Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1967)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jerome Guther
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is the simplest of instruments for measurement of pressure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard from which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated.
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Document ID: 0BAD89D6

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): m. R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
As you all know, the gas industry is certainly one of the largest industries in this country. Recent statistics show all time highs, including thousands of miles of mains, millions of customers served, billions of dollars of investments and revenues and trillions of cubic feet sold. Obviously, in undertakings of this magnitude, satisfactory accounting demands increasingly accurate and reliable measurements in all phases of operations.
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Document ID: 457E2F7E

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important reason that a gas transmission company invests in the development of underground storage is based on the premise that storage is the most economical approach to the solution of several problems. First, it provides for a large volume delivery capability at or near the market terminus of the pipe line system ready for immediate use. Second, it improves the annual load factor of the system, which is very important even to the producer. Third, the investment usually will be the least expensive when compared to the alternates, such as pipe line looping, adding horsepower, etc. Fourth, in the case of long transmission pipe lines, it provides an added safeguard to the consumers in the event of a pipe line failure.
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Document ID: 7FA0A9BB

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas In Distribution Systems
Author(s): T. A. Robinett
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of leakage and unaccounted-for-gas, at first glance, would seem to present no major problem if Mr. Websters definition of this expression were strictly applied and no effort was made to separate actual leakage or lost gas, from unaccounted-for-gas. Measure the gas into a distribution system from one or more points, measure the gas out of the system to the individual customers, total the incoming gas and the outgoing gas, take the difference of these two totals and the leakage and unaccounted- for-gas has been determined. Simple enough.
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Document ID: B7A747DD

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): R. H. Prickett
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing the methods used to determine the specific gravity of gas, the meaning of the term should be understood. The definition of specific gravity as applied to gas is the ratio of the weight of a known volume of gas to the weight of an equal volume of dry air, free from carbon dioxide, at the same temperature and pressure. This paper will be devoted mostly to the primary means of obtaining the specific gravity and not to recorders that have to be checked and set with one of the primary devices.
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Document ID: B1C9D40F

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Robert F. Hoctor
Abstract/Introduction:
The establishment of the correct heating value of gas is a very important factor to the gas industry. When the therm is used as a basis to sell gas, the accurate determination and recording of this value becomes of the utmost importance to the seller and purchaser of the gas. Generally, a single calorimeter is installed to measure the B.T.U. for a large system with many distribution points. Because of this, the installation and operation of the calorimeter should be given long and careful thought. Correct installation may be a large expenditure but with careful planning, the cost can be held to a minimum. Good judgment used in the primary installation can keep revamping costs to a minimum. This paper is given to illustrate the important parts of the installation and testing of the recording calorimeter.
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Document ID: 914BFA19

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
This has been and is today one of the most controversial subjects dealt with by those of us who are involved with the responsibility of handling natural gas. The reasons for and the need to control the quantity of water vapor in natural gas is evident to all of us. We also know that this control of the water vapor is impossible unless we can accurately make quantitative determinations of its presence in the gas stream. The manner in which this is done and the results that are obtained is the controversial part.
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Document ID: 042402CF

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas Compression Method
Author(s): T. L. Hillburn
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a continuing need within the natural gasoline processing industry for a quantitative correlation of the amount of liquid product which can be extracted from compound containing only hydrogen and carbon. The number of carbon atoms in the molecule determines its weight and, at least for our purposes, how easily it can be liquified. CH, is methane, telling us that methane has one carbon atom per molecule. In gasoline testing, we are looking for the C,,s plus which are the heavier hydrocarbons, the pentanes and heavier. That pretty much describes test gasoline, that is to say our test gasoline should be composed of molecules with 5 or more atoms of carbon in the chain. These Cr,s-plus can be liquified with little trouble, the liquified petroleum gases, or L.P.G.s can be liquified under reasonable pressures and temperatures, while the lighter ends present problems.
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Document ID: 32EE4D4A

The Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Natural Gas By The Charcoal Method
Author(s): Frank R. Redus
Abstract/Introduction:
The requirement of testing a natural gas to determine its natural gasoline content is established for use in royalty settlements, plant recovery distributions, estimate of the probable yield of natural gasoline from a given gas and for certain intercompany transactions. It will be the purpose of this presentation to discuss a broad and general outline of the charcoal method of testing for gasoline content. A brief discussion of adsorption phenomena and the chromatographic effect of the charcoal adsorption of hydrocarbons will be presented.
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Document ID: 3808B3A5

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): Harlan GIESE,G. E. WOOLFALL,E. J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
The term freezing in this paper refers to formation of hydrates or ice inside metering and regulating equipment. It also applies to pipelines. Hydrate or ice formation in a pipeline, regulator, meter or gas control system may result in loss of pressure control, metering inaccuracies and outages. It is generally agreed that the most effective way to eliminate the problem is by removing excess water at its source
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Document ID: E1B4CC07

