is not a solid, so it cannot be measured with a ruler. Neither is it a liquid, so it cannot be measured with a bucket. Because of this, the science of measuring gas is imjch more complex than the man on the street would suspect. Generally, gas is measured either by weight or by volume. Of the two, volume is by far the most commonly used method of measurement in the gas industry. The basic unit is the cubic foot. However, this term cubic foot must be qualified by standards exactly describing the conditions of pressure and temperature under which this cubic foot exists. Then gas is measured in the field, it usually exists under conditions of pressure Etnd temperature different from a standard cubic foot. Go, certain rules of order must be followed in order to convert the measured cubic foot to the standard cubic foot. This conversion is not too difficult when positive displacement meters are used. However, when large volumes of gas are measured and when orifice meters are used, the factors Involved ore numerous and complicated.
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Document ID: 26840896

Dead Weight And Dew Point Testers
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressiore. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: 920DFE53

Gas Cleaning Techniques
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas cleaning is a fundamental part of conditioning natural gas for market. At a casual glance, the separation of pipe line dirt from gas seems to be a simple operation. Unfortunately, this is not often true. It is equally unfortunate that, thus far, it is impossible to measure, directly and reliably, the dirt content of a flowing gas stream so that gas cleaning gets less attention from management than it deserves until it is reflected as an excessive operating expense. What is pipe line dirt? This writer definesit as any substance present in a gas system that is not gas. Generally, pipe line dirt comprises solids, or liquids, or a combination of the two. More specifically, the solids would include mill scale, red iron oxides, iron sulfide, iron carbonate, sand, construction dirt, formation cuttings, salt crystals, drilling mud, welding slag, plug valve grease, et cetera. Liquids might include fresh or salt water, crude oil, hydrocarbon condensate, absorption oil, glycol, sour gas treating solutions, lube oil, et cetera. Often, these liquid mixtures contain considerable solids in suspension.
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Document ID: B5AE7AF7

Determination Of Heat Content
Author(s): E. J. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Heat content or energy is designated as British Thermal Units, more commonly called BTUs. The definition of a BTUs - The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water 1 F., at or near its point of raaximum density. The determination of heat content is becoming more and more important. More contracts are being made on the basis of the amount of energy delivered rather than cubic foot volumes especially with large industries. Energy reduction across gasoline plants is measured in BTU and payment is made on this basis.
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Document ID: F4F4F660

Newberry Testing Facility
Author(s): L. J. Komp
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of the Southern California Gas Companys large volume high pressure testing facility is nearing completion. It has been designed for an extremely wide range of testing capabilities and to be virtually independent of normal pipeline operations.
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Document ID: 482EEA63

Speeding The Flow Of Chart Data
Author(s): W. E. Farr
Abstract/Introduction:
The trend is to do more work in less time. Sometime these points seem overstressed however, we at Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company are continuing to examine new ideas and techniques that lead to a more efficient operation. Chart processing begins when the chart envelopes are received in the mail room and in gang style are sliced opened, then, rebundled and sent to the Measurement Department via a central conveyor. Charts are sorted by make of meters into batches before being edited for processing. Prior to our present system, a clerk filled in and checked identification information on each chart showing station number, date, and data necessary for volume calculation.
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Document ID: 53CB3A4E

Pulsation - Eliminate Or Live With It
Author(s): Walter Nimitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurements under pulsative flow conditions have been a subject of extensive research and experimental studies for manyyears. While many of these efforts have added to the state of the art there is yet no complete solution available. It is important, therefore, to review the basic types of pulsation induced errors and restate the basic problem in order to understand when and what kind of solutions are possible. Fundamentally, orifice flow measurement is indirect that is, flow velocity is computed from differential pressure measurements at the orifice. Unfortunately, under pulsative flow conditions, the relation between differential orifice pressure and velocity is complex and may become undetermined (Fig. 1), in which case the pulsation induced error cannot be calculated. As shown elsewhere there are three types of pulsation induced errors in orifice measurement of compressible fluid as summarized below:
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Document ID: 97961836

Sampling And New Applications Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): H. J. Tullos
Abstract/Introduction:
Greater emphasis Is being stressed on the proper sampling of natural gas. This emphasis has come about due to the larger volumes of natural gas being transported In gas transmission systems and processed in natural gas plants. A general discussion and review of various methods of sampling and the reasons for these methods are outlined, Gas chromatography has revolutionized the methods used In the analysis of natural gas. Several factors that effect the results of analyses by gas chromatography are directly related to the Scimpling technique used to sample the natural gas.
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Document ID: A4C3E6E4

