Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1966)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Ralph S. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas producing wells vary considerably in the amount of water contained in the gas stream. This variance is due primarily to the difference in strata structues from which the natural gas flows. (See Figure 1.) In most instances, there is sufficient water migration to warrant periodic testing of the gas stream to determine water vapor content. Natural gas has an inherent affinity for water and-or water vapors. Realizing the potential water content, most purchase gas and gas sales contracts contain sipulations as to maximum water cotent, stated in pounds H20 per MMCF.
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Document ID: 1C204D0B

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): O. W. Heyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is the simplest of instruments for measurement of pressure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard from which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated.
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Document ID: 1E19B64C

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas
Author(s): Kenneth E. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a continuing need for an accurate determination of the gasoline content of natural gas. The ever increasing importance of natural gas and its by-products demands continued improvement in equipment and increased skill in the determination of the liquid content of the gas. In considering this particular subject, several words must be defined to enable us to have a better understanding in a discussion of testing procedures. The word determination may be used for several purposes however, for our discussion to find the extent, position or character of something will bsst fit our need. Some specific thing must be discovered whose orbit and scope of effectiveness must be fixed. This thing that we will be seeking is the test gasoline content. In approaching this goal in an organized and systematic attempt to properly evaluate all factors involved, a testing code was developed. Definite procedures were formulated that enabled standardized approaches to the problem of gasoline content determination. Now that it has been discovered what is being sought, namely test gasoline content, let us consider what is the nature of this product. Furthermore, what is its end value and what part does it play in the numerous ramifications of the natural gasoline industry? To the man on the street, the word gasoline has primarily one meaning. It is a commodity he purchases for his car at a service station. There is, however, a consderable difference between the finished product dispensed at the pump and the liquid hydrocarbon mixture to which the term gasoline has been applied within the scope of this discussion. Not only is there a difference in components but the finished gasoline has a commercial value which is attributable to certain grade and specification. The term natural gasoline as used herein has no such rating and under all considerations will mean any mixture of hydrocarbon liquids which may be recovered from a given gas sample and retained as measured under specification of a testing apparatus and testing procedure specifically provided for. In other words, it is a quantity of condensate obtained through certain specified testing procedures that has no commercial value in itself.
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Document ID: A71A5DEF

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment-A Panel Discussion
Author(s): Harlan Giese, George C. Gabel, C. B. Keagy
Abstract/Introduction:
During the cold season of the year when gas measurement and flow are most critical, the measurement men may be plagued with the problem of hydrate formation in orifice meters, meter runs, piping and regulators. Hydrates are solid compounds formed by the union of water and hydrocarbon molecules under conditions of high pressure and low temperature. The accumulation of these solids restrict the flow of gas through regulators and meter runs and, also, give false indications of measurement by plugging lead lines to orifice meters and by changing the internal characteristics of the meter tube.
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Document ID: 2C89CD5D

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): m. R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy, available in large quantities and in a convenient usable form, has been the impetus for the material and economic development of civilized man. As an accumulated knowledge, he harnessed the natural sources of energy and then controlled them to do useful work. Heat, a transient form of energy, is a most useful energy source. The gas industry is one of the most important sources of energy-particularly heat energy. In-so-far as the industry itself is concerned economically, energy is another way of saving dollars. When buying and selling gas, it is actually trading energy and dollars. The measurement of this energy involves two quantities volume and heating value. The volume m the English system of units is expressed in cubic feet and the heating value in British Thermal Units per cubic foot.
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Document ID: CD0555F5

Methods Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): Marion D. Spoelstra
Abstract/Introduction:
The various tests that may be performed on gas wells have been adequately covered in some detail in previous short courses by qualified persons who are closely associated with such testing in their daily occupations. This paper will be concerned with the application of some of these tests in rating gas wells for the specialized purposes that arise in com-. pletion, marketing, and operation. The mechanics of the actual testing and the calculations involved in interpreting the data taken are generally well known and will be mentioned only where they are necessary to illustrate the subject under discussion. The common acceptance of the multiple-point back pressure test and the accompanying one-point stabilized flow test, often called a deliverability test, are due to their flexibility in application to a wide range of uses in solving problems inherent in the natural gas industry. In displacing older methods of testing they have not necessarily invalidated them, as they may be well suited for certain purposes and may be the most convenient, rapid, and economical means of obtaining desired information. It is essential that the valid uses and the limitations of a certain type of test be understood by the person taking the test and the person who applies the results.
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Document ID: A85F0818

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): W.R. King
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary object of measurement in underground storage is the verification of inventory. A secondary function is its use as a tool to evaluate individual well performances during injection and withdrawal. Regulation is used to control pressure during injection and volume during withdrawal. Aquifer storage reservoirs are pressure-sensitive, and injection pressures must be carefully controlled. Before getting into the details of measurement and regulation in underground storage, it might be instructive to discuss some of the generalities and to see how underground storage fits into the natural gas business. A broader background will help in understanding the unusual conditions that exist in an underground storage field. Natural gas has been stored by many different methods. These include low pressure above-ground gas holders, higher pressure storage in buried pipes, and liquified gas in refrigerated containers. These methods are all limited in their usefulness by their small volumes and high cost. The only economical method of storing large quantities of natural gas is underground storage. Underground storage is in the injection of natural gas under pressure into the pores of a reservoir rock during those periods of the year when the supply of gas available from the pipeline exceeds the market requirements and withdrawal of the gas when the market requirements exceed the supply available from the pipeline. In order to understand the need for underground storage, it is necessary to review some of the factors involved in the natural gas business. A long-distance pipeline is a major capital investment. To pay out, it must generate adequate revenues by carrying large volumes of gas
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Document ID: 6B738738

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): H. C. Earheart, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
One unsafe act can result in serious damage and injuries. It is essential that you include safe practices in your daily routine in order to ensure efficient performance. It is, therefore, necessary that safe practices be an integral part of all your activities. Unless recognized and applied, all your other training cannot result in efficient job completion. It is, of course, impossible to cover in this meeting all the safe practices that you should include in your job planning. It is your responsibility to include safety in your overall plans and during the progress of your work. Through the use of slides let us cover a few examples which I hope will stimulate your thinking and assist you in planning and performing safe efficient measurement activities. A few of the activities that most measurement personnel are involved in which we will cover are:
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Document ID: CC43CFAA

Field Sampling Of Gas
Author(s): John F. Schwarz
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a sample? A part of anything presented for inspection or shown as evidence of the quality of the whole. This definition implies that tests are to be perfrmed upon this sample after it is obtained. Therefore, catching a field sample is the first of a succession of steps to be enacted uponi its contents before final disposal. It follows then that the accuracy of the subsequent tests can be only as good as the sample itself. This is the reason so much importance is attached to methods and techniques involved in obtaining good samples. Gas sampling is a convenient way of subjecting to testing and, analysis, a very small portion of the total stream which is hopefully representative of that total stream between test periods. Whenever a gas sample is obtained, it represents something of value.
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Document ID: DF165DB8