Methods Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): R. V. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two general types of well tests used for the rating of gas wells. The multipoint type test is conducted by flowing the well at various rates in succession without shutting in the well between rates of flow. The isochronal type test is conducted by flowing the well for periods of time at various rates of flow after the well has attained a stabilized shut-in pressure before each flow rate. A multipoint test is sometimes referred to as a flow after flow or, as a three, four, or five point test depending upon the number of rates of flow used in the multipoint test. A one-point test (for the purpose of this paper) means that the well was started from shut in at a predetermined rate of flow and allowed to produce for an extended period of time. A one-point test as well as the first point (or first rate of flow) of a multipoint test is by definition of the isochronal type since both flow rates begin with the well in a shut-in status. The multipoint test differs from the isochronal test in that each successive flow rate after the first, is imposed upon the well without shutting in the well. Deliverability tests are usually one-point tests run under conditions specified by a regulatory body, and the results are usually corrected by calculations to a specific set of conditions. All of the testing described above is of the back-pressure type in that the well is not opened directly to the atmosphere and allowed to flow without restriction.
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Document ID: DCD11562

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): W. T. Davey
Abstract/Introduction:
An accident has been defined by Webster as An unfortunate event occurring by chance and resulting from carelessness, unawareness, ignorance or unknown causes. Actually Webster says much more about accidents but the substance of his remarks remains that the unfortunate event occurs by chance and involves carelessness, unawareness, ignorance or perhaps an unknown cause.
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Document ID: 45492D83

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): D. D. Fritch
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the beginning of the Gas Industry there has always been controversy with regard to regulating and measuring gas flow. With this paper I wish to familiarize you with some points to be considered, various remedies, advanced ideas proposed, and some of the new equipment developed to alleviate problems in station design.
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Document ID: ADB3820B

Gas Chromotography
Author(s): Ralph B. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
Analytical chemistry is that area of chemistry concerned with the measurement and identification of the individual constituents of matter. Analytical chemistry, at the college undergraduate level in the 1930s, consisted primarily of wet chemistry. In the past thirty years, many techniques have been brought to the fore, which are properly classified as instrumental analysis.
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Document ID: 65FCF01E

Gas Cleaning
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas cleaning is one of the oldest of the gas conditioning processes and perhaps the most neglected of all. No management group in the gas industry will admit to selling dirty gas and to even discuss the possibility is to be indelicate. It seems reasonable to assume that if dirt cannot be seen, then it does not exist. This is a comforting assumption which, unfortunately, is rarely true. Every operating gas company has pipeline dirt problems and these vary only in the degree of severity. Usually, they are called by other, more palatable names such as low transmission efficiency, scored cylinders, oil-poisoned adsorbent, excessive lube oil consumption, poor measurement, entrainment losses, et cetera.
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Document ID: 4EF26B4C

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure. Thes best data available are the pressure, specific volume. and temperature values given in thermodynamic tables of pure substances. Tables are available for steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane, ethane, propane and several other substances. The tables should always be used when working with pure substances. These tables can also be used with mixtures of gases if the chemical analysis of the gas is known. However, in many cases this analysis is not available, so other methods must be used. One of the most convenient and satisfactory methods is to make use of the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 77EEA4F9

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Harry Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The idea of being asked to present a paper on New Ideas was very flattering, if not awesome, to me. My first and greatest concern centered about gathering up new ideas for this venture. Some ideas could be found by searching the latest literature and trade magazines. Some new techniques being used by my company and its affiliates could be discussed. But, limiting this discussion to items selected bv these two methods would definitely not cover the field. At least one of my predecessors in preparing a paper on New Ideas accumulated more than sufficient material by making a wide scale survey of men in all phases of the gas industry. This method has much appeal and was borrowed as the means to develop this paper.
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Document ID: BAAE343F

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. R. Weston
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas in gathering and distribution systems often contains a variety of substances which would have to be classified as undesirable. One such substance is liquids. Liquids in a gas system are undesirable for several reasons. They require a different kind of pumping for transmission they collect in low spots of the system reducing its capacity and some of them either change to solids or encourage formation of solids during cold weather. They also present troubles at the metering stations. It is here that the measurement man will have his chief concern.
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Document ID: 4CB65249

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibiuty
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: 750CE218

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
The manufacturer of kinetic type gravitometers has developed an improved portable gravitometer, illustrated in Figure 1. These instruments have been delivered into the area served by the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course during the past six months. The purpose of this class is to acquaint you with this instrument and its operation. One of the most significant improvements is the large indicating scale, illustrated in Figure 2. The length of the graduated arc is 16 inches, about 4 times the scale length of the original kinetic gravitometer. Each minor graduation on the inner scale, for gases lighter than air, is 1/16 wide and represents .002 specific gravity. It is quite easy to interpolate within V- graduation and thereby read the scale to .001 specific gravity. Consequently, reading errors have been eliminated or greatly reduced.
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Document ID: 1ACAB05D