Advanced Electronics For Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic instrumentation has made significant advances during the past decade. Solid state electronics with its smaller size and greater reliability has been responsible for this trend. Increasing research and development with electronic instruments and constant improvements with technology continually hasten the trend. Not only are new instruments constantly being made available, but the advantages of electronic instrumentation are encouraging changes in gas measurement procedures. We will discuss some of these changes as they have affected both conventional orifice metering and basic changes in flow measurement concepts and technology.
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Document ID: 675FCB34

Natural Gas Odorization Techniques
Author(s): George S. Leachman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to stay in keeping with the newspaper journalists of today, I am going to to you concerning an alarming subject. After all, there is but one purpose to gas odorization and that is to alarm persons in the vicinity of an accurauition of natural gas, what ever be the cause of such an accumulation, and give warning to its presence. We are all aware of the disasters that have occurred when gas accumulations have gone undetected, though the practice of odorization is so widespread today that most of these disasters are long past. Most of all you who have worked with sweet natural gas know that it has a distinctive pleasant odor and for this reason I have been asked nnany times why we use an objectionable smelling compound to impart a warning odor to natural gas. There is a very good reason for this, as it was found a number of years ago by research work done, that people were not alarmed by pleasant odors and that a particularly objectionable one was required to give proper warning of the presence of gas.
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Document ID: 874C3099

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was Introduced In England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London about 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company Inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning the inspector would turn the service off. This practice was then changed and the gas light customers were charged for the quantity of gas used based on the number, and possibly the size of light burners in the homes. Thus, the first gas meters developed were rated as Five-Light, Ten- Light, etc. A gas light burner was based on a consumption of 6 cubic feet per hour.
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Document ID: 30841F72

FUNDAMENTAT.S Of Principles Of Remote Supervisory Control
Author(s): Graham D. Bogel
Abstract/Introduction:
Although supervisory control has been used in various farms for many, many years, its use has Increased dramatically in the last 10 or 15 years. During that time. It has changed from simple relay type systems to high speed Integrated circuit solid state systems which are regularly tied In with digital computers. At the same time, these systems have changed from plain control and supervision to Include two-way digital telemetering, and message communication. They have changed from low speed systems subject to a certain number of errors in transmission, to very high speed systems with lock-tight security on all transmission.
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Document ID: 6A98FD80

Operation And Maintenance Of Gas Densitometers
Author(s): J. R. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
A Densitometer is an instrument which measures absolute density in terms of weight per volume. Pounds per cubic foot is the unit of measure used in this country. An analog signal which is linear to the density of the gas is transmitted to a two-pen recorder or an analog flow computer. This information is intergrated with differential pressure to obtain mass flow. Specific gravity, pres ure base factor, and temperature base factor will convert this (if required) to volume measurement. AGA Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3 discusses these calculations.
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Document ID: 423ED3FF

Principles And Application Of Fluidic Devices
Author(s): N. C. Sher, R. J. Reilly
Abstract/Introduction:
The current Interest in fluidic dynamic techniques fluidics) for performing logic and control functions was launched by the U. S. Armys Harry Diamond Laboratories in 1959- The devices announced at that time were based on the deflection of a fluid stream by interfacing control streams. With certain changes in configuration both bistable switching and proportional modulating operation is achieved. These devices are generally now called beam deflection fluidic amplifiers.
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Document ID: 9B3FF352

Sizing Of Regulating Equipment
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
Ideally, if all regulation problems could be satisfied with one design, choosing the proper unit for an installation would be greatly simplified and readily accomplished. This, however. Is improbable if not Impossible, The many requirements which differ widely In pressure, size and capacity deem it necessary to consider the peculiarities of each. Regulating equipment is used to regulate gas pressure in a variety of Installations. These can be generally classified as to basic application. For instance, we have the appliance or industrial usage, the service application, district or distribution systems, and the town border stations, which broadly speaking could also Include the transmission category. Each of these broad areas of application have definite requirements which bear heavily in sizing the Regulator to adequately satisfy the installation.
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Document ID: A1CAEC17

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): R. V. Mcafee
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic computation of flow through a meter run has been accompllBhed three ways to date: 1. With a digital computer scanning transducer values at one or more points. 2. With an analog computer computing the flow from multiple points using the time share principle, 3. With an analog computer at each measurement point giving real time measurement. This paper discusses the application of the CAMCO Model 464A Computer Flow Measurement System to the measurement of fluids using the real time principle. Most of the applications to date have been on natural gas systems, but it has also been used for crude oil, water, and steam measurement.
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Document ID: E051AF3B

District Regulators & Load Distribution
Author(s): R. m. Hurt
Abstract/Introduction:
The best way to tackle any problem is to ask ourselves...What? Why? When? Where and How? Generally, if we can answer these questions atout any problem the answer becomes evident by the time we have accumulated the answers. Lets try this with district regulators.
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Document ID: 2F634AA1