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): T. Z. Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been many words written concerning the design of purchase, town border and sales measuring and regulating stations during the past twenty years. There have also been many different types of stations designed and built by various companies for the measurement and regulation of natural gas during that time. Many of these same stations were obsolete within a short span of time due to:
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Document ID: 1C0DE151

Determination And Application Of Supercompressibiuty Factors
Author(s): Robert L. Robinson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The density of any pure gas or mixture of gases varies with pressure and temperature. A knowledge of the relation among the density, pressure, and temperature of a gas is required in the solution of many problems involving the storage or flow of gases. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the methods for determining the behavior of gases and to review the theory behind the methods.
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Document ID: FB64BF55

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): John Askins
Abstract/Introduction:
Today you and your children are influenced by processes that were unheard of twenty years ago-color television, jet planes, freezers, and space ventures. Did you know that twenty years ago over 80% of todays jobs were non-existent? Technology has advanced at such a rapid speed when compared to the Industrial Revolution that it would be like comparing the T Model Ford to the jet planes of today. Now you can span the USA in a matter of hours. This is progress! Time is of great importance, manhours saved may mean the difference between whether a company makes a profit or folds its doors because of a loss
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Document ID: C3E15BC5

The Sampling Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Author(s): R. L. Huntington
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the determination of the composition of a liquid or gas consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbon is generally thought of in terms of the laboratory analyst. The importance of the analytical laboratory is not to be minimized however, it is a total loss of time to carry out careful work in the laboratory unless one can be certain that the proper sampling is made of the stream or batch of material under investigation. In other words the analytical results are of no value to the engineer unless they represent the average composition over a definite period of time in the case of continuous process or a portion of a truly homogenous mixture in the analysis of a large batch of stored liquid hydrocarbon. A number of the major companies are making an effort to improve upon sampling practices either by sending out mobile laboratories into outlying districts or by having the technical man go to the field to obtain the samples. In the absence of the engineer in the field, a set of clear-cut written instructions may serve fairly well as a means of ensuring proper sampling.
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Document ID: 76B1DA2E

Gas Cleaning
Author(s): Laurance S. Re Id
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas cleaning is one of the oldest processes that condition natural gas for market. Also, it is the most neglected and ignored of the gas conditioning processes, but not without cause. No management group will admit to selling dirty gas. Like the itch, no one admits the affliction and to even discuss the possibility is to be indelicate! It has seemed reasonble to assume that if dirt cannot be seen, then it does not exist- a comforting assumption which, unfortunately, is untrue. Every operating gas company has pipeline dirt problems and these vary only in the degree of severity. Usually, they are called by other, more palatable names such as low transmission efficiency, scored cylinders, oil-poisoned adsorbent, excessive lube oil consumption, poor measurement, entrainment losses, et cetera. Since the early days of the industry, gas scrubbers have been used for the intended purpose of removing extraneous material from gas. The term scrubber derives from the early belief that gas needed to be washed with oil to be clean. Scrubbers have been built in a variety of forms and their performance has ranged from poor to acceptable. In an effort to distinguish between these and the more recent devices that are truly capable of fine separations, the latter are called gas cleaners.
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Document ID: 6174C8F0

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement has for its purpose the determination of gas quantities as accurately as is possible from existing and available engineering and scientific research data. These gas quantities are usually desired in the unit of cubic feet at some specific values of pressure and temperature. The most authoritative data available is the pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) data given in thermodynamic tables of pure substances, experimentally determined. These PVT data are available to the engineer for pure substances such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, water (steam) refrigerants and many others. These tabular data give, besides the properties of pressure, volume and temperature, values of the enthalpy and entropy properties not usually needed in gas measurement calculations.
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Document ID: 55146EFE

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas In Distribution Systems
Author(s): Cleo V. Cearley
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays competitive markets force every organization desiring to stay in business to inspect all facets of its operations from the standpoint of economy and customer goodwill. Unaccounted for gas losses are an economic loss and leakage can range from a nuisance to a serious hazard resulting in litigation and poor customer relations. Gas delivered or going into a distribution system is measured at the city border station and is again measured upon delivery to the customer. The difference in these two measurements is reflected by the leakage and unaccounted for gas report. The gas measurement manual of the American Gas Association defines unaccounted for gas as The difference between the amount of gas made and-or bought by a distribution system and the amount of gas sold, used in the system and known to be lost. This would not imply that the difference in the city border measurement and the plant measurement that is the amount of gas lost, would present a precise leakage picture for the system being analyzed, though this should be the aim. There are numerous ways of reporting leakage and unaccounted for gas. One of the more common is a year ending figure with losses and-or gains being expressed in M c.f. per mile of three inch equivalent. The three inch equivalent allows comparison of one system with another. While the year ending figure is not a completely correct analysis of leakage, it does give a truer picture than can be gained from monthly figures. Generally the year ending figure for the months of July and August, when consumption is at a minimum, are the best indicators of system leakage.
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Document ID: C81E1C97

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Wesley m. Owen
Abstract/Introduction:
With the higher prices being paid today for the purchase of natural gas, labor, equipment and miscellaneous items related to the gathering, transmission and marketing, it behooves each and everyone of us working in the Natural Gas Industry to be cognizant of the need to explore better and more economical means of getting our product to market. It is imperative that all natural gas, not only at the ultimate market but at the gathering end of the transmission system to be measured as accurately as possible. Men in gas measurement are often accused of refusing to acknowledge progress in their field, and clinging to time honored methods and techniques. I do not believe this to be true. Each year sees new types of measurement and regulating equipment being put on the market. A good portion of this equipment has been developed by measurement personnel like yourselves or by the companies that you represent.
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Document ID: C289A1A0

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of wet gas presents a real challenge to measurement personnel. Wet gas may be defined as gas containing fluids such as liquified petroleum gases andor water. Wet gases are sometimes produced as a by product of crude oil. In other instances, it is produced from a gas well with condensate as a by-product. In both cases, water is usually present with the gas stream. The chance of hydrate formation is excellent with this type of production. This discussion will be limited to measurement by orifice meter. All standards set forth in the A.G.A. Report 3 should be observed. Although the same fundamental principles apply to all gas measurement, wet gas does present special problems because of its composition. Each wet gas well has a character of its own and may require a different approach to solve the measurement problems. The operation of the producers equipment affects the measurement as much as any single factor. Improperly adjusted or maintained equipment can create charts that are difficult to interpret and can result in very inaccurate measurement.
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Document ID: 2FD03305

