Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1963)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Measurement By Orifice Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Howard J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is basically a velocity measuring device based on the principle of conservation of energy. As gas flows through a restriction, its velocity is increased and this increase of kinetic energy must balance out against a decrease in potential energy, An indication of the change in potential energy is