A Comparative Review Of Bellows Flow Meters
Author(s): H. S. Biles
Abstract/Introduction:
More than two decades ago, a new differential pressure detector for flow measurement-the bellows- type flow meter-made its appearance in a field which had hitherto been the exclusive province of the mercury meter. Before that time several devices employing a bellows had been proposed for differential pressure detection, but their deficiencies made them impractical for general use. Since the first successful bellows meter body was launched on its career, many thousands of them have been placed in operation, and they are now offered by no less than six manufacturers and exhibit considerable variety in design details. This Paper wUl discuss and compare four typical bellows flow meters. Simplified line drawings will be used to illustrate specific features, and reference should be made to the manufacturers literature for complete descriptions of the products.
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Document ID: 8741EA72

Computer Control And Monitoring Of Offshore Production
Author(s): Dewey W. Pierce, Clyde L. Finch
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a new concept for supervisory control and monitoring of offshore gascondensate production. The philosophy of the automation systems design, its attrac ive features, and operating experience gained to date are covered.
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Document ID: 6EA99EB3

Fundamentals Of Gas Regulation
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
To the problem of providing sufficient strength in regulator components to withstand the static pressures which may be imposed, there must be added the problems of mass and velocity. These factors introduce difficulties which are ofttimes surprising and just as often puzzling. Natural gas, with its specific gravity of less than unity, does not ordinarily impress us with Its weight. A cubic foot at standard conditions weighs only 5/100 of a pound. This we might be tempted to ignore.
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Document ID: 3CC0EE41

Two-Phase Flow Metering
Author(s): m. L. Blackvrell
Abstract/Introduction:
Factors to calculate orifice meter coefficients in convenient form for commercial use were first published by Brown and Hall in 1921. The American Gas Association published a Preliminary Report in 192? which was revised in 1929, and Committee Report Ko. 1 was issued in 1930. Committee Report No. 2, published in 1935j was reprinted with revisions in 198. After 195j gas production and sales began to make tremendous increases because of the construction of long transmission pipelines to the northeastern section of the United States. New types of equipment were being made available for use in construction of orifice meter stations. The factors as published in AGA Report No. u did not cover the requirements for larger meter run diameters and heavier wall pipe to measure this substantial volume of gas at higher metering pressure. It was recognized by the industry that Report No. 2 should be brought up-to-date.
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Document ID: C46D8263

Transfer Testing With The Roots Prover
Author(s): William Melis
Abstract/Introduction:
The Model Number 3 Roots Prover is a light weight, portable, self contained proving system. The unit is designed to calibrate displacement gas meters in the field. It can, of course, also be used in the meter shop. The Roots Prover uses the principle of transfer testing in which the unknown accuracy of a field meter is determined by comparing it to the knovm accuracy of a reference meter. To perform the calibration test, air is drawn through the field meter and the reference meter, operating in series as indicated in Figure 1. The air volume registered by the field meter under test is compared to the air volume registered by the reference meter. Differences in air pressure and temperature at the inlet to each meter are measured so that the volumes of air measured by the two meters can be converted to a common base condition.
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Document ID: 505008FD

Exploration For Gas
Author(s): R. P. Akkerman
Abstract/Introduction:
When Professor Kirklin from the College of Technology at the University of Houston asked me to give a paper on some facet of the Gas Industry at this short course I accepted gladly for I will enjoy discussing with you men a subject close to my heart exploration exploration for gas. we are all prospectors. We may not all be looking for Che same thing but rest assured that we are all looking for something.
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Document ID: CD887051

Volumetric Behavior Of The Gaseous State
Author(s): Harold L. Overton
Abstract/Introduction:
At a standard ATM. , 60 F. and 14.65 psia, gases have been found to have a density which varies directly with the molecular weight.
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Document ID: 300B5254

Instruments For Automation - A Gas Powered Flow Computer
Author(s): J. E. Hewson
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years both analog and digital gas flow computers have been applied In the gas Industry to improve measurement techniques and provide information from the field faster and in more readily usable form. About 1963j the electronic gas flow computer began to receive recognition as a useful tool in the gas industry. An analysis of the gas industry at that time indicated that there was a need for a device which measured the pressure corrected flow of gas without using charts or electricity. Such a device needed to include some form of documentation, that is, to provide a machinemade record of the variable being measured.
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Document ID: AF2DE00F