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): James W. Wood
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific gravity of gas is a property which must be known to calculate gas volumes metered through orifice type meters. The term specific gravity does not mean the same thing as density. The specific gravity of a gas is an abstract number and the density of a substance is a concrete number. By definition, the specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of the gas at a definite temperature and pressure to the weight of an equal volume of air (dry and carbon dioxide free) at the same temperature. Specific gravity can also be defined as the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air when both densities are obtained at the same conditions of pressure and temperature. While density varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, specific gravity is a constant value, when using dry, carbon dioxide free air at unity as the standard. The specific gravities of some common gases which may be components in natural gas are given in the following table:
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Document ID: 9FC53318

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: C3FBBE5E

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion of any substance and, if all other conditions are equal, it is proportional to density. This principle is the basis of an instrument which was developed about 43 years ago for automatically measuring the specific gravity of gases. It is the object of this class to explain the theory, review operating techniques and to describe testing, servicing and calibration.
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Document ID: E12295E8

Fundamentals Of Electronics As Applied To Measurement
Author(s): F. J. Kern
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of electronics is an ever expanding one which is generally conceded to have started with the invention of the vacuum triode although it could have as easily been brought about by the invention of the light bulb. In general, electronics has to do with the art of development of hardware which makes use of electron devices. The most commonly known of these devices are vacuum tubes and transistors. In order to understand the present state-of-the-art capabilities in this field one must first know something of the lehavior of electron devices themselves. Proper grasp behavior requires a vocabulary of basic electrical quantities and terms.
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Document ID: BC833AE1

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
Continuous recording electyolytic Titrators have been known and used in the gas industry for many years. The Titrilog which was the first commercial instrument of this type was described by the author in a production conference meeting in New York in 1949. The requirements for reliable free measurement of the concentration of sulfur compounds in natural gas streams have now been well identified. It is the purpose of this paper to describe a new recording electrolytic Titrator and to discuss its application to the more important sulfur measurements to be made in natural gas streams.
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Document ID: 100BF82A

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): T. L. Hillburn
Abstract/Introduction:
This is the first time that this particular subject has been presented at the Gas Measurement Short Course. I personally find the inclusion welcome and believe that this is further indication of the move toward unification in fluid measurement. The flow of liquid or gas, through an orifice meter station for example, represents the same basic phenomena and obey the same physical laws. The differences which we see in the methods of volume calculations are due only to the difference in relative effects of the variables.
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Document ID: 24E34BB8

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Meter Man
Author(s): T. F. Mcentire
Abstract/Introduction:
The principal need for us in the measurement business is to maintain accurate measurement and supply the correct figures or volumes to those who need them, and to get the information there when needed. The fieldmen take care of the first part, and the office takes care of the second part but, in the over-all picture, neither would be any good without the other. So there must be a close tie between the two to function properly. The effectiveness of this tie depends on three important points-communication, cooperation and coordination. The office cannot calculate the correct volumes without the correct information and the field cannot operate withont considerable information from the office. Therefore, we need to work as a team. Here is where we sometimes fail in realizing what the other fellow might need, or the importance of information and the timely receipt of it.
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Document ID: B8A5AD30

Specific Gravity Instruments-Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition-The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: DADDAE12

Continuous Moisture Analysis In Natural Gas Pipelines
Author(s): E. J. Grace
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of moisture is the most critical determination of all the parameters that are monitored in the production, transportation and distribution of natural gas.
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Document ID: 584EB0A7

Use Of Infra-Red Tracer Techniques In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tony D. Watkin
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement by means of velocity tracer involves timing the passage of an injected tracer material between two points which are a known distance apart. Flow rate is then equal to the product of the velocity found by this means and the pipe area. The idea of measuring flow rates by this method originated about 1921 when Allen and Taylor conducted tests to determine the feasibility of measuring high volume water flows by the salt velocity principle. The increase in conductivity caused by introducing a charge of salt into the flow was detected by one or more pairs of electrodes located at points H .mmnmiiiiinw inwwiwiinuipi mv wmmmmmmm:im nasi downstream. Tests run both in the laboratory and in the field yielded accuracies of the order of 0.5 percent with good repeatability.
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Document ID: 061B5D56

Design Of Positive Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): D. D. Fritch
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the beginning of the Gas Industry there has always been controversy with regard to regulating and measuring gas flow from the distribution system to the consumers equipment. With this paper I wish to familiarize you with some points to be considered, various remedies, advanced ideas proposed, and some of the new equipment developed to alleviate problems in customer station design.
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Document ID: B2FD0F02

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Carl B. Mercer
Abstract/Introduction:
Perhaps one of the less glamorous subjects in the field of Gas Measurement is that of schedules and tolerances. It is noteworthy that this subject has received a limited amount of attention in Short Courses to date however, I am sure all of you will agree that the establishment of and adherence to test schedules and tolerances is a responsibility which is of primary importance to the measurement man in his MINIMUM SCHEDULE REQUIREMENTS FOR constant endeavor to maintain the highest degree of accuracy economically possible.
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Document ID: 30EFC89E

Regulators, Controllers & Related Equipment - Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
The foremost property of a regulator is stability. By this is meant that under any recommendation of the manufacturer the regultaor should deliver published performance data with a smooth uninterrupted flow. Flow or capacity is generally the black and white comparison between regulators of different manufacture and design. This is only one of the many aspects that should be considered. Capacity readings are limited to a droop of 1 in. water column, or a rise or compound of 2 in. water column, from 7 in. water column set pressure at 60 scfh set flow. When other outlet pressures are used, the compound should not exceed 20% and the droop should not exceed 10% of the set pressure. The set flow is generally shown in the published capacity table. This is a point for consideration when comparing regulators, as the higher the set pressure the greater the capacity.
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Document ID: 5C93D51F

New Concepts In Industrial Regulators
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
The newly designed Industrial Series 1800 regulator incorporates a pinion-lever mechanism between the valve plunger and diaphragm stem with positive engagement to hold a constant ratio power between the valve orifice and diaphragm, resulting in no lost motion and quick response. The valve, seat disc holder, and diaphragm section are easily removed by loosening the cast iron valve head and body by the use of a Buna-N O ring. There are two seat disc holder available one designed for low inlet pressures, with a built-in booster effect, and one for smaller valves for higher inlet pressures. The industrial Series 1800 was designed to conform to the A.G.A.-G.A.M.A. X-50865 regulator specifications. The two new concepts for additional safety available with the industrial Series 1800 regulator are the overpressure shutoff and the underpressure shutoff. The Overpressure Shutoff feature provides positive shutoff in the event of an increase of pressure to a specified predetermined setting. The assembly is part of the regulator valve head, but in no way connected to the regulator operating mechanism. The overpressure shutoff unit must be reset manually. This safety feature is available for domestic regulators and on industrial regulators to provide safety from excessive high pressure entering a house service, schools, public buildings, or industrial establishments.
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Document ID: B695BFC5