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. m. Rinn
Abstract/Introduction:
It is commonly necessary to measure sulfur levels accurately to maintain low hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan concentration, for protection of costly transmission and distribution lines, stabilization of odorant injection, and monitoring of numerous gas conditioning processes. New and more sensitive measurement procedures have been developed to meet the need for reliable analytical data. One such device, the Barton Recording Sulfur Titrator, provides this data while combining high sensitivity and wide rangeability.
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Document ID: C6E7DDE7

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Virgil C. Carlile
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas liquids, L.P.G., or Liquid Petroleum Gas, we are interested in accuracy and reproductive measurement. There are two methods of acquiring this measurement.
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Document ID: 8FF5D7C1

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Meterman
Author(s): J. L. 1
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past generation the use of natural gas has grown at a phenomenal rate, and what was once considered a nuisance to oil men is now a highly regarded, much in demand commodity. When a commodity is in demand, its value increases. Today, the increase in value of natural gas has placed more attention on measurement departments by corporate management, government agencies, and in turn on the Field Meterman.
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Document ID: 3C8911EC

Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition-The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: BCCEC52C

Use Of Infra-Red Tracer Techniques In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Joe S. Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Large volume gas flow rates can be measured by directly determining the velocity of the gas with tracer techniques. The velocity of the gas is measured by timing the flight of a tracer between two points in the pipeline. With a known volume of pipe between the two points in the line, the gas flow rate can be calculated by dividing the volume of the pipe by the time it takes the tracer to travel between the two points. For example, if the volume of the pipe between the two points is 10,000 cubic feet and the tracer travel time (flight time) is 10 seconds, then the gas is flowing at a rate of 10,000 cubic feet per ten seconds. The flow rate can then be expressed in other time units- such as million cubic feet per hour or per day.
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Document ID: 024A6934

Design Of Positive Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Harry B. Lindblom
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will concern itself with some ideas which should be useful in the designing of the meter sets to serve the bulk of Commercial and Industrial Customers. The factors which influence this design and some methods of dealing with them will be discussed.
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Document ID: 2B427642

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Ira W. Fariss
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of any gas measuring station is to produce sustained accurate measurement and dependable pressure or flow control. To achieve this function a programmed inspection schedule and preventive maintenance program must be instituted, patrolled and rigidly adhered to. The purpose of this paper is to present a suggested measuring station inspection schedule and how, with good measurement personnel, accurate records and properly designed stations, the schedule will produce the desired accuracy.
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Document ID: 52138E74

Discussion Of A Common Pressure Base
Author(s): Louis W. Mendonsa
Abstract/Introduction:
The antiquated system under which the gas industry measures its product would be regarded as ludicrous by the general public if it were fully understood. It would be as though the farmers of New York decided that a dozen apples consisted of 13 apples and the farmers of Wisconsin held out for an eleven-apple dozen. Gas is measured by the cubic foot. But the industry cannot agree on a standard measurement pressure base. It is necessary therefore to have several definitions of a cubic foot of gas and to state the applicable pressure base for each.
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Document ID: 8D575915

Measurement And Operation For LNG
Author(s): R. G. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
In February of this year Transcos LNG Plant sent out over 450 MMscf of natural gas. This climaxed several years of planning, designing, construction, and operation dating back to 1959. After customer requirements were determined and after many economic feasibility studies were made, a contract was signed with Constock-Pritchard Liquefaction Corporation in 1963. This contract provided that Constock-Pritchard would construct a plant in New Jersey Meadows. In July of 1963, F.P.C. approval was received to construct and operate an LNG Plant, which would have a storage capacity of 290,000 barrels of LNG equivalent to one billion cubic feet of gas at standard conditions, liquefaction capacity to fill the storage unit in 200 days, and sendout facilities for 200 MMscf per day.
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Document ID: 1A0422C7

New Concepts In Industrial Regulators
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
What do you want an industrial regulator to do? Primarily, to reduce high distribution pressure to a low constant outlet pressure, and maintain the constant outlet pressure with varying inlet pressures under varying load conditions. You may also want some type of safety protection to maintain, or restrict, the downstream pressure to within a safe pressure range in the event the regulator fails open. You may also want some type of protection to shut off the flow in the event there is a freeze-up of the primary regulator or an upstream pipe break
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Document ID: CA6CB4E1

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): John H. Liechty
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the late 1950s, nearly all high capacity, high pressure regulators, whether direct operated, pilot operated or instrument operated, utilized the conventional single or double ported globe style body. Yet, even today, the combination of a pressure controller and diaphragm control valve is considered the standard by many gas companies. However, in recent years, capacity requirements have greatly increased as a result of the continuous expansion and penetration of natural gas into the energy market. In order to meet these increased demands, transmission and distribution companies have been forced to go to higher and higher system pressures and, today, it is not unusual to find town border stations reducing 1000 p.s.i. or higher pipeline pressures to 50 to 500 p.s.i. belt or trunk line pressures. With pressure drops of this magnitude and with the need for ever greater capacities, the state of the art of regulator design had to be advanced.
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Document ID: 4C54C49E

