Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1965)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Q C VHwPt where Qi, is the quantity, H is the differential and Pr the static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor, and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: B4E328AB

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): H. W. Arduser
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is the simplest of instruments for measurement of pressure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard from which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated. How fortunate we are to have this measuring device. Containing no mechanical moving parts, requiring no calibration, needing nothing but the simplest of measurements, the primary standard manometer is available almost off the shelf at modest cost. The principle of the manometer has not changed since its inception, however, great strides have been made in its arrangement and the application of the instrument to industrial measurement requirements. Whereas, formerly the manometer was considered a laboratory instrument, today we find the manometer commonly used to measure pressures ranging from as high as 600 inches of mercury to space vacuums
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Document ID: E4FCBA4B

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): m. R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The Recording Calorimeter is the instrument used by the gas industry to indicate and record gas heating values. In order to understand the factors involved in the installation and operation of the instrument, it is important that the fundamental principle of operation be understood.
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Document ID: 4BB93E8A

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): William Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with the discussion and application of the basic data necessary to size meter and regulation equipment at an underground gas storage. It is not intended that this paper will discuss or evaluate the underground storage structure or the operating problems in connection therewith, except as they concern meter and regulator problems. The discussion will be based on the development of a hypothetical depleted gas field as a storage project to illustrate the application of the many variables involved.
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Document ID: BCC94D1B

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas In Distribution Systems
Author(s): W. G. Neahr
Abstract/Introduction:
Leakage and unaccounted-for, lost and unaccounted-for, or more simply, L & U, is a grammatically inelegant term for a special and persistent annoyance common to all gas distribution companies. Leakage and unaccounted-for gas is recorded in the L & U report, a monthly balance of sales and purchases, the difference between the two figures being the L & U. Now leakage and unaccounted-for gas represents a real loss to revenue, so it is undesirable. An exact balance of purchases and sales would be better from the revenue standpoint, and an excess of sales over purchases would be best of all. Yet a reasonable monthly L & U is considered normal an excess of sales over purchases will raise questions of the accuracy of the report and, if by some miracle of chance, purchases and sales are exactly equal, no one will believe the report at all.
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Document ID: E7AC870D

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): S. m. Keehn
Abstract/Introduction:
A recent issue of an oil and gas publication predicted a forty per cent increase in domestic energy consumption over the next decade. Oil and gas will supply seventy-five per cent of this total energy required. Natural gas production will increase fifty per cent during this period to supply its share of the energy. The gas industry is Americas second largest energy supplier. It has been estimated that by 1975 natural gas will supply approximately thirty-three per cent of the total domestic energy requirement of the United States. Most of us in the industry are well acquainted with the great care and precision which goes into the measurement of each cubic foot of natural gas which we may buy or sell. This alone, however, gives us only a partial measurement of the energy being bought and sold, since there may be a great difference in the heating value of a cubic foot of gas A as compared with the heating value of a gas B. This difference in energy content in like volumes of various natural gases has led to contracts based on the purchase and sale of heat units. A heat unit is the result obtained by multiplying the cubic unit of gas measured by the heating value of gas in B.T.U. per cubic unit (both values being determined at the same pressure and temperature base). Some contracts incorporate a specified heating value clause, with adjustment of price being made proportionate with the heating value measurement above or below a specified value. Other contracts are written specifying minimum heating value at which gas will be accepted without any price correction. Still others, may specify a minimum heating value at which the gas will be accepted into a gas system. Some contracts have a combination of, or a variation of, these stipulations. It is evident, then, that an accurate and precise measurement of the heating value of the gas is essential. This measurement of heating value is usually expressed in British Thermal Units. A British Thermal Unit, or B.T.U., is that quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at, or near, its point of maximum density (39.1 F). The recording calorimeter is the instrument most widely used to measure the B.T.U. of the gas sampled, due to its high degree of accuracy. The accuracy of a recording calorimeter is guaranteed to be 0.5 per cent of the full scale reading, but with proper care, results of 0.2 per cent can be expected. A proper installation in conjunction with a regular test and maintenance schedule should result in a high degree of accuracy. In this paper discussion will be limited to the Cutler Hammer calorimeter, the type used by our company for measuring heating value. Attention will be directed to the proper procedure to follow in installing and testing the calorimeter to insure maximum accuracy.
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Document ID: 89A57423

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): J. L. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to decrease internal corrosion and increase pipeline and plant efficiencies, the removal of water vapor contained in natural gas has taken on added importance. Knowledge of the amount of water contained in the gas stream must be known before these efficiencies can be determined. Companies have expended large amounts of time and money, researching new methods and equipment to accomplish this task. This paper will explore a few of the many methods and instruments used in the industry today
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Document ID: 6D3BBF5B

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment-A Panel Discussion
Author(s): R. F. JONAS,W. B. RICHARDSON,D. G. Bitterly
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in regulating and measuring equipment is a problem affecting all phases of the natural gas industry from wellhead to final customer utilization. The purpose of this panel discussion is to cite the causes, the prevention and the cures of internal and external freezing
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Document ID: E2F33F50