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): G. R. Ytzen
Abstract/Introduction:
The consideration of a ball valve for throttling control must involve an analysis of features of construction, dynamic forces, flow characteristics and limitations of application. In considering the basic construction features of ball valves in general we finl the ball or plug supported in one of two ways: (1) rigidly by the use of bearings on each end of a shaft attached to the ball or (2) cradled between the sealing members with some allowance for a small amount of movement.
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Document ID: 360205E1

Measurement By Orifice - Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
gas flows one would investigate all types of meters available. Without much question the type which from the standpoint of first cost, ease of maintenance, overall accuracy, ease of range changes, compatibility with present and future equipment would be selected. On nearly every count the orifice meter is found a good choice for large volume gas flow measurement. It is easily reproduced and duplicated, it is relatively inexpensive, it has acquired long-term confidence in its use, has good accuracy, and can be manufactured and installed without an individual flow calibration. Furthermore, the measurement signals can be used with conventional instruments as inputs to supervisory and long distance transmitting systems to flow computers, both analog and digital.
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Document ID: CC634024

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many types of regulators that could be classed large capacity. These various designs incorporate a valve or throttling mechanism with a suitable control mechanism. The most common design is the double ported balanced valve. The funamental principles of regulation have been the subject of many excellent papers, however, a brief review will assist in developing the systems to be discussed later. Gas regulators consist of three basic elements a throttling device, measuring element, and a loading element. The throttling device is a variable restriction which, by its position, restricts flow. The measuring element measures the parameter which is required to be maintained and the loading element provides the power to properly position the valve. Many times the measuring element and loading element are one and the same. Pressure control is the reduction of high pressure inlet gas to some desired lower pressure. This is accomplished by restricting flow into the downstream system to the same value as the flow out of the downstream. If too much gas is passed the pressure would rise, and if too little, the pressure would fall. The amount of gas passing a restriction is a function of the differential pressure across the restriction, therefore, the greater the differential across the valve the greater the flow for a given valve position. This characteristic holds true until the gas velocity reaches the speed of sound and then a greater differential does not produce increased flow. Sonic flow occurs when the outlet pressure (absolute) is approximately half the valve of the inlet pressure. This throttling device may be one of any number of designs, the principles are still the same. The control means is limited on many regulator designs, however, the balanced valve regulator provides the greatest variation and some form can be found in all other designs. Mechanical variations are many but each control accomplishes the same function if reduced to its fundamentals.
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Document ID: 6E15B8ED

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Forest H. Wehrman
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube type valve is unique in design. The main valve is composed of four component parts. The body and closure contain the core and tube. The tube is the equivalent of the operating diaphragm and inner valve in conventional regulators. The core supports the rubber tube and directs the flow.
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Document ID: 4D82F148

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): C. D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
A tremendous growth has been experienced by all major gas transmission companies along with growth in production, transmission and sales, and the cost of wellhead gas has steadily increased. As a result of these factors, the British Thermal Unit or heating value has been incorporated with volume measurement and is practically a standard in all market transactions. As you may readily see, there has been a continual growing demand for many gas companies for apparatus capable of recording an accurate B.T.U. volume. There are at present, two general recognized methods for determing the B.T.U. per cubic foot of natural gas. The first and oldest method is by a manually operated water-flow calorimeter, commonly known as the Junkers, and the other is by the Thomas Recording Gas Calorimeter, manufactured by Cutler-Hammer, Inc. The latter instrument has been carefully engineered and has received wide-spread acceptance in the gas industry for accuracy. The accuracy of the recording calorimeter depends largely on the installation, testing and maintenance of the instrument, and will be discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: 133891B8

Principles And Application Of Automatic Control
Author(s): L. K. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
To some people the term automatic control suggests computer automation. To others, automatic control is as simple as the thermostat on babys bottle warmer or the timer on an oven. Modern toasters, washing machines, dishwashers and clothes dryers all use some form of automatic control. Many of these everyday examples of automatic control are classified as open loop devices that is, there is no feedback of information from the process to modify the control cycle. If the clothes in the automatic dryer are not dry, the dryer has not necessarily malfunctioned. What is required is feedback from the housewife in the form of an adjustment of the timing cycle. This closes the control loop and makes what is known as closed loop control. This same control could be accomplished if a device were available to sense the dryness of the clothes and adjust the timing cycle accordingly. Closed loop control is encountered more frequently in industrial process work than it is in the home. Automatic control may be defined as a technique for balancing the supply against the demand, over a period of time, in order to maintain the process at some predetermined level of operation. To maintain this balance, it is necessary to measure system outflow and use this information as feedback to regulate system input. This feedback may be external as in the case of the everyday open loop control or internal to the control loop as in many industrial applications.
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Document ID: 5651749B

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): G. G. Kirchoff
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION Approaches to District Regulator and Load Distribution vary as to the plant location, terrain, type of city, type of customer, load factor, operating people, and management personnel as well as other factors. The primary forces determining its makeup in a private capital gas company are customer satisfaction and economics. Distribution Regulators and Load Distribution can also be described as the art of getting gas to the right place, at the right time, in the right volume, and at the right pressure while giving a reasonable return on necessary investment. As hard as we might try to or as much as we might want to, we cannot separate economics from the design and operation of a distribution plant. It has been said that there is no such thing as a properly designed plant. This could be true because what is right today will probably be inadequate in some facet next year, and a system best for one type load may be undesirable or inadequate for another. In any distribution plant we must establish the type of main system to be used pressures at which to operate supply and distribution mains the type, size and location of regulating facilities equipment to be used to prevent over pressure as well as what records and maintenance activities will be required. Without attempting to go into specific detail on any of these facets, we will discuss each.
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Document ID: B7B7177C

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): J. E. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure, as related to long distance transmission pipe lines, may not have a universal definition but in general, 500 to 1000 p.s.i.g. can be considered normal in the operation of natural gas transmission lines. Many pipelines built in the past fifteen years are designed for 1000 p.s.i.g. or more and operate at or near their capacity. In order to deliver gas to a user, pressures usually need reduction to meet the requirements of the end use. Deliveries vary widely, both in operating pressure and volume demands. Pressure may be required at only a very few pounds or at very nearly the transmission line pressure. Volumes may vary from only that required to supply a pneumatic controller or an individual farm tap customer to deliveries of several million cubic feet per hour. The large volumes would be to an industrial customer or an inter-pipe line delivery. The rate demand may be fairly constant or as erratic as onoff. Control may be required with little or no pressure variation from the set point, or a fairly wide swing in pressure may be permissable. The needs of the industry have been recognized by the manufacturers through the years of progress and development. Today it is possible to obtain regulating devices that will satisfactorily meet most any requirement. A good knowledge of the many makes and types available is a necessity to good pipe line engineering. A good understanding of each regulating problem is necessary to make a proper choice and meet specifications.
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Document ID: EAAF76C3