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no single design of a regulator which can be classified as large capacity. Of the many types of regulators that can be called large capacity, the double ported balanced valve is the most common. There are a large number of other designs such as single valve units-balanced and unbalanced, plug valves, ball valves, and others. Practically every valve design has at one time or another been made into a regulator by providing a power device to position the valve and a measuring device to sense deviation in the controlled parameter.
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Document ID: F04CF527

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Milton H. Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube type valve is an unconventional type of valve. This type of valve has been manufactured since 1940 under the trade name of Flexflo. Figure 1 shows the four simple parts required to make up the Flexflo valve. A synthetic rubber tube is stretched over a hollow cylinder. This cylinder contains a barrier near the mid-section and is slotted on the upstream and downstream side of the barrier. The tube is stretched over the cylinder or core and slipped into the body. A closure is then bolted on to the body. There are no gaskets or other seals required. The Flexflo valve has only one moving part-the expansible tube and it only expands and contracts. The Flexflo is essentially a diaphragm operated valve with the expansible tube being both the diaphragm and the valve.
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Document ID: 8BA8874B

Principles And Application Of Automatic Control
Author(s): B. W. Travis
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic controls are playing an ever increasing part throughout the natural gas industry due to the increasing cost of natural gas and the equipment for the handling of this gas. Controllers can better serve the industry if operators understand the theory and applications of automatic control.
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Document ID: CA6AF4D4

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): J. W. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas distribution company is only as good as the service afforded its customers. This service depends, to a large extent. on the equipment used to distribute the gas and on the available pressure at the customers premises and appliances. With this in mind, careful consideration should be given to system growth before actual problems arise. A division of the area into one or more separate distribution systems will be the eventual answer.
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Document ID: 704F93A1

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): L. E. Bauer
Abstract/Introduction:
I. INTRODUCTION Pressure reduction to usable levels from the high pressures at which most transmission and some distribution lines are operated at today involves several unique problems. Low pressure regulation, that from 100 p.s.i.g. to ounces or inches of water, is relatively routine, whereas high pressure regulation, that from 1000-1500 p.s.i.g. down to 200 or 300 p.s.i.g., involves special design considerations. This paper deals mainly with these considerations, as well as equipment selection and other possible solutions for the elimination of problems that arise from design. Freezing or hydrating, sound, valve erosion, and vibration are discussed.
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Document ID: 31A7C20D

Mass Flow Measurement
Author(s): William G. Fox
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a classification system that has been found useful for keeping track of the wide variety of mass flow measuring devices. This classification is based on the observation that there is something different about mass flow measurement. Unlike such variables as temperature, pressure, thickness, and liquid level, which usually require only one parameter to be measured, mass flow measurement requires that a minimum of two variables be dealt with. In some mass flow devices one of the two variables is held constant, and the other is measured. In other devices neither of the two principal variables is held constant, but both are measured
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Document ID: 80935DE9

Trouble-Shooting In Metameter Telemetering Systems
Author(s): W. R. Grime
Abstract/Introduction:
In dealing with trouble-shooting in Telemetering Systems we must first discuss briefly what Telemetering is and how it works. Telemetering is measuring at a distance. In Figure 1 we have a simple analogy of what Telemetering is. As the man who picks up the desired information or measurement opens and closes the circuit with a telegraph key, the opens and closures are transmitted along the wires to the coil or sounder at the receiving end, and these, in turn, are transformed or decoded into meaningful intelligence. Thus, the man, or any measuring device at a distance from the place where the information is desired, can transmit this information, and it can be indicated, recorded or otherwise displayed.
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Document ID: D82FFD8B

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
If our final objective is to understand the operation of a regulator that uses as its main working part a solid rubber plug, then our preliminary objective should be to determine when and why such a regulator was designed. It started happening in 1950. That is, in 1950 the Gas Industry became conscious of a need for a more efficient operation from their control equipment. This could be attributed to what might be termed the three Rs: Rising cost of gas, rising pipeline pressures, and rising standards for measurement. All three points are closely related however, it was the considerable increase in handling gas at high pressures that inspired the rubber plug.
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Document ID: 5A106B18

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sizing, or selection, of the Service Regulator determines the accuracy of the outlet pressure control, and the flow rate delivered to the Meter. The regulator selected should deliver the desired capacity within a selected band of outlet pressure with the maximum and minimum inlet pressure encountered in service. Consideration should be given to future pressure conditions, safety, and installation practice.
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Document ID: 9080A658

Applications Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): Robert V. Mcafee
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic computation of flow through a meter run has been accomplished three ways to date: 1. With a digital computer scanning transducer values at one or more points. 2. With an analog computer computing the flow from multiple points using the time share principle. 3. With an analog computer at each measurement point giving real time measurement.
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Document ID: 75C94039

