Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1963)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Fundamnntals Of Orifcee Measuremntt
Author(s): Ian m. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the field of gas measuremen,, defined by some as a science and by others an art there exisss two main division.. Firstly, that section defined as positive and secondly that defined as inferential. Positive measurement of a volume for sale probably originated with a primitive man bartering a cocoanut shell containing his version of intoxicating liquid for a choice cut of dinosaur steak, but the earliett records extant indicate that inferential measurement using the flow of a fluid through an orifice was used about 2000 B . C . mainly as a time constan,, and in the late Roman civilization water was controlled and sold making use of a restrictive orifice.
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Document ID: 5D259AE6

A New Idea In Gas Measuremntt
Author(s): J. L. Hamun
Abstract/Introduction:
TTnlllce other segments of the gas b u s i n e s . , new ideas, instruments , or methods are not as readily accepted in Gas Measuremen,, and necessarily so. We deal in the actual profit or loss of our companie.. A good deal of the burden of s u c cessful public relations with our customers rests on the accuracy and performance ofnur meters Anything new must be proven over and over before measurement mpn will or can accept it But, on the other hand, all of us are constantly trying to improve our methods of measuring a cubic foot of natural gas. When a new instrument is made available most meter men can hardly wait to test it out.
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Document ID: 7FC1459C

Fundamensals Of Gas Regulation
Author(s): H . C . Judd
Abstract/Introduction:
All too frequently the gas regulator is a thing taken for granted as long as the inlet and outlet connections are conveniently sized. The outer casing is known to hide certain moving parts but the tendency is to forget their existance. Lets take a peak inside the casing and review the essential elements of gas pressure regulators. The basic thing a pressure regulator has to do is to put as much gas into the customers piping as the customers take out. In a sense the regulator regulates flow rather than pressure.
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Document ID: 800AA8B0

The Design Of Pressuee Control Facilitses
Author(s): C. F. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a pressuee control station consists of two basic considerations. First the engineer must select the materiass and equipment necessary to perform the required function in a safe and efficient manner. Second, he must arrange this equipment so as to provide attractiveness, ease of operation and safety
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Document ID: 19C96423

Operaonon & Maintenance Of Regulatsrs
Author(s): W. L. Gibbs
Abstract/Introduction:
After reviewing regulator theory and design criteria, it seems appropriate to d i s cuss some of the more common problems involved with operating and maintaining regulators
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Document ID: E10A7F67

Gas Comootitio N, Calorimetry & Gravitometf Ry
Author(s): L. T. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
GAS COMPOSITION & QUALITY In this subsection we will be talking about the componenss that make up natural gas as we distribute it the significance of the componenss and ways and means of determininq these various components. For the sake of convenience we will divide the various componenss into major and minor s e c i i o n
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Document ID: C5391020

Determination Of Water Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): Gary L. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Determining the water content of natural gas is a very important phase of natural gas operations. Especially is this true in the transmission phase where socalled high pressures are involved. It has been proven by operating experience that it is necessary to reduce and control the moisture content of natural gas to insure safe operations. Determining the water content accurately is absolutely necessary for the development of dehydration processes, for corrosion control techniques, and for eliminating hydrate formations
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Document ID: AFB1EEBD

Odorization
Author(s): Fred E.KING
Abstract/Introduction:
The reasons for odorization are well understood by gasmen the mechanics of this addition by a few perhaps. Yet this has become an almost universal practice in the interest of public and employee safety. In 1880 the Germans first proposed adding something to fuel gas which would contain a strong odor and give the otherwise unseen and unfelt gas an agent of warning of its presence. The Germans later found (1905) that condensates from the newly developed Pintsch gas process were a successful odoriainq agent. This material was marketed under the trade name of Karbialin.
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Document ID: F8EB17DD

Fundamenta Ls Of Telemttering & Remote Measurement & Contrll
Author(s): Earle. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote measurement and control is a term being used more commonly every day, particularly in the gas industry. It is no longer necessary to travel to various points of a gas distribution system, nor to have men stationdd at remote locations in order to make measuremenss or carry out the necessary control operat i o n s Telemeterins can do a very efficient job of t h i s , bringing measuremenss and control functions from remote points to central dispatch locations. Here the dispatcher has before him the complete picture of conditions existing throughout the gas system, and has at his fingertips means for making many necessary changes in gas flow or pressuee anywhere in the system
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Document ID: A958BBFB