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): C. K. Wissel
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote supervisory control with telemetering can be accomplished by the use of either a relatively simple installation containing a minimum of instrumentation, or an all inclusive set-up with many and varied devices. Most of the comments contained in this paper will be cocerned1 with an installation in which a particular choice is made of selecting controllable pressure points within a distribution system so that a minimum of locations and a maximum of operating experience can give an overall integrated view of the utilization of the system. The degree of accuracy with which a supervisor can scan the information and inerpret the overall picture presented by telemetering depends on three basic ingredients making up what is now known as remote supervisory control. These ingredients are the units in the field, the units in the dispatchers office, and the connecting means between field and office units to provide the continuity of service necessary for remote operation. A great variety of equipment of all kinds is available to give superb remote control, and the supervisor often has a difficult task to select the equipment best suited for the job. The field units may consist of flow rate changing devices or regulators, telemetric transmitters for measuring any variable, and controllers. The office units will be recording or indicating types to show when any desired or undesired change has been made in the utilization of the distribution system by the remote control circuitry or by some extraneous source. The connecting means generally is through at least a partly solid wire circuit (leased or owned) or a radio type transmission between field and office units.
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Document ID: 9B2B433D

Instruments For Automation
Author(s): W. A. Rock
Abstract/Introduction:
The application of instruments and controls, particularly in natural gas or high ratio oil fields, depends on many factors. What equipment already exists in the field? What utilities are available? How is communication to be achieved? What measurement and alarm signals are to be transmitted? It would be virtually impossible to discuss every factor involved in every application, but the important points can be covered in outline form (see the Appendix) to serve as a guide to any instrumentation project. Studying a project check list in light of the requirements of planned or existing equipment will provide the information needed for analysis. It will also govern the subsequent choice of instruments for the gas measurement control and alarm system.
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Document ID: 0DE56FF1

Densitometer Vs. Orifice Metering
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of this paper implies a comparison of mass measurement vs. volume measurement, which is essentially correct, but there is more to it than just that. The true mass meter, (If one may employ such a term) is a device which imparts an acceleration to the fluid at right angles to its normal direction of flow. This action causes a change in the momentum of the fluid which in turn causes a reactive force. If the reactive force is measured, then the mass of the fluid may be determined directly. While such a mass meter has been used successfully in natural gas measurement, it is felt by some to be too difficult to field-calibrate. Its use has been quite limited and confined predominately to the chemical industries where fluids are often measured (near to their critical point) and where the deviation from the gas laws is extreme and variable.
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Document ID: 1CC9E750

Trouble Shooting In Metameter-Telemetering Systems
Author(s): E. P. Bousquet
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to discuss trouble-shooting in Telemetering Systems, lets first define the word Telemetering. Telemetering is the art of measuring at a distance. A simple form of telemetering, which we all have available to us, is a gasoline gauge in our automobile. The level of our gasoline is made to actuate a slider on a variable resistor which, when combined with the automobile battery, varies the voltage to a simple voltmeter calibrated in gasoline capacity. Other types of telemetering that may take place in an automobile are the transmission of oil pressure and engine speed. We are, in the preceeding examples, measuring at a distance even though the distances involved are short. The type of Telemetering Systems we are concerned with here is known as Impulse-Duration or Pulse-Width type.
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Document ID: 80657D04

Telemetering-Advanced Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): B. C. Joyce
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, the Gas Industry has seen a tremendous expansion in the use of Telemetering and Data-Handling Equipment. This has been brought on primarily by the expansion of the natural gas system itself and the need for centralized dispatch of these expanded systems. Initially, some of our most complex systems started off with one or two measurements, which were telemetered back to a local dispatch point. Based on the success of these earlier systems, increased telemetering and remote control equipment were utilized and subsequently the need to centralize these local dispatch points became apparent. In the earlier days, due to the technical limitations, most of the equipment involved was of the electro- mechanical, analog type but as new techniques were developed in the use of electronic equipment the trend has been towards electronic designs of the digital type which utilize pulse techniques. However, this does not mean that the analog techniques have been abandoned in favor of digital techniques, but instead the change seems to have been one from electro-mechanical to electronic that is, there are many features which would recommend them for use in the Gas Industry. Briefly, the advantages of both the analog and digital systems which may be ascribed to them are as follows.
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Document ID: 89DEB14D

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sizing, or selection, of the service regulator determines the accuracy of the outlet pressure control, and the flow rate delivered to the meter. The regulator selected should deliver the desired capacity within a selected band of outlet pressure with the maximum and minimum inlet pressure encountered in service. Consideration should be given to future pressure conditions, safety, and installation practice.
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Document ID: D17593F8

Measurement By Displacement - Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London about 1808. mmmaBmmmmBmmamm 13 In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the
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Document ID: C059A20F

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): William S. Christian
Abstract/Introduction:
The rupture-proof bellows-type orifice meter was conceived, patented and first produced over nineteen years ago by our company. The contemporary bellows-type meter is the result of continuous refinements and improvements, based on field use and experience. In the last few years, several makes of bellows type meters have been introduced to the market, and they are essentially the same in principle, but the details of their design, construction and operation are significantly different.
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Document ID: 62941F8E

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters can be defined as positive displacement meters having a capacity of 500 cubic feet per hour or less, operating at a differential pressure of Vz water column. These meters are generally classified by capacity and case material. Case materials used are tin plated steel, cast iron, and aluminum. In the Southwestern area in particular, and more and more throughout the United States, aluminumcase meters are becoming more popular. For this reason, and) the fact that the working principles are similar, this paper will be confined to a discussion of aluminum case meters. Domestic aluminumcase meters are manufactured in sizes AL-175, 5B-225, AL-250 and AL-425. The numerical portions of these designations denote the capacity in cubic feet per hour of 0.64 gravity gas while absorbing an average of xk water column pressure. The basic design for these meters was conceived by Glover in England in the early 1800s, and modern day domestic me- Figure 1. Modern 175 CFH Aluminumcase Domestic Meter. ters are essentially of this design, with liberal use of modern materials and production techniques. Most positive meters are of a type described as having 2 diaphragms, 4 compartments, and using D slide valves.
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Document ID: 847D1A8B