Measurement By Displacement
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The Displacement Gas Meter is frequently referred to as a Positive Displacement Meter, not because measurement with this device is any more definite or accurate than the measurement which might be obtained with another type meter, but because the measurement that it affords is a positive volumetric quantity in cubic feet at flowing conditions-regardless of the temperature, gravity or pressure of the flowing gas. There are three basic types of gas meters which are generally considered as falling into this category: 1-wet (rotating drum) meters 2-rotary (impeller type) meters and, 3-slide-valve dry type meters
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Document ID: B37AA758

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Large Capacity Displacement Meters, as used by the gas distribution industry, refers to those diaphragm type meters with a capacity of 500 to 10 or 11,000 cfh of 0.64 specific gravity natural gas at a maximum of 4 ounces inlet pressure with no more than two inches water column differential pressure between the meter inlet and outlet at capacity flow. As time permits, the evolution, sizing and installation practices for these large meters will be discussed.
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Document ID: 7D5222B1

Measurement By Orifice
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
To many people, the term orifice meter has come to mean the instrument, built into a rectangular black case, which records (or computes) the flow which occurs through the meter run and orifice plate. Strictly spsaking, this is not correct the orifice meter actually consists of the combination of the meter run, orifice plate and gage lines- together with the instrument which senses the characteristics from which the flow rate is computed. The orifice meter is fundamentally a velocity meter volume flow rates are obtained by considering the cross-sectional areas involved. The total quantity passed, over a measurement period, is obtained by multiplying the
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Document ID: 5BF68BB7

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Richard J. Knorr
Abstract/Introduction:
The domestic gas meter is a device designed to accurately measure and record the volume of gas consumed by a domestic user of natural gas. These meters are identified by the rate at which they can meter gas. The rated capacity of a meter is the gas rate (CFH) at which 0.64 specific gravity gas will flow through a meter with a 0.5 of water pressure differential between the inlet and outlet of the meter. For example, the AL-250 meter will pass 250 CFH of 0.64 specific gravity gas with a 0.5 inch of water differential. Other domestic meters include the AL-425, 5B-225, AL- 175, and also domestic tincase and welded meters.
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Document ID: E81A8372

Domestic Meters
Author(s): A. R. Christman
Abstract/Introduction:
At the homeowner level, where the consumed volumes of gas are relatively small and the pressures are low, positive displacement diaphragm-type meters are used to accurately measure gas volumes. For the purpose of this discussion, the topic will be restricted to those diaphragm meters having a capacity of less than 500 cfh of 0.6 specific gravity natural gas at a maximum differential of Vz inch water column between the inlet and outlet at capacity flow with a maximum of 4 ounces inlet pressure. As time permits, the following topics will be discussed:
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Document ID: A6F03726

Latest Proving Room Innovations
Author(s): Woodford A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The standards used in the gas industry for proving are the bell prover, the low pressure flow prover, and the critical flow prover. The bell prover, being the most commonly used, and its accessories are the subject for discussion. Before proceeding to the accessories, it will be worthwhile to review briefly the operation of the bell prover itself. Figure 1 shows a cutaway of a typical prover. The dry well conserves sealing fluid while supporting the pipe through which air flows in and out of the bell. The bell furnishes the standard volume, while the counter weight can be adjusted to provide the desired proving pressure. The function of the cycloid, which is attached to the prover wheel, is to compensate for the pressure loss that is experienced as the bell descends into the sealing liquid and is INVOLUTE BALANCE WHEELSCALE BELL DRY WELL buoyed up by the liquid. Methods of calibrating the bell provers are outlined in American Meter Company Handbook E-4, Displacement Gas Meters and booklet A-l on Provers.
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Document ID: 1FDAAF13

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Embb Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the Gas Company is, to a great extent, dependent on the accuracy of its meters. Meter testing is one of the most important functions of the gas meter shop. This accuracy and efficiency can be maintained by the use of the three tests we are going to cover,-The Tank Test-A Low Light Test-and An Accuracy Test. 1-KIND OF TESTS A-Tank Test This test is to determine an external leakage. On this test you should use from 2% pounds per square inch to 5 pounds per square inch pressure with the meter operating, as a leak in the case compartment will not show if the valve to that compartment is on the center of its seat.
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Document ID: F7959417

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
The rotary meter as applied to gas production, transmission and distribution is discussed herein. The principle of operation and construction features is described, along with guidelines for the proper application, maintenance and testing of rotary gas meters.
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Document ID: AA3C18DD

Domestic Meter Shop Operation And Testing Hardcase Meters
Author(s): W. L.
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of a domestic meter depends largely on the care with which the meter is installed and maintained. To give proper care to such a mechanical device, it is necessary to have the facilities and the dedicated men to operate a modern domestic meter shop. The increasing market value of gas as a fuel has demanded the extra attention necessary to up-date the meter shop with automatic equipment, air conditioning and other labor-saving devices. Since practically all gas companies have turned to fact-finding methods of operation, there is no longer any valid reason for even occasional distrust of gas meters on the part of the public. Any hindrances that still exist to intelligent appreciation and use of gas service are being rapidly overcome by the progressive policies of good-will and education which gas companies are carrying out today.
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Document ID: B16FEBCD