Field Sampling Of Gas
Author(s): G. D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
Pick up a trade magazine dealing with the natural gas industry, and there will undoubtedly be an article outlining the phenomenal growth of the industry during the past decade, its present day activity and the plans for the future. The projects discussed, whether they be in production, gathering, transmission or distribution, have two basic thoughts: Is it feasible and, if so, will the revenues be worthwhile. The project, and there are many, may be a chemical complex extraction plant, processing plant, recovery or removal plant, compressor station or underground storage. The quantity and quality of feed streams, in and out of each project, are known and established by complete component analyses and tests resulting from natural gas field samples. The phrase garbage in-garbage out is often heard. This phrase, applied to many things, holds true in taking reliable representative samples, as the analysis is only as good as the sample. Correct analyses of samples in the evaluation of a project are necessary in determining the accurate economic feasibility
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Document ID: 7B8F4027

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Abstract/Introduction:
as to the type of regulator to be used, as well as the size and location. To have satisfactory regulator operation there must be a reasonably correct forecast as to the load conditions. In selecting a regulator for a particular installation, a study must be made to ascertain if the actual conditions under which the gas regulation is to occur are within the limits of the regulator equipments operating ability. The first consideration to be given is to the type of regulator to be used. The industry generally considers regulators for use with high pressures in two classifications: 1. The pilot loaded regulator, where a small direct operating regulator controls the pressure on the diaphragm, and 2. The instrument controlled regulator where the controlled pressure is sensed by a pressure element that indirectly controls the diaphragm pressure. The pilot loaded regulator has a longer valve travel and is more sensitive than some of the so-called direct operated regulators (where the control pressure acts directly on the diaphragm). These regulators are so sensitive that if placed in series, they will hunt and cycle if the upstream pressure and volumes fluctuate.
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Document ID: 1838610E

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): John Light
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography as an analysis technique is a quiet, dignified centenarian, but its young prodigy, Gas-Liquid Chromatography (G.L.C.) is a rambunctious teenager. Through the use of its electronic gadgets and exotic processes, this youngster has caused open revolution in otherwise orderly centers of knowledge. Because of G.L.C.s wide range of influence and adaptability, a general description of its activities only adds to the confusion surrounding this precocious infant but, a common sense approach to one facet of this many-sided problem child will allow us to make a powerful ally of this sometimes revolutionary. The change of method used in the analysis of natural gas and gasolines in the past decade is closely paralleled by the advance of G.L.C. during the same period. Just as with any revolution, (the rapidity of these changes and a lack of knowledge on the part of the people involved), a great deal of rumor and misinformation, result in being mixed with truth. By weeding out the rumors and half-truths it could be that the analysis of natural gas and gasoline might someday become the exact science that the self-styled experts now believe it to be.
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Document ID: CDD8DD35

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): E. W. Hampton
Abstract/Introduction:
It is an honor to have been selected to offer the 1965 Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course paper on New Ideas In Measurement and Pressure Regulation however, two questions came immediately to mind-how and what to present? Let me first point out that after researching the subject, I have not followed the usual pattern of canvassing the industry for new ideas and/or setting up exhibits. Instead, my choice has been to select innovations and ideas that have solved problems that confront various segments of the profession and illustrate with photographic slides what has been
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Document ID: F8A65580

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion of any substance and, if all other conditions are equal, it is proportional to density. This principle is the basis of an instrument which was developed about 41 years ago for automatically measuring the specific gravity of gases. It is the object of this class to explain the theory, review operating techniques and to describe testing, servicing and calibration. THEORY OF OPERATION The operation of the Kinetic type Gravitometer is illustrated in the phantom view, Figure 1. The chassis forms two cylindrical chambers which are gas tight to each other and to outside air, and have inlet and outlet connections. Each chamber contains an impeller and an impulse wheel, mounted on separate shafts, facing each other but not touching, similar to the arrangement used in automotive fluid couplings. An electric motor and drive belt rotate the impellers at the same speed but in opposite directions. Heavy aluminum covers enclose and protect the entire mechanism
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Document ID: 567AF2D5

Mass Flow Metering
Author(s): Charles m. I1ALSELL
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the last fifteen years, many methods of approaching a satisfactory mass flowmeter have been proposed. A quick survey of my companys patent files reveals no less than 50 patents on mass flow measurement or improvements on mass flowmeters. Mass has been defined as the measure of the quantity of matter in a body. A student of the physical sciences would state that mass can be measured by comparing the velocity changes that result when a body impinges on a body of standard or known mass. This theory is rightly used in the design of mass flowmeters, but the layman is more accustomed to determining mass by methods such as the laboratory balance or other springless type scales wherein he compares an unknown mass to a standard mass by balancing the two in the earths gravitational field. Actually this latter process is what we call weighing, and it is incorrect to think that weight and mass are the same thing. For most practical purposes on the earth, they may be closely correlated
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Document ID: FF414DD1

Accurate Measurement Of High Pressure Liquified Petroleum Gas
Author(s): R. W. Howe
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter measurement of liquified petroleum gases has become of great importance to the petroleum industry as is witnessed by the increased efforts devoted to this phase of measurement. Among the reasons for this mounting emphasis, are: 1. Growing popularity of LPG motor fuels and increased demands for use in industrial procressing. 2. The development and rapid expansion of high volume pipeline systems for the transportation of LPG. 3. The utilization of large volume underground storage facilities such as the Salt Dome and mined types. Measurement by mechanical flow meters has proved to be the most practicable and reliable method of accurately determining the liquid volumes mentioned in the operations above. The discussion that follows will be limited in scope to the measurement of LP gases in the liquid state that is, at pressures above the vapor pressure for the operating temperature. It will also be confined to measurements as performed by mechanical flow meters of the positive displacement or turbine type. These two meter types achieve rotary motion proportional to the rate of flow through them.
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Document ID: 9F4793FB