Domestic Meters
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas meter provides a means of distributing the cost of gas among users on a fair and equitable basis. To do this, the meter must have a sustained accuracy over a long period of time. In the case of Domestic Meters, it must have the ability to measure the smallest loads such as, pilot lights, which use gas continually, as well as the maximum load which is required intermittently to provide gas for heating the home, cooking, heating water, etc. Positive displacement meters have been used for many years to meet these demands. At the present time, Positive Displacement Meters having either three or four chambers are being used. Our domestic meters are of the four-chamber design. (See Figure 1). Figure 1. The flexible members that define the four chambers are two roll-type diaphragms. The material for the diaphragm is a neoprene-thiokol rubber coated fabric that is resistant to the milder oils. For severe operating conditions, a special material is available. The neoprene diaphragms are also satisfactory for use at extremely low temperatures. This means that a temperature compensating meter uses the same diaphragm as the standard meter therefore, a special inventory of temperature compensated diaphragms is not necessary. The diaphragm is truly the heart of the positive displacement meter. First of all, the motivating force to rotate the meter comes directly from the difference in pressure across the diaphragm. Secondly, the measured volume of gas per revolution of the meter is defined by the diaphragm. All the other meter parts are auxiliary units to aid in its work.
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Document ID: B0C52043

Latest Proving Room Innovations
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing automatic prover controls, it might be wise to review some of the basic concepts used to determine meter proof. We have all heard the terms percent proof, percent registration, percent accuracy, percent error, percent deviation, percent totalization, percent rate and correction factor. All of these terms can be used for expressing the accuracy of a gas meter, and in all cases the accuracy is determined by comparing a known volume of gas with the meter reading. For example, the term percent accuracy can be defined as:
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Document ID: 92F51545

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Emil Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the gas company is to a great extent dependent on the accuracy of its meters. Meter testing is one of the more important functions of the gas meter shop. This accuracy and efficiency can be maintained by the use of the three tests we are going to cover. -The Tank Test-A Low Light Test-and An Accuracy Test.
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Document ID: DC0FC435

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): R. B. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the basic principles of gas measurement with rotary meters and discusses selection, calibration, and testing methods. Significant rotary meter applications in gas production and distribution are noted. Current information on maintenance and meter construction features is presented along with meter accuracy data from recent tests.
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Document ID: EDD99B81

Domestic Meter Shop Operation And Test Frequency
Author(s): W. B. Richardson, III
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of repairing domestic size gas meters varies widely from company to company. Area of operation, general condition of meters, company policy, and regulatory commission requirements are some of the factors that determine a maintenance program. How often should a meter be removed from service? How much should be spent on repairs? How many meter shops are needed and where should they be located? What type of records should be kept and how detailed should they be? This discussion will cover the methods used by one company in solving these problems.
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Document ID: 16835F81

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): K. A. Hoch, E. W. Hainline, J. H. Rippy
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the advent of large capacity and high pressure displacement meters, various methods of field testing have been developed and possibly more will be developed:. One of the major reasons for testing in the field, instead of in the shop, is the need to test at operating conditions rather than under controlled conditions. Some of the reasons for testing at operating conditions are the effect of:
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Document ID: C2CA28B3

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): C. L. Woody, P. E. Opp, George W. Wells
Abstract/Introduction:
A few years ago, we were faced with the problem in the Meter Shop of all young qualified Meter Repairmen requesting transfer to other sections of the Company. Investigation indicated that the Meter Repairmen were not dissatisfied with work or working conditions, but believed that opportunity for advancement was better in the customer service organization, That is, Meter Repairmen were willing to take a substantial cut in pay in order to transfer to this activity.
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Document ID: 56E92DDA

Large Capacity Displacement Meters And Auxiliary Devices
Author(s): James K. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity displacement meters are those used in the measurement of gas to the industrial or commercial customer. The lower capacity limit for the industrial meter has been somewhat arbitrarily established, but generally any meter having a V2 capacity of 500 CFH or larger falls in the large capacity meter category. These meters are used extensively for measuring gas at a vacuum or at various working pressures up to 350 p.s.i.g. These meters are capable of extremely accurate measurement over wide flow ratios and relatively little maintenance is required when the meters are properly applied and maintained.
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Document ID: 6147B36D

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Louis A. Mcgowan
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several types of gas meters which can be classified as domestic. However, to simplify this review of the theory and testing of the Domestic Gas Meter, we will confine ourselves to that variety called the Glovers type of meter. This meter was developed around 1850 by Thomas Glover, and in the 110 years since its invention, it is the kind which has been installed in the vast majority of private homes and apartments. The gas meter has long been called the cash register of the gas industry. Its function is to determine how much gas the consumer has used so that he may be properly billed for the correct amount. There are very few mechanisms that are called upon to maintain their accuracy for as long a period of time a9 the modern gas meter, particularly in view of its low initial cost. It may be installed outside or inside and in atmospheres which are hot or cold, dry or damp. It may be accidentally struck by the ladders of construction men or the hammers of do-it-yourself homeowners. And it may be deliberately shot at by sharp-eyed youngsters with BB guns. Yet, it is expected to go on year after year, with little or no maintenance, doing its job of being the only means the gas utility has of profitably and equitably converting its gas into money.
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Document ID: B68CE420

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meter And Regulator
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
The Combination Meter was designed in 1938, offering the gas industry a single device capable of performing the two major requirements, accurate gas measurement and pressure control. Since the inception of the combination meter, constant research has been carried on to provide continued improvement, keeping with the ever increasing demand for optimum performance, simplicity of detail and ease of installation.
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Document ID: 418B5F23

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meter Measurement
Author(s): John W. Harriger
Abstract/Introduction:
Features of a Rockwell Turbo Meter are desirable for measurement in the gas industry. If you analyze the various measurement requirements and specifications that are set forth, you can readily see where the Turbo Meter is very applicable. In this day of increased construction cost- the gas consumer is not interested in building an extremely large area to house gas measurement equipment. The Turbo Meter is small and compact, mainly because it operates at much higher revolutions per minute than our old stand-by measurement devices. The basic design of the Turbo also results in very good rangeability on the meter. At low pressure the range of the 6 meter is 13 to 1. For the low pressure 8 Turbo Meter the rangeability of the low pressure is 20 to 1. When you increase the pressure, the rangeability automatically increases. When operating the 125 lb., the rangeability of the 6 Turbo Meter is 40 to 1, and the rangeability for the 8 Turbo Meter increases to 62 to 1. The basic principle of the meter also results in a very low maintenance cost. These are only a few of the reasons that we feel that the Turbo type measurement principle is going to find a great deal of use in the gas industry. Because of its relative youth, we shall discuss its basic principle of operation, as well as its construction and other items of interest.
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Document ID: 3EDF528C

Meter Driven And Clock Driven Pvt And T Gauges
Author(s): Charles C. Bernitt
Abstract/Introduction:
When natural gas is measured by means of a large positive displacement meter, some means of recording the pressure and temperature as well as the registration of the index is necessary if we want to know the actual volume of gas that has passed the meter. Several classes are held in different short courses as well as the Southwestern Short Course to explain the basic gas laws. The facts can be narrowed down to this: if we know the volume of gas at one condition of temperature and pressure, we can determine the volume at any other condition of temperature and pressure. A practical method of recording the changing conditions of the gas as it passes through a meter is by means of a pressure, volume, temperature and time recorder. Two different methods are used to record this information. One method is by using clock driven charts and the other is by means of a meter driven chart. When such an instrument is used to record volume, pressure, temperature, and time it is called a PVTT Recorder. Other names, such as V and P Recorder, etc. are also used depending on whether it contains a temperature system or not. Many old-timsrs simply refer to it as a gauge.
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Document ID: 88FBA0B1