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Walter Kitson
Abstract/Introduction:
With the cost of gas at the wellhead increasing and the large volumes being measured to industrial customers, irrigation pumps, and city gate stations by large capacity displacement meters at high pressure, it is extremely important that the meter proof be maintained as near 100% as possible. If it is not so maintained, it will result in loss of revenue to the seller or in a dissatisfied customer. This paper will deal with field testing meters with a critical flow prover.
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Document ID: 0133BBD8

Field Testing Using A Low Pressure Prover
Author(s): R. A. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Predecessor class instructors and speakers have done well in covering the area of field testing a displacement meter using a low pressure prover. A perusal of past literature on this subject would serve to confirm that this type of prover came into existence and was accepted by the industry approximately twenty-five years ago. The low pressure prover is essentially a pipe tap or flange tap orifice meter which has been made adaptable as prover by the ingenious use of quick reference tables. These tables enable the use of elementary mathematics to make a comparative calculation of the rate of flow registered by the meter under test and the prover. Thus the proof of the meter can be readily established. The name low pressure prover implies the prover was used at pressures slightly above atmospheric pressure. However, today vacuum proving has generally been accepted in the industry because it tends to reduce the temperature gradient between the meter and prover. Reiterating, two types of low pressure provers have been introduced namely, the Metric Orifice Flow Prover (pipe taps) and the Flange Tap Orifice Flow Prover. Also, two associated methods of testing have been described, pressure proving and vacuum proving. Of course, the allotted class time does not allow in depth discussion of both types of provers and proving methods, however, the Metric type prover and pressure proving will be mentioned to show difference in prover construction and applicability, while vacuum proving a displacement meter with a Flange Tap Prover will be dealt with more extensively.
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Document ID: 977A0520

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing interest in the method of field testing large volume positive displacement gas meters has resulted in the development of two new rotary meter portable systems for both field and shop testing use. The systems which will be described will be those used by Peoples Natural Gas Division of Northern Natural Gas Company. This paper will outline the basic parts and concepts of use as recommended by the manufacturer and as used by Peoples Gas Division on both field and shop tests.
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Document ID: 2E0E3982

Large Capacity Displacement Meters And Auxiliary Devices
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity displacement meters have found increasing acceptance as a measurement tool. This acceptance is undoubtedly due to their ability to accurately measure a wide range of flow rates at elevated line pressures. Large capacity displacement meters operate on exactly the same principle as small meters however, there are many mechanical refinements included in their design to assure long life and accurate results under more severe operating conditions. The valve gear and timing mechanism of the large meter are more elaborate to decrease the angular movement of the various bearing surfaces and to allow more accurate valve timing. Points of heavy load in large displacement meters are equipped with high quality sealed ball bearings which require no lubrication. Large displacement meters are also arranged so that they can accept more sophisticated index equipment, thus allowing better accuracies in totalizing flows.
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Document ID: A88123F8

Domestic Gas Meters
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
Let us start, by first defining the nature of our subject. The term Domestic Meter is considered to signify a positive displacement type of measuring device having a capacity of 500 cubic feet per hour or less, when operated at a differential pressure across the meter of .5 or Vz water column.
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Document ID: E3C04EC4

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meters And Regulators
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the designing of the Combination Meter, our special aim has been simplicity of construction, combined with perfect functioning of the mechanism as a whole. One unit but performing two major requirements-accurate gas measurement and pressure control. The Combination Meter is of the same size and shape as our standard #175, #240 and #250 meters. The center front and back castings, index box, all gaskets, diaphragms and internal parts are identically the same in both types. The marked difference between the two types is that the Combination Meter has the regulator built in as an integral part of the meter top, thus combining the regulator and meter into one compact unit-a pressure regulator and a gas meter.
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Document ID: D925A97A

Fundamentals Of Turbine Type Meter Measurement
Author(s): J. W. Harriger
Abstract/Introduction:
The first Rockwell Series G Turbo Meter manufactured was the 6 size, in a 125# working pressure. Since this first meter went into production, we have designed and placed into production, several other types of meters. These newer production Turbo Meters are: A Series G 6 available in A.S.A. 300 and A.S.A. 600 flanges and 8 Series G Turbo Meter in a 125# working case and also an 8 Series G Turbo Meter with A.S.A. 300 and A.S.A. 600 flanges.
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Document ID: FBFE54E0

Densitometer Vs. Orifice Metering
Author(s): George J. Greene Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the desirability of mass flow measurement of natural gas. It is intended to be thought-provoking and, to many proponents of the standard cubic foot, it may seem down right argumentative. The author certainly does not have any quarrel with anyone who defends the conventional volume measurement, and he is the first to admit that the merits of our present techniques are responsible for the high plateau on which the state of the art now rests but at the same time it is advocated that we should not be satisfied with a status quo condition.
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Document ID: 525F6883