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): Max Rinn
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of high pressure lines for interstate distribution of natural gas, it has become necessary to measure sulfur levels accurately and to maintain low hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan concentration, both for protection of costly transmission and distribution lines, and for stabilization of odorant injection. New and more sensitive measurement procedures have been developed to meet the need for reliable analytical data.
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Document ID: AC7E9136

Specific Gravity Instruments- Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition-The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases, and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure
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Document ID: 04913D9A

Use Of Infrared Tracer Techniques In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tony D. Watkin
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement by means of velocity tracer involves timing the passage of an injected tracer material between two points which are a known distance apart. Flow rate is then equal to the product of the velocity found by this means and the pipe area. The idea of measuring flow rates by this method is not a new one. Allen and Taylor conducted tests to determine the feasibility of measuring high volume water flows by the salt velocity principle as long ago as 1921. The increase in electrical conductivity caused by introducing a charge of salt into the flow was detected by one or more pairs of electrodes located at points downstream. Tests run both in the laboratory and in the field yielded accuracies of the order of 0.5 percent with good repeatability
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Document ID: 54D72593

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
To the problem of providing sufficient strength in regulator components to withstand the static pressures which may be imposed, there must be added the problems of mass and velocity. These factors introduce difficulties which are at times surprising and just as often puzzling. Natural gas, with its specific gravity of less than unity, does not ordinarily impress us with its weight. A cubic foot at standard conditions weighs only 5/100 of a pound. This we might be tempted to ignore. When we consider also the quantities, as well as the weights of the gas in a specific situation, we begin to realize that it would be a gross error to overlook the mass involved. Even a relatively small pressure reducing valve, such as a 1 house service regulator, can pass 1,000 cubic feet per hour and thus must be designed to handle a weight totaling 50 pounds each hour.
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Document ID: 939ADA50

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is designed to reduce and control pressure. This is done primarily to provide an adequate safety factor, increase the accuracy of measurement and efficiency of the utilization of the gas, and to increase the economy of the transmission and distribution of gas. A gas pressure regulator must be capable of reducing either a constant or variable pressure to a constant discharge pressure of a lower value. This paper will deal with various subjects concerning gas pressure regulators including definition, basic design, types of loading, capacity, proper sizing, and proper selection. For purposes of this paper, any pressure in excess of one pound is considered high pressure, and any pressure less than one pound is considered low pressure.
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Document ID: 944983F9

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters
Author(s): G. W. Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of a ball valve as a means of shutting off flow of fluids is by no means a new discovery. It is reported to have been used as a shut-off valve in a samovar many centuries ago. An early version was patented in 1888 for a spigot. The use of a ball valve for many applications has been increasing rapidly in recent years. However, the majority of these have been as on-off valves for shut-off purposes and not for throttling control. In considering the use of a ball valve for throttling service, as shown in Figure 1, an investigation must be made of various characteristics and features.
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Document ID: FFB08D62

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators A- Demonstration
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
The selection of a regulator for a specific application should be based on a thorough analysis of the requirements of the installation. Too often a regulator is chosen without complete knowledge of the operating conditions, and the resultant regulation problems are blamed on the regulating equipment. Regulator selection requires knowledge of the operating conditions-the range of flow and if a factor, maximum and minimum inlet pressure. Other factors must be considered however, if the regulator is properly sized to satisfy the range of operating conditions, other parameters can be satisfied without much difficulty. In addition to rate of flow and inlet pressure conditions, other factors such as accuracy of control, range of outlet pressure adjustment, and shut-off characteristics must be given consideration. Each of the requirements does play a part in regulator selection, and the success of the installation will depend on the foresight given to them.
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Document ID: 7487FA1C

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Forest H. Wehrman
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube-type regulator has long been known as a unique regulator, to distinguish it from conventional regulators. Webster defines unique as being without like or equal, and conventional as commonplace. This regulator is still considered unique however, by an increasing number of gas companies, it has become known as a conventional regulator. The operating member is an expansible tube. This tube is slipped over a cylindrical metal core having a series of longitudinal slots at each end, with a separating barrier between. Action of the expansible tube is determined by control of the differential pressure across it. The Flexflo valve operation resembles a diaphragm motor valve with the expansible tube acting as both diaphragm and inner valve. The tube is made from a formulated synthetic elastromer especially compounded to assure a high degree of tear and abrasion resistance, flexibility and strength.
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Document ID: E1829701

Measurement By Orifice
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is fundamentally a velocity meter volume flow rates are obtained by considering the cross-sectional areas involved. The total quantity passed, over a measurement period, is obtained by multiplying the flow rate by the elapsed time. The basic flow equation comes from an analysis originally made by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738 and is based upon the concept of conservation of energy as applied to flowing fluids. In its simplest form this expression becomes V-v 2g (H - H2), where V velocity, in feet per second g acceleration of gravity, in feet per second per second H head, in feet of the flowing fluid h ss ( t t - H2) differential head, in feet of the flowine fluid It should be noted that, in the theoretical equation, the differential head is always in feet of the flowing fluid It the fluid is water, the head would be in feet of water- if it is oil, the head would have to be in feet of oil Similarly, if air is flowing through an orifice, the head inducing flow must basically be introduced into the flow equation in feet of air.
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Document ID: F96DDB11

Principles And Application Of Automatic Control
Author(s): J. L. Hanner
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether or not one is involved in industrial process work, examples of automatic control are encountered daily. In the home modern toasters, washing machines, and ranges utilize automatic control. Some office machines and even the more complicated neon signs make use of an automatic control cycle. Although the use of the term automatic control conjures up pictures of huge computers, with blinking lights and horns, in the minds of some, automatic control may be as simple as the timer on an oven. Most of these everyday examples of automatic control, however, may be classified as open loop devices that is, there is no feedback of information from the process to modify the control cycle. If the breakfast toast is burned, this does not necessarily mean that the toaster has malfunctioned. What is required is feedback from the housewife in the form of an adjustment of the timing cycle. This closes the control loop. The same analogy might be used with an automatic washer, which blindly goes through its cycle until it stops, whether the clothes are clean or not. This could be a closed loop operation if a device were available to sense the cleaness of the clothes and adjust the washing cycle accordingly. In industrial process work, closed loop control is more frequently encountered.
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Document ID: F76680B8

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): J. R. Julian
Abstract/Introduction:
District regulators and load distribution compose the two basic parts of a distribution system. Those of us who are responsible for the design, operation, and maintenance of a distribution system do not hastily agree on the design of a system in that there are such wide-range variations. It is not the intent of the writer to specify any particular design or method of operation. A subject which is as broad as this should be kept general, and it is hoped that it will be of interest to all distribution personnel. Our company operates in a territory bounded by Araarillo and Pampa in the northern part of the Texas Panhandle, extending south to Midland, Big Spring, and Brady, Texas. This territory consists of transmission and distribution operations. Our highest peak days are in the summer months due to irrigation well engine load. We serve, at this time, approximately 26,400 irrigation wells along some 3,000 miles of transmission lines
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Document ID: 39B0D9E7

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): R. L. Castle
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to efficiently operate present day natural gas systems, the rapid transmission of a greater amount of information concerning pipeline conditions has brought about the development of telemetering systems. Telemetering is the process of reproducing at a convenient location, measurements made at a remote location. Many types of telemetering systems have been developed for the transmission of these measurements. Since many of these measurements must be reproduced at a great distance from the point of origin, electrical methods have proved to be more practical. A few of the electrical methods are: (1) Current (2) Voltage (3) Frequency (4) Position and (5) Impulse or Pulse. For natural gas systems, the impulse or pulse type of telemetering has been more commonly used than the other types. The impulse duration type of telemetering uses a length of time of an impulse proportional to the measured quantity. This impulse is generated in the transmitter unit and is carried over telephone lines, radio, or microwave circuits to the receiving units which convert the electrical pulse to a display of numbers or to a mechanical motion for recording purposes. This paper will be confined to the telemetering and remote supervisory
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Document ID: A1ED9843

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulatorsa Demonstration
Author(s): Charles H. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The service regulator, as used for many homes, schools, churches and small industrials, must control the gas outlet pressure under varying inlet pressures and flows. The manufacturer must design the regulator component parts so that accurate stable control will result. Most of these parts are fixed by the manufacturer, but there are several selections required to meet various service conditions. Body size, spring range, orifice size and safety features selection must be made by the purchaser. The body size and outlet pressure spring range are determined by service conditions. The orifice size is the most important of all selections because the size selected determines the accuracy of control, stability of the regulator and the degree of over-pressure protection. The available service regulator safety features are:
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Document ID: E7AD80ED

Telemetering-Advanced Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): B. C. Joyce
Abstract/Introduction:
The trend toward centralized dispatch operations, which has been occurring throughout the Gas Industry over the past few years, has brought about many changes in the field of Telemetering, Data-Handling and Data Reduction. As dispatching has progressed from a local to centralized mode of operation, great amounts of data have been required in order to make the dispatcher knowledgeable of the happenings in his system. As a result, the need has been evident for new approaches to our Data-Handling problems and many new techniques have been developed over the past few years. Based on past satisfactory performance of impulse duration Telemetering, which formed the backbone of many earlier systems, this system was first investigated to determine the possibility of its being upgraded to provide the backbone for these new systems. But in many cases, because of various electrical and physical limitations inherent in the impulse duration equipment, this was not possible or practical.
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Document ID: 0CFDB925

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
With our long history of working with rubber it is not surprising to see it offered once again in a gas regulator, in the form of a solid rubber plug. A rubber plug that is the very heart of the regulator and, indeed, all major components in the regulator that actuate the plug are meant as compliments to it rather than irreplaceable features in themselves. Think for a minute of the important features that gas men desire in regulators. They must perform better than ever, even though pressures are going up in the name of efficiency and the controlled variable is being drawn within limits that heretofore were well nigh impossible to obtain. Gas men want the ability to handle high pressure drops, yet at the same time they want the regulator that is handling these drops to be able to work perfectly when the pressure drop begins to equalize across it. As every gas man knows, there are always times when pipeline pressures fade far below the normal lows, and it is during these rare periods when we want the regulators to go wide open if necessary to insure continuity of service to the customer. Our modern reguulators need a positive shutoff, the ability to handle low flows, a friction free operation, quietness, compactness, resistance to cutting, speed of operation, easy maintenance and low maintenance costs.
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Document ID: DFED09AD

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Howard J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
The Large Capacity Displacement Meter is normally used for measuring total consumption of gas to commercial and industrial plants and at small town border stations. In addition, they are quite often used in process work to insure efficiency of operation. Similar to the domestic meter, they will measure accurately from capacity rates down to extremely low flows. The Large Capacity Meter is normally rated on a flow which causes a 2 pressure drop when operating at a pressure of 4 oz. and 0.6 specific gravity gas. When the meters are operated at elevated pressures, the pressure differential is allowed to increase as the operating pressure increases, approaching a maximum value of approximately 6 of water. These meters must be made sturdy enough to withstand not only the higher operating pressures, but also the higher differential pressures. This means that greater care must be taken in the design of bearings, linkages, etc.
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Document ID: 963A6FE0

Domestic Meters
Author(s): John W. Harriger
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 100 years, gas has been measured by means of a positive displacement meter. There have been various types and sizes but the basic principle is still the same. In addition to this, the basic difficulties are also the same that were encountered in 1850. Let us dig deeper and see how the present day domestic gas meter overcomes these difficulties.
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Document ID: 74DD2951

Automatic Proving Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): William F. Deminee
Abstract/Introduction:
We are in an era of an improved scientific approach to meter testing and proving, even though the basic proving procedure is not new and will continue with very little changes for many years to come. When laying out plans for a new and improved automatic or semi-automatic meter shop of today, many factors must be taken into consideration, such as floor plan dimensions, cost and equipment, also the number of meters required and handled per year. This must all be considered before any plan can be feasible. With increasing economy minded company personnel, more conscious of their accuracy records than ever before, meter performance must be accurate if we are to extend meter change periods. Therefore, a high degree of quality must be maintained. The desire and need for automatic proving must be considered, not only to cut cost and reduce idle time, but to increase the efficiency from both the operator and the prover.
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Document ID: EC92B04E

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Parker S. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Consider that ordinary, domestic type displacement gas meter is designed, manufactured and sold by competent meter manufacturing concerns purchased, received, inspected, tested and installed by skilled utility employees then removed periodically, inspected, tested, repaired, tested and reinstalled by trained metermen. Used in this manner for a period of from 50 to 80 years before finally being retired, it might well be pertinent to state that such a meter is subjected during its life to more testing than even an Atlas Booster used to orbit an astronaut. In fact, from the aspect of testing, it is probably no exaggeration to state that the greatest difference between a displacement gas meter and a space vehicle is the cost difference
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Document ID: DBDD9762

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): Jack Fly
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will give the history, principle of operation, construction details, selection, installation, maintenance, proving, possible troubles to avoid, and economics of Rotary Meters. HISTORY The rotary meter design was conceived in 1854. F. M. and P. H. Roots, (brothers and partners in the woolen milling business) needed a more efficient water wheel. Even though their idea for an improved water motor didnt work as a mill driver, they discovered it worked very well as a blower. New markets for their invention were subsequently found and a competitive business started. In 1920 the first rotary meter was made by installing a revolution counter on a blower. In 1962 Roots changed the appearance and several design features in their meters. The new M125 series are now available from 3,000 to 102,000 CFH displaced volume at 125 p.s.i. working pressure
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Document ID: B14809D6

Domestic Meter Shop Operation And Test Frequency
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of operating gas meter repair shops and determining test frequency is a varied subject dependent upon company policy, state regulatory bodies and personal conviction. Most of the classes which covered this subject, throughout the many years of the Short Course, covered each author companys own operation. We will continue this trend and give our procedures for the above-captioned subject. Our company operates in the states of Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and Minnesota with approximately 160,000 meters in service. Five meter shops are now in operation: One in Dodge City, Kansas, which serves all of the Kansas Area one in Council Bluffs, Iowa, serving all of our Nebraska and Southwestern Iowa Areas one in Spencer, Iowa, serving Northwestern Iowa one in Dubuque, Iowa, serving Eastern Iowa and one in Rochester, Minnesota, serving all of the Minnesota Area. Present policy is that all meters are set outside and temperature compensated
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Document ID: EAA89BFC

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert m. Mcmakin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and promote the exchange of ideas in field testing and maintenance of large capacity displacement meters. All experienced gas measurement men have short cuts or practices that will accomplish the desired accuracy and save valuable time, which is important to the companies they represent. Field testing is the actual test of meters at locations where it is impractical to remove the meter for testing or repairs. Two men with proper tools, test equipment, and meter parts can perform this work on location thus, eliminating extra man-hours, heavy transportation, warehouse facilities and extra meters.
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Document ID: 07022886

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques-A Panel
Author(s): Tom F. LARCHE,J. W. JUKES,ED Emmett
Abstract/Introduction:
The panel mailed out a questionnaire on meter shop design, equipment and techniques, asking various companies to answer part, or all, of the material presented. Many did so and we have attempted to use this information in a summary form. Some of the answers brought up special material, so we prepared a pamphlet, copies of which will be passed out in class. We trust that we shall cover one item in this class that will be of interest to you and you will recall when you get home. If we accomplish this, it will mean the class is a success. After each panel member has made a short presentation of his subject, we will have a question and answer session
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Document ID: C87A9181

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Robert Iieffernan
Abstract/Introduction:
Mans rather unusual first use of gas is thought to have taken place long before the Christian Era. In the region of the Caspian Sea, natural gas bubbling up through springs of water was ignited to form the eternal fires that were worshipped as gods. There are also records that indicate the Chinese used natural gas transported by bamboo pipes for illuminating purposes and for evaporating brine to obtain salt more than 1,000 years ago. The knowledge and use of gas by the Western world however, is limited to comparatively modern times. A number of experiments and investigations of the properties of gas, both manufactured and natural, were made from the early 1600s until 1802 when gas distilled from coal, was first used on a large scale for illumination at a public demonstration. This took place in England. In 1812, the first gas utility company had been formed, also in England, and was producing gas in sufficient quantities to be used commercially. By 1823, several types of gas meters had been invented, the circular type of holder was used and consumption was in excess of 400,000,000 cubic feet per year
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Document ID: 37D61090

Fundamental Principles Of Turbine Type Meter Measurement
Author(s): John W. Harriger
Abstract/Introduction:
The Rockwell Series G 6 Turbo Meter is the first of its kind ever to be used in the gas industry. It has a rangeability of 13:1 on .6 sp. gr. gas. The minimum flow rate is 2300 cfh and the maximum is 30,000 cfh. The differential at maximum capacity is 2 water column. The light weight meter has a maximum working pressure of 125#/in. and a total weight of 55 #. The meter is designed to be installed in a horizontal position but need not be absolutely level. It is recommended that 5 ft. of straight pipe be used ahead of the meter and 2.5 ft. immediately downstream from the meter. The total length of the meter is 16 inches from flange to flange. The short length and light weight makes installation extremely simple, and eliminates the need for an installation platform.
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Document ID: 0C95A8EE

Meter Driven And Clock Driven Pvt And T Recorders
Author(s): Charles C. Bernitt
Abstract/Introduction:
When natural gas is measured by means of a large positive displacement meter, some means of recording the pressure and temperature as well as the registration of the index is necessary if we want to know the actual volume of gas that has passed the meter. Several classes are held in different short courses as well as the Southwestern Short Course to explain the basic gas laws. The facts can be narrowed down to this: if we know the volume of gas at one condition of temperature and pressure, we can determine the volume at any other condition of temperature and pressure. A practical method of recording the changing conditions of the gas as it passes through a meter is by means of a pressure, volume, temperature and time recorder. Two different methods are used to record this information. One method is by using clock driven charts and the other is by means of a meter driven chart.
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Document ID: 17EF27CD

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Measurement by the orifice meter has four equally important areas of instrumentation: the meter run with orifice plate, the pressure recording instrument, the chart integration, and the final volume flow calculation. The simplicity and rugged construction of the meter run makes this type of volumetric measurement the most versatile for the industry. Equally important is the secondary element, the pressure recording instrument, which records on a chart the two variables of the meter run, the static and differential pressures. With the time function introduced by the chart drive, the orifice meter chart becomes a permanent record of the three basic functions for gas or liquid volume calculations. The volume of gas passing through the meter run during the recorded time on the chart varies directly with the sum of the instantaneous square root of the product of the static and differential pressure. The Flow Measurement Company Orifice Chart Integrator performs this continuous multiplication rapidly and accurately with a minimum of effort on the part of the operator. As the operator retraces the static and differential pressure recordings on the chart with the pen arms of the integrator, the sum of an infinite number of square root values of the differential and static pressure product is converted to a digital read-out. This number, when corrected for chart pressure ranges, becomes the chart extension for the equation of volumetric flow through an orifice.
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Document ID: E7C7ED93

Gas Volume Accounting For Transmission Systems
Author(s): Harold G. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of natural gas dates back to the period in which the Chinese used it for brine evaporation. As early as 900 A.D., they produced natural gas and transported it through bamboo pipe lines to their evaporation pits. In the nineteenth century combustible natural gas was discovered bubbling up through the water of a mill stream near Fredonia, New York. Recognizing the utility value of a direct source of a natural fuel, a well 27 feet deep was drilled into a relatively soft limestone formation. In 1821 gas was piped through wooden pipe lines to a few nearby homes for domestic consumption. By 1825, a transmission line had been completed which carried natural gas to the City of Fredonia for street lighting. The Fredonia Gas Light and Water Works Company, formed in 1865, was the first American gas company. Representatives from the industrys producing, transmission and equipment manufacturing companies formed associations for the purpose of standardizing methods and products. These associations have promoted research and the exchange of new ideas, which have contributed largely to overcoming the multiple problems arising from the rapid growth of the gas industry.
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Document ID: 6802E9DA

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): J. T. Skeith
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the gas marketed today is purchased in the field under contracts between pipeline companies and producer sellers. Some gas is sold directly by producers to the customers, and some gas is produced directly into the pipeline from pipeline- owned properties but, by and large, most gas that reaches the ultimate consumer goes from the producer to the transmission company under some form of Gas Purchase Contract. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the aspect of certain provisions of a contract as it pertains to the purchase of gas-well gas by intrastate pipelines. This type of contract is contrasted to the casinghead gas produced in association with oil. This discussion is not to be construed as a legal interpretation of any provisions of the contract but as a general analysis of the workings of a contract for those persons not directly involved with this phase of the industry.
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Document ID: 4D46E220

Application Of Electronic Computers To The Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): S. W. Mapel
Abstract/Introduction:
The oil and gas industry has used data processing equipment for many years. The early machines were well suited to the performance of a large number of arithmetical operations, provided that the data used were homogeneous in nature and the calculations simple enough not to strain the limited capacities of the machines. With the passage of time new machines were made available that were able to process data faster and perform more complex calculations. A certain specialization of function made its appearance, with data processing machines designed for accounting work and its large quantity of information and relatively simple mathematics, and computers designed for technical work requiring more complex calculations but with little input or output. Calculation of the gas measurement factors requires the capabilities of both kinds of machines. A gas processor will gather gas measured through a great many meters. The number of measurement factors and information needed to calculate them greatly exceeds the capacity of early data processing equipment and the cards on which input and output were recorded. The increasing capacity of computers, and especially the introduction of magnetic tape as a recording medium, have overcome the difficulties of developing mechanical procedures of calculating measurement factors.
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Document ID: 84FC89E3

New Instruments For Integration Of Meter Charts
Author(s): William m. Batt
Abstract/Introduction:
Automation first came into chart calculation in the early 30s with the advent of the McGaughy Integrator. Then some twenty years later, high speed computers began to provide impetus to research for faster means of chart interpretation. One of the answers to this challenge has been the Electroscanner chart scanner and computer system. This instrument scans the orifice meter chart with a revolving optical system, and an associated special purpose computer calculates the necessary integral of the square root of the product of the differential and static pressure levels. The Electroscanner computer calculates the square root of differential times pressure at 800 equally spaced points around the chart and then effects integration by summation of these 800 samples. The scanning and computation of a chart requires 10 seconds.
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Document ID: BD1024CC

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Jack D. Muff
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of an orifice meter set up depends largely upon the care with which the orifice fitting and meter tube are installed and maintained. To give sensible care to any mechanical device, it is necessary to be familiar with the design and principles of its operation. This paper will attempt to cover enough of the description of orifice fittings and meter tubes that the user of such equipment will be able to use it with the greatest accuracy and still not find it necessary to spend excessive time in maintenance work. Investigations conducted by the Gas Measurement Committee of the American Gas Association show that conditions in the pipeline upstream and downstream from the orifice plate influence metering accuracy. These conditions are controlled by the meter tube and straightening vane. Discussion of these factors will be found in this paper under the heading METER TUBES.
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Document ID: BBE34219

Orifice Fittings
Author(s): Russell E. Smith, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Measurement is just that: fluid measurement through an orifice. The orifice in an orifice plate creates the means of measurement therefore if the orifice is less than perfect, so the measurement will be also. These flat square edged plates provide the accounting for of nearly five billion dollars a year worth of natural gas and untold amounts of water and chemicals. Orifice plates must be properly applied to the line. This is done through the use of orifice flange unions or orifice fittings, welded or screwed to the approach and discharge piping. The unit composed of orifice plate, orifice flanges, approach and discharge piping is the primary element, which together with the secondary element, whether an inexpensive indicating water column or an elaborate recording differential pressure meter, provide the measurement data. Taking each component of the primary element in turn we shall first discuss orifice plates.
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Document ID: EF339CEE

Orifice Meter Tube Fabrication-A Demonstration
Author(s): Don J. Betts
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and fabrication of Orifice Meter Runs is covered in complete detail by the American Gas Association Committee Report No. 3, published in April, 1955. This report can be secured from the American Gas Association, 420 Lexington Avenue, New York 17, New York, at a nominal cost. Committee Report No. 3 was issued to supplement Report No. 2. Generally, all of the data in Report No. 3 is the same as in Report No. 2, except that it has been expanded to cover a wider range of conditions. Slight changes have been made and statements added, in some cases, in order to clarify some of the conditions which were brought about from practical application of Reports 1 and 2. As an example, the orifice factors have been established for a pressure base of 14.73 p.s.i.a. in place of the 14.4 p.s.i.a. formerly shown. The base pressure factors shown in this report allow the determination of the volume of gas flow to be made in terms of any contract pressure base, with results being consistent with those determined by Report No. 2.
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Document ID: 68B23362

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course
Abstract/Introduction:
The dome of the valve is loaded with gas (usually nitrogen) which fills the bellows to a predetermined pressure. Injection gas, exposed to the valve stem via ports in the valve body, oppose the dome load pressure. With the assist of the fluid column pressure in the producing conduit, acting through the valve seat upon the end of the valve stem, the valve opens and permits injection gas to enter the producing conduit. In this manner the well unloading frequency is dependent upon the rate at which formation fluid enters the well. Dome Loading Valve Tubing Mandrel Bellows Pressure Inlet Port Gas Inlet Port Valve Stem Valve Seat i Casing Figure 3. At certain wells a programmed time cycle surface control (intermitter) is used to schedule injections of lift gas. The pressure of injection gas, in such cases, is sufficient to open lift valves regardless of the fluid column pressure in the producing conduit. Lift valves are generally located on the exterior of tubing mandrels and the tubing is used as the producing conduit. When the fluid volume to be lifted exceeds the tubing capacity, lift valves can be placed inside the tubing and the casing is then used as the producing conduit. LIFT EFFICIENCY Through trial and error it has been found that efficiency of gas lift is related to the velocity of fluid flowing up the well bore. A low lift velocity invites excess liquid fall-back as fluid moves up the conduit. If the lift gas velocity is too great, it tends to jet through the liquid slug, giving a poor lift effect. Though the velocity within the well varies due to submergence and density changes, 900 to 1,000 cubic feet per minute is deemed a most efficient lift rate. This most efficient lift velocity for removing liquid from wells is an important point to remember if one has gas wells which load up with liquid and cease to flow. Liquid problems plaguing gas wells can often be overcome by regulating gas withdrawal rates.
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Document ID: 69FF5865