Repair And Maintenance Of Hard Case Positive Meters
Author(s): J. W. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Every modern industry must have an accurate method of determining sales revenue for services rendered or products distributed. In the gas distribution system this accounting is done primarily with positive displacement meters with particular emphasis on domestic or residential meters. From a theoretical view, all meters should be 100% accurate but this is virtually impossible to achieve. Since labor costs, gas conditions, areas covered and climate to which equipment is subjected all enter into the total cost per year per operating unit, each company must decide how much they can profitably spend on achieving accuracy. Savings can be increased at the expense of accuracy to a certain extent or, at the other extreme, excellent accuracy can be maintained at a considerable cost. A balance between cost and accuracy whereby a company receives the most favorable results in relation to expenditures can only be achieved through a careful study of recorded performance. These records are the only true means of determining the routine test interval and the best repair policy to follow once the meter reaches the shop. Meter records are usually kept in one of two ways: selective method or continuous method. In the selective method records are kept on a certain percentage of the meters and performance data on the sample is assumed to be very nearly an overall pattern. This method will prove satisfactory provided a group is chosen that will be large enough to be truly representative of the total. The continuous method would involve keeping a complete record on each meter from the purchase date throughout its useful life.
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Document ID: 0BBCC13A

Roto-Seal Meters
Author(s): James R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
A new gas meter of rotary piston design has been introduced by Rockwell Manufacturing Company. The Roto-Seal Meter is a Positive Displacement Rotary Type Meter using a rotating piston principle which has never before been used in gas measurement. The concept of the new Roto-Seal Gas Meter actually originated back in about 1952. At that time, a study was made by our Research and Development Division of Pittsburgh of the various rotary metering principles both those in use, and the theoretical mechanisms which had a potential of ber ing developed into meters. The main concern at this time was the development of a bare liquid type of meter.
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Document ID: 31D67C88

Gas Accounting - Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of the volumetric flow of liquids and gases through pipes, it is common practice to insert an orifice metering section in the flow stream. This orifice meter section has an orifice plate with a precision bored hole of smaller diameter than the pipe and the differential pressure created by the flow of gas or liquid as it passes through this restriction is a value that is used for calculating velocity of flow during any increment of time. The mathematical relationship between differential pressure and flow depend on the construction of the orifice and related pipe characteristics. In most cases the flow is a function of the square root of the differential pressure, however, some
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Document ID: 86DC7057

Gas Volume Accounting For Production Systems
Author(s): 0. B. Worley
Abstract/Introduction:
A production system is classified normally as a group of pipe lines connected to a main transport line, and delivering gas to a Processing Plant, Compressor Plant, Gas Lift Operation, or Sales Outlet. Each type of operation requires different kinds of information to be furnished Production and Management Personnel. This is the function of the gas accountant. Duties of the gas accountant will vary with the size of a company. Large companies have specialized departments such as a measurement section, gas volume section, and gas accouning section. In smaller companies and with independents, gas accountants must carry out varied duties such as (1) check all field test slips for accuracy, (2) computer coefficients for volume calculations, (3) compute volumes either by hand or integrated charts, (4) receive copies of contracts and operating agreements and administer fhese for proper handling, (5) check all invoices for gas purchased, (6) invoice all customers for gas sold, (7) audit all field test slips for correct computation when selling or buying gas on contracts where payment is based on per cent of products recovered, and (8) audit all gas purchased statements received from sales to other companies for proper calculation of volume, price, etc. These are not all of the duties, but this will give you an idea of some of the duties of a gas accountant.
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Document ID: 0C69EF5C

Gas Volume Accounting For Transmission Systems
Author(s): J. W. Buntin
Abstract/Introduction:
Since Gas Volume Accounting procedures and departmental responsibilities vary a great deal between companies, this paper will be based on Colorado Interstates operation only. Volume Accounting covers such a wide range of possibilities that only a few points of possible interest can be covered. As we are all aware, gas volume accounting is a very complex thing. Whether the equipment used in any gas accounting system is an electronic data processing unit or a set of hand posted ledgers, the end result must be the same. The first phase of this result is an accurate, complete record of volumes entering or leaving a transmission system, and any usage or loss in between. The second phase is knowing what to do with these volumes once they are received by the accountant. As a rule the individual metered volumes are determined by a Measurement Department using equally complex procedures. Once a volume has been determined and verified by measurement, it is made available to the gas accountant which is the starting point for this discussion.
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Document ID: 055C8A2F

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): H. L. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
The calculation of orifice meter charts is the process of interpreting and converting measured values of differential pressure (in inches of water) and static pressure (in pounds per square inch absolute), recorded usually on circular charts, into cubic feet of gas at the contract pressure base. The calculation of pressure and volume charts removed from positive displacement meters is the process of converting cubic feet, measured and registered by a counter or index at a pressure in excess of the contract pressure base, to cubic feet of gas at the contract pressure base. These functions usually are performed by the Measurement Department or the Gas Accounting Department depending upon the organization of the company.
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Document ID: 89CC017D

Orifice Fittings
Author(s): T. Michael Ricketts
Abstract/Introduction:
Mention Orifice Measurement to practically anyone in the industry and odds are that the first image that pops into his head is an orifice plate. While the orifice plate is definitely the heart of good orifice measurement, this type of measurement, like most everything else, cannot depend entirely on one single factor. The orifice plate, plate holder, and upstream and downstream tube, together called the Primary Element, are all important parts in obtaining good measurement and should be manufactured, purchased and inspected to the same rigid requirements of an orifice plate alone.
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Document ID: 8A3148D0

Measurement For Gas Lift Operations
Author(s): Robert E Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
In most cases satisfactory measurement of gas for gas lifting of fluids presents a difficult problem to those responsible for supplying accurate data for accounting and company operations. The price of high-pressure gas used for gas lift has reached the point where good measurement is necessary. Even where high-pressure gas from a gas well is available for gas lift, the operator usually will decide to hold the gas-well gas for a future sale and lift his fluids mechanically. It is assumed that everyone here is familiar with the problem of measuring gas for gas lift and has obtained some kind of a solution to his problems because there have been many good papers presented over the years at this Gas Measurement Short Course, so you are really looking for some new, better or cheaper way to get the degree of accuracy your company requires.
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Document ID: 63A679E5