Meter Driven And Clock Driven P V & T Gauges
Author(s): Charles C. Bernitt
Abstract/Introduction:
When natural gas is measured by means of a large positive displacement meter, some means of recording the pressure and temperature as well as the registration of the index is necessary if we want to know the actual volume of gas that has passed the meter. Several classes are held in different short courses, as well as the Southwestern Short Course, to explain the basic gas laws. The facts can be narrowed down to this: If we know the volume of gas at one condition of temperature and pressure, we can determine the volume at any other condition of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 09AD5540

System Of Transfer Testing
Author(s): R. B. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Progress is often characterized by a change which does things better, faster and at lower costs. Transfer testing combines new equipment with an established concept to achieve progress in testing gas meters in the field and in the meter shop. The need for transfer testing has come out of the progress of the gas industry itself. Growth has brought interest in better methods of field testing meters, and improvements have been sought to shop testing of larger meters too. Transfer testing simply compares a field meter with the known accuracy of a reference or master meter. This paper describes the Roots rotary meter portable system and its use. Both shop and field test results are examined to illustrate the economic and performance values derived from transfer testing.
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Document ID: 7FAE0E25

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
Production, transportation and distribution of natural gas and liquids, where the rate of flow is large and can be easily measured by a flat plate orifice in an orifice meter section is commonly called a meter run. Simplicity is the outstanding feature of the flat plate orifice as a device for producing a pressure loss necessary for measurement.
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Document ID: 3231FEC9

Gas Balance For Production Systems
Author(s): J. L. Pottorf
Abstract/Introduction:
from several sources and connected to a main pipeline. The system gathers natural gas and/or natural gas liquids for delivery to some destination. That destination may be a: 1. pressure maintenance program 2. gas lift operation 3. direct sale to a pipeline company 4. delivery to a gas processing plant 5. combination of these and other dispositions This paper deals with the gas balance aspect of a production system. This aspect involves the gas processing pla
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Document ID: F7061A60

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Austin Hargrave
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a real pleasure to be with you at this school and to discuss the elements of gas purchase contracts. This Southwest Gas Measurement Short Course gives you the finest non-technical measurement information that is available anywhere. Your committee and this fine university are certainly to be congratulated for the quality of this course. When we are told that 80% of all of the engineers that the world has produced are now living and also, that we have acquired more knowledge during the last 15 years than we have acquired since the beginning of time, we can appreciate the complexity of our present living and the value of the important service that this short course is rendering.
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Document ID: 7B0A8BDC

Application Of Electronics Computers To The Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): T. F. Whalen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with a particular concept in the application of an electronic computer to the complex problem of processing gas measurement data. This concept is the utilization of the computer to the maximum extent possible in gas measurement data processing. This three-fold concept provides: 1. Elimination of the major portion of manual data control. 2. Reduction of data input to only additional or changed data items. 3. Elimination of manual determination of all factors involved in the calculation of gas measurement volumes. The immediate advantages of this concept are the simplification of procedures of gas measurement department personnel, the reduction of errors through reducing the primary error source (the human element), and the increased reliability of the output provided by the inherent accuracy of the computer.
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Document ID: A26DA779

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. A.ROBINSON
Abstract/Introduction:
The rupture-proof bellows-type orifice meter was conceived, patented and first produced over twenty-two years ago by the Barton Instrument Corporation. The contemporary bellows-type meter is the result of continuous refinements and improvements, based on field use and experience. The revolutionary idea of 1944 has become a standard of measurement in the gas industry. From gas production to distribution, the rupture-proof bellows-type orifice meter has won enthusiastic acceptance as the standard of accuracy and reliability.
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Document ID: 5DA1B06D

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
To achieve the accuracy and efficiency desired in an orifice meter set up, great care must be employed in design, proper fabrication, and maintenance of the entire installation. In order for the user of any equipment to provide proper maintenance, he would do well to familiarize himself with its design, fabrication and operating characteristics. This paper will attempt to discuss the factors relating to orifice fittings and meter tubes, to the extent that the user will be able to maintain an efficient measurement installation.
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Document ID: C3827B83

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): W. R. Henry
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3 on the Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, states that orifice fittings and meter tubes make up two parts of what is termed the primary element. The third part, of course, is the orifice plate. These three items are each important to measurement, and have specifications that they must be made in conformance with in order to achieve accurate and repeatable measurement. The tolerances and specifications outlined in Report No. 3, and in other handbooks, are there so that the published data may be used for measurement. If the meter tubes do not conform to them, then each primary element would have to have a specific coefficient calculated for it.
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Document ID: B4242AC4