Theory And Operation Of Dehydration
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
The rapid expansion of the natural gas industry has placed increased emphasis upon the methods hy which natural gas is found, produced, conditioned, measured, processed, regulated, transported and distributed to the consumer. Every phase of these numerous operational variables are involved and each are important to our natural gas industry. As advancement is made in each, more technical knowledge is required by industry personnal to efficiently maintain, overall operations in order to satisfy its management. The dehydration of natural gas is one small phase of this vast operation and along with each of the many others is important. Gas dehydration is essentially the process by wfaich the water vapor contained in the gas is reduced. The amount of water reduction needed and the method of dehydration used depends on how the gas is to be utilized. The main purpose for dehydrating natural gas is to reduce overall operating problems and help insure an uninterrupted supply of gas from the wellhead to the consumer.
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Document ID: 034F6CD0

Gas Contract Provisions Concerning Quantity, Measurement And Quality
Author(s): Alvin A. Geyer
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will be concerned with those portions of a gas sales contract which are of interest to measurement personnel. In the proceedings of this short course you will note I have used the title: Gas Contract Provisions Concerning Quantity, Measurement and Quality. The class schedule lists the subject as Quality and Quantity Provisions of Gas Contracts. Again, in one of the latest gas sales contracts that I have reviewed, the material that we are concerned with is listed: Quantity, Unit of Volume, Quality, Standards for Measurement and Tests, and Measurement. Already some confusion exists and, lest we be caught up in it, let us say that as measurement people we are interested in the number of units of gas to be sold, a definition of the units, a method of counting the units, and whether the gas delivered is desirable to the purchaser from a standpoint of suitability as regards his need for the gas.
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Document ID: 9E0DE6C1

High-Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Thomas E. Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of a measuring and regulating station is the accurate measurement and dependable regulation of natural gas. The basic factors which influence the design of a measuring station are safety, accuracy, flexibility, and economy. As has been stated at previous short courses, and it is just as true today, there are almost as many different designs of various type meter and regulator stations as there are gas companies. There are certain industry standards and specifications that have to be complied with, but just how the several parts are assembled to form a complete measuring and regulating station very often lies with the designers choice.
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Document ID: 0A86A919

Measured Steps In Measurement Progress
Author(s): C. F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
All responsible gas transmission companies have made considerable progress in the field of gas measurement in the past few years. This is due to the desire to use more effectively the wealth of equipment now available in o der to reduce costs from inaccurate measurement and rising labor costs, and to give a wider range of control over the complicated dispatching procedures. MaJiy problems arise when one is a tempting to make sweeping transformations towan more efficient operations. Among the major probelms might be listed (l) the difficulty of adapting original equipment to new devices, (2) the problem of retraining present employees to operate more sophisticated equipment and accept new techniques, and (3) the trouble in finding the various proven new instruments or components to do the best job in any given applicatic 1.
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Document ID: 49AD305B

Data Reduction With A Chart Analyzer
Author(s): John E. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The calculation of gas flow at on-site metering installations is not always economical. Flow computers and integrating orifice meters are avallaole to serve this need when it is economically feasible. All of which explains the widespread use of flow recorders and the mass of charts that are channeled from field metering installations to a central point where recordings are interpreted and the data is reduced to understandable information. At the central data reduction centers, many time and labor saving devices have been employed over the years to convert the chart traces. First among these, and to some extent still in use, may be seen pre-calculated pressure extensions and look-up factor tables. From this point numerous improvements have occurred.
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Document ID: 48F19D00

A Comparison Of Electronic And Pneumatic Circuits
Author(s): m. L. Freudenthal
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of automation in the oil industry many people are being exposed to electronics for the first time. Such terms as latch, OR, NOR, AND, NAND, transistor, bi-stable, and dioce leave many with a feeling of bewildermnent. Any electronic circuit, however, an be broken down into its basic components and these basic components have a pneumatic device that is functionally the same. Since pneumatic circuits have been used for many years in the oil industry most people have a working knowledge of pneumatic devices and understand how they function. The purpose of this paper is to show the functional parallel between pneumatic and electronic circuits. For the purposes of this paper voltage will be equated with pressure and the measuring devices involved are shown in Figure 1.
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Document ID: 63DECCBB

Calculating A System Gas Balance
Author(s): Jim Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
I will define a system gas balance by comparing it to a common apothecary scale. On one side of the scale, as it were, would be all the gas taken into the system. We will refer to It as purchased gas. On the other side or at the end of the system is outgoing gas referred to as transported gas. Since the operation of a pipe line system requires compression, purging, gas processing (in most cases) and etc., we must endeavor to account for the use of this product from the system to balance our scale. At Columbia Gulf, we calculate these volumes and prepare a report each month entitled Monthly Measurement Report which shows the disposition or accounting for of all gas taken Into and used in the system. Any difference in these two figures is referred to as unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: 5084D954


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