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Paul m. Lankford
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association Report No. 3 on Orifice Metering and The American Gas Association Gas Measurement Manual, along with the many publications from this Short Course, have constituted rules and practices to standardize orifice measurement. It will be the purpose of this paper to present the methods and techniques of examining and maintaining the orifice meter as it relates to the standard commercial gas measuring station.
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Document ID: 51AA0BE0

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): H. P. Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
In producing field operations, an acceptable degree of gas measurement accuracy is difficult to achieve. It is generally more difficult than accuracy in transmission and distribution operations. Acceptable field measurement accuracy can be achieved however, some of the problems encountered require all the experience, knowledge and ingenuity that can be mustered. An acceptable degree of field measurement accuracy begins with the planning and design of the meter station. It includes, of course, the installation of equipment, and the operation and maintenance of field meters. It also includes appropriate measurement techniques and training. This discussion will center around conventional orifice measurement. However, it will include brief coverage of other methods of field measurement since some problems cannot be resolved by conventional orifice measurement. There are many similarities in gas measurement by orifice meters at high and at low pressures and most of this discussion may be applied to both. However, for the purpose of defining high pressure gas for this discussion, it may be assumed that high pressure gas will include gas measured at pressures in excess of 500 lbs. This allows consideration of problems encountered at pressures where most gas lift, production, and sales measurements are made. Also, field measurement is defined as measurement made for the sale, purchase, allocation, or field operation use in the immediate vicinity where the gas is produced.
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Document ID: 2C093322

Design Of Meter Tubes And Primary Elements
Author(s): Ralph H. Clemons, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The term primary element is generally used to describe a device producing a primary signal of some sort. Coupled with the primary device is a secondary element which uses the signal for indication, recording, or operating purposes. In cases to be covered by this paper, the primary element describes a signal producing orifice plate and the fittings with which it is held in the proper metering position in the line. As the adjacent piping also effects the resulting primary signal it must also be considered a part of the primary element. Therefore, the title assigned to the paper maybe considered a bit improper as meter tubes are actually an integral part of the primary element. The overall accuracy of an orifice metering installation is certainly dependent on many factors. To insure excellence in metering, it is the duty of the measurement engineer and field meter man to specify and maintain equipment which will adequately handle the metering situation. He also must be conscious of the maintenance so that the equipment will be long lived, and the high standards of accuracy will be upheld. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the various types of equipment available for gas measurement and to outline the design features and applications in which certain requirements should be specified.
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Document ID: A225288A

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): W. S. Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of Measurement Problems in offshore gas handling may be obtained by multiplying various factors together as expressed by the formula MP MP Fnp Fd Fh.,od Fw Fped- Fv Fnp x Fd x Fh.,od x Fw x Fped2 Fv normal problems distance from base water depth weather platform and equipment design volume dollar value At first glance Fv appears to be confusing, but the measurement engineer has learned that, in general, the smaller the volume the more troublesome it becomes for two reasons: 1. Small volumes usually produce erratic charts because of the fluctuations in static and differential pressure, induced by dumping separation equipment. 2. Economics-It is increasingly difficult to justify the large expenditures associated with offshore transportation and materials when the monetary value of the gas is comparatively small. It might also be noted that the measurement engineer is bound by the conditions of the gas sales contract, and these conditions do not vary with volume.
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Document ID: A7E7D160

Utilization, Installation And Maintenance Of Bellows Type Flow Meters
Author(s): R. D. Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows type differential pressure gauge has widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque makes the bellows gauge particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices. The gauge is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet systems.
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Document ID: 1D7A3149

New Application Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of existing and, or, new equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve differential gauges, both Dri-flo bellows and mercury type, pneumatic control with or without telemetering, pressure recorders, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators. The time allotted to this paper does not permit a detailed discussion of orifice meters nor of control therefore, since actual installations will be discussed, the description of the instruments used in these installations will be limited.
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Document ID: 5266E266

Bellows Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): W. m. Reese, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two basic designs of bellows type orifice meters. They are the hydraulic and the mechanical types. (See Figures 1 and 2) The industry makes this distinction since one type depends solely on the transfer of seal fluid from one chamber to another for differential readings, and the mechanical design uses a piston connected to both bellows for displacement. We will first cover the basics of both designs, covering each operating segment of the sensing unit. Secondly, we will examine the major causes of failure of the bellows meter in actual operation. In conclusion, we will emphasize the many improvements which have evolved in the bellows type orifice meter since its introduction to gas measurement in 1949.
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Document ID: 9ED767AC

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Louis E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
From the time natural gas was first measured with orifice meters, orifice charts have been the necessary means of computing MCF. Charts are currently considered valuable supporting documents for determining the volumes and subsequently the values of gas sold or purchased. These same figures are used to pay royalty owners, working interest owners and to prepare State and Federal reports. Numerous man hours and much transportation equipment are used in changing these charts and it follows that when the industry was made aware of automatic chart changers and their dependability many locations were found where changers would pay for themselves in a very short time.
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Document ID: DEB93FF7

Orifice And Other Flow Meter Comparison Tests
Author(s): E. J. Burgin
Abstract/Introduction:
Perhaps the best scientific approach to flow comparison tests are those conducted by manufacturers and by some pipeline and distribution companies at specially designed test facilities. At these types of test facilities, more varied and quicker results can be obtained. On the other hand, it appears that one of the best ways of comparing flow meters is at the conditions the meters will normally operate. The results obtained from the test should be the true indication of the meters performance at the regular flow conditions. The results of orifice and other flow meter tests, regardless of how they are obtained (assuming proper test procedures are used), provide the following:
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Document ID: B5ACC45C

Field Application Of Analog Computers
Author(s): m. W. Holm
Abstract/Introduction:
The Tennessee Gas Pipeline 500 line transports natural gas from Southern Louisiana to the main line system at Portland, Tennessee. Late in 1962 three compressor stations were added to this pipeline. These three compressor stations were constructed to supplement four existing stations on the original line. Control of these alternate stations from existing compressor stations is accomplished by tliree basically identical Master Slave control systems. An analog computer and digital transmission system is used in controlling each alternate station remotely over a DC communication channel. (Figure 1)
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Document ID: FE8477B0

Basic Elements Of Field Proration
Author(s): D. H. Rainey
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increasing emphasis that all companies are placing on earnings and efficient operation, as well as the increasing importance of natural gas as a source of energy and income, it is apparent that all of us in the oil and gas industry must become more familiar with the philosophy and practices of gas proration as well as the specific mechanics of the calculations included in gas proration. Proration, itself, may simply be defined as the allocation between wells in a common reservoir of a proportionate share of current or future market demand when the market from a particular field is less than the capacity of the wells to produce. Stated more simply, proration is the allocation of allowables to permit each well to produce its share of the market.
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Document ID: 6A552474

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Q a X VHwPr where Q is the quantity, H. is the differential, and P, the static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, super-compressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: 0CAADDD0


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