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
When evaluating or selecting the components of an A.G.A. Qualifying Meter Tube individual attention is, of course, focused on the three basic components. That is, the orifice plate itself, the approach and discharge tubing and the plate holding device. The selection of the proper orifice plate is relatively simple as well as being easily procured. This is also true of the upstream and downstream piping, which can easily be selected to meet A.G.A. minimum requirements. The A.G.A. Committee Report number 3 readily spells out the minimum upstream and downstream lengths, as well as internal diameter tolerance.
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Document ID: 93672BBC

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Don Bitterly
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advancement of technology in all fields, there have also been advancements in the various devices used for gas Measurement. However far and unique in design and operation the new machines really are, there is anticipated a long period of time before the orifice type flow meter will be phased out and replaced. The economic situation involved in the present worldwide use of the orifice meter is a consideration. The relatively small expense of maintenance, their long life with acceptable measurement, and the large range of adaptability has made the orifice meter a mainstay in the gas industry. With this in mind, it is important that continued care be taken through maintenance and operation of the equipment now at hand. The final results-the flow charts represent a huge portion of the revenues involved in the Gas Industry.
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Document ID: F7450F77

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): R. E. 1
Abstract/Introduction:
This topic has been discussed many times before at this Measurement Short Course and at other seminars as well where many excellent papers have been presented. This paper will probably not add much if anything, new to the literature, nevertheless our discussion at this time may bring out a new or better way to handle an old problem. A show of hands on the first day indicated about 60% were here for the first time and there is perhaps about that same percentage in this room, however it would be a serious mistake to assume that those who are attending for the first time are novices in gas measurement at high pressure. To the contrary, after this paper is presented, the discussion period should be the best part of this session in which some of you can tell how you have dealt with your problems.
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Document ID: 5630737A

Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
This is the 42nd year the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course has met. And Orifice Meters have been one of the major subjects for discussion at each and every session. Its construction, operation, calibration, field problems and calculation procedures have all been given attention. Why all this interest? Because the Orifice Meter is the device that monitors the accounting or dollar exchange of a very valuable product. No other meter has proven to be so adaptable to the wide ranges of conditions found when measuring gas all the way from the well head to the consumer, from a few cubic feet per hour to millions of cubic feet per day and at pressures all the way from vacuum to 6,000 pounds per square inch (and in some industrial processes even up to 50,000 pounds and more).
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Document ID: 62162E39

Problems In Off Shore Gas Measurement
Author(s): George F. White, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Measurement always presents many problems whether onshore or offshore. Yet those found with offshore production and operations seem to become larger and to multiply at the same time. It would be impossible to cover all problems found offshore, however, there are some problems that will be found in all phases of gas measurement and operations whether in swampy marsh waters or in the depths of gulf or oceanic waters.
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Document ID: A5E4CC51

Utilization, Installation And Maintenance Of Bellows Type Flow Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows type differential pressure gauge has widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque makes the bellows gauge particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices. The gauge is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas systems.
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Document ID: 21829808

New Application Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of existing and, or, new equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve differential gauges, both Dri-Flo bellows and mercury type, pneumatic control with or without telemetering, pressure recorders, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators.
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Document ID: 9C3AE723

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers have been commercially available since the fall of 1958. The first installation was completed January 5, 1959. Automatic chart changers have successfully been installed in standard 2 pen orifice meters, temperature recorders, pressure recorders, recording controllers (both rectangular and circular cases), in panelboard mounted instruments, in process plants, for products pipelines, transmission pipelines, distribution systems, on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, on top of mountains in the Rockies, and in production fields all over the world including Pakistan.
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Document ID: FA2E93AE

Orifice And Other Flow Meter Comparison Tests
Author(s): Charles C. Tips
Abstract/Introduction:
The challenging aspects of our society, whether it is the industrial expansion, labor market, greater per capita consumption of energy or economic outlook, have placed a demand on the gas industry. To counterbalance this seemingly unbalanced demand is the force of technical progress. Never before has such technical progress been available for selection of ideas for adaptation into the field of measurement devices for the gas industry.
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Document ID: E8BB3A03

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repaira Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools. It is the purpose of this class to help the gas companies reduce the unit cost of repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been adequately covered in other classes, so this demonstration was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: 60243F4F

Basic Elements Of Field Proration
Author(s): Oran L. Haseltine
Abstract/Introduction:
Statutory gas prorationing begins with state power to prevent waste and protect correlative rights. The very nature of the gas business involves itself closely with the public- the public interest therefore must be respected. Functionally, gas prorationing keeps books on produced volumes and exerts strong guidance to align production with the principles of conservation, correlative rights and the public interest. To the extent necessary to honor these principles, the producer and pipeliner are required to lessen their right to control their own property. Gas prorationing works within a framework defined by the entire gas business. It is not immune from the effects of mineral ownership, Federal authority, and producer-purchaser requirements.
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Document ID: B41D4C88

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Q C X VHwPr where Q., is the quantity, H. is the differential, and Pf the static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, super-compressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3.)
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Document ID: 76B8B0D2


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