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): E. L. Dekinder
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas business has developed from 500 p.s.i. pressure to those approaching 10,000 p.s.i. as a regular operating basis. For many years 500 and 1,000 p.s.i. were considered high pressure, since those were the bottom hole pressures in many instances of gas formations capable of being reached by drilling methods in earlier days. With the advance of heavier drilling equipment, greater depths could be reached and pressures on the order of 5,000 pounds for formation pressures and pressures approaching 8,000 to 9,000 pounds for gas injection pressures became common. This paper deals with some problems encountered in the measurement of natural gas at these higher pressures.
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Document ID: 5D8BB93B

Orifice Meters
Author(s): Lewis P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Terms like Mass Flow Meter, Turbine Meter, Displacement Meter, Vortex Meter, Electro-magnetic Meter, and Compensated Orifice Meter have appeared in advertisements and been the subject of lectures at this Short Course with increasing frequency. All these terms relate to suggested means for measuring gas flow volumes. It is to be expected in so important an industry as Natural Gas that better methods for measuring gas are being sought continually. A better method might refer to a more accurate measurement, a more simple or fundamental principle of operation, a cheaper installation, a more maintenance-free meter, or more convenient read-out. No matter what the consideration, an orifice meter stands up well in any comparison. That this is so is evidenced by user acceptance. It is an easily understood device both from the standpoint of construction and calculating procedures. It has been in use for almost 50 years in its present form-the last 25 with nearly all its present refinements. An orifice meter is not just an orifice plate. This term refers to the complete installation that is: (a) a thin-plate square-edged orifice plate or primary device, installed in its meter run, plus (b) the sensors and/or read-out or secondary devices, particularly the differential pressure and static pressure sensors and sometimes a temperature recorder and a specific gravity meter as well, and lastly (c) the connecting fittings or pressure leads. The proper setting or installation of each part is essential to attain the best and most accurate gas flow measurements.
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Document ID: 63331F8C

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): L. L. Jordan
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Measurement always presents many problems, but when the measurement of this elusive fluid takes place on an offshore oil or gas production platform, the problems tend to multiply. It is rather difficult to evaluate the problems in a proper order of magnitude since location and operation of different platforms pose different problems in gas measurement. However, all platforms have in common the problems of space for meter stations, transportation of personnel and equipment, and cordosion of valves, fittings, etc. Problems of chart changing and handling of the charts are also more acute on offshore platforms.
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Document ID: FBA38395

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): W. m. Reese
Abstract/Introduction:
The liquid sealed bellows-type flow meter has very rapidly taken its place in the majority of flow measurement services throughout the world. The wide acceptance of the bellows-type orifice meter by industry is due to construction improvements, combined with greater knowledge and experience of personnel concerning the basic functions and dependability of the meter. It is estimated that 95 percent of the new natural gas flow meters of North America installed for collection and distribution are of the bellows type. The bellows-type orifice meter has been shown repeatedly to be far superior to the mercurytype orifice units with regards to ease of installation, accuracy, over-range protection, cost, shock resistance and temperature error
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Document ID: 83F6DABE

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Louis E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers are not new to the Gas Industry. The first commercial model was introduced in 1958. This was an ugly duckling by present day standards but it would successfully change charts and this stirred the imagination of the measurement men. Their first thought was here is a device which will change charts in remote measurement stations regardless of rain, snow, fog or high seas and will continue to change them until the weather allows measurement personnel to return to the station. Through the interest of measurement men and their helpful suggestions, numerous improvements to the chart changer were made. The natural gas industry places enough dependence in the present model of automatic chart changer to install them on meters selling very large volumes of gas.
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Document ID: D10C1DC4

Field Application Of Analog Computers
Author(s): Royce m. White
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper gives a simplified introduction into the concept and application of the eelctronic flow analog computer. The paper is aimed at that segment of gas flow measurement personnel whose training and duties have brought them in contact with the subject, but whose experience with the matter has been only enough to sharpen their curiosity. We mean, in particular, the chart clerk, the gas tester, the less experienced meter men, and so on
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Document ID: 52DEC81A

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair-A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools. It is the purpose of this class to help the gas companies reduce the unit cost of repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been adequately covered in other classes, so this demonstration was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job. To assist in the demonstration, a projector and slides were used to show actual shop pictures of timesaving methods and equipment
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Document ID: 1F9177D0

Specific Gravity Instruments-Care And Operationa Demonstration
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
The Arcco-Anubis Gas Gravitometer, a direct weighing type instrument, was discussed. The gravitometer is constructed to measure the difference in specific gravity of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing through the instrument. The instrument consists of two identical bells, an air bell and a gas bell, which are suspended at equal distances from the fulcrum of the balance beam. The purpose of the air bell is to compensate for the weight of the gas bell and the surface tension of the sealing liquid in which the two bells are suspended. The interior space of the air bell is open to the atmosphere through an air inlet and outlet which contain a drying agent. The interior space of the gas bell is open to the atmosphere through its outlet and the gas supply is admitted through its inlet. Two vertical tubes of adequate height to obtain the required working force on the bells are connected at their bases to the inside space of the bells. The movement of the bells is transmitted through the balance beam of the recording mechanism.
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Document ID: 26AA879E


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