Supercompressilility
Author(s): P. A. Lathrap
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas is an elastic fluid, As pressure is applied to a given quantity of gas, it is compressed so that it will occupy a smaller volume, Conversely, as the pressure is relaxed, the gas wUl expand to fUl completely any container into which it is introduced. There is a definite relationship between the volume a gas occupies and the pressure applied toit. This relationship, knownas Boyles law, states that at a constant temperature, the absolute pressure times the voliine of a perfect gas is equal to a constant. Therefore, for a given quantity of the perfect gas the relationship between the pressure and volume is:
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Document ID: 99357ABE

Orifcee Chart Reading
Author(s): Don J. Hunter
Abstract/Introduction:
chart is placed on a meter in order to record the activtty of the meter for a definite period of time. This record, when interpreted and combined with other related data, is processdd into a gas volume. This gas volume may reflect production, purchase,, sales or company usage, but when priced, either represenss revenue or expense to a company. In order that the dollar value be as accuraee as possible it is the responsibility of field and office measurement personnel to give the chart necessary care and attention in i t s installation, period of recording, preparation, mailing, censoring, integrating, calculating and posting
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Document ID: 443EA7FB

Orifcee Meter Equppment & Testing Methoss Used In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): L. E. Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of gas through an Orifice Meter and i t s component parts can develop into a full course in itself. This meter is one of the most important meters used in the measurement of large flows of natural g a s . It can be termed as an inferential meter inasmuch as the gas volume is calcuaated from readings of pressuee variations as the gas flows through an orifice. Manometess record the pressure above and below the orifice and with the addition of pressuee r e corders, recording thermometers, e t c . , an accuraee resutt can be obtained for the measurement of natural gas
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Document ID: 4642094A

Design Of An Orifcee Meter Run
Author(s): C. T. Mccall
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter mn has become such a common tool of measurement that many gas men take it for granted, and give little thought to the engineering that was necessary for its existence. If we study the history of the orifice we find mention of its use for measuring water in early Egyptian and Greek history. In 1797 an Italian physicist, Giovanni B, Venturi, demonstrated through many experiments that fluids gain speed and lose pressure when passing through converging pipes. Not until 1886 was this basic principle put to use. In this year a hydraulic engineer named Clemens Herschel developed the venturi tube which was named for the Italian physicist0
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Document ID: 600A0B84

Fundamnntals Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): George T. Jennings
Abstract/Introduction:
At the turn of the nineteenhh century, gas was becoming quite popular in England as a means of lighting. The illuminanss in the gas when ignited on a fishtail burner head gave a reasonabyy steady white light. Gas was sold on a flat rate basis per month depending upon the number of lights used and the number of burning hours each day as specified in the agreement between the gas company and the custome
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Document ID: 021F06F9

Fundamnntals Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): J. W. Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
The Roots-Connersville rotary displacement meter accurately measures volumes of gas by the rotation of two figure-eight shaped impellers within stationrry cylinders . (See Figure #)) The displacement is accomplishdd within the confined space which is formed by the cylinder w a l l s , impeller,, and the flat surfaced headplates at the cylinder ends. As the right tend impdler ratates in a clockwise direction to a vertical position, a definite volume of gas is displace..
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Document ID: 93D28DDE

Compensaning Values & Auxiliary Equppment
Author(s): R. m. Stokes
Abstract/Introduction:
A positive displacement meter with a standard low pressure index, deliveiing 7 W.C. pressure within the flow limits of the meter for that pressure is extremely accurate and trouble-fre,, requiring a minimum first cost (comparatively speaking) and very litUe attention. But, as we require this same meter to do more for u s , additional equipment is needed, installation costs go up along with the possibUity of mechanical difficulties and the need for more frequent atteniion.
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Document ID: 10165051

Methods Of Proving Dispaccement Meters
Author(s): D. R. Meierhoff
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of a meter test lies almost wholly in the character of the person making the t e s . Using the best equipment availabee one will not achieve a c curacy unless the user is a basically accuraee type of individua.. The initial set up and care of the equipment during the test naturally plays an important role but the results of this test also reverts back to the integrtty of the person making the t e s ..
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Document ID: D8573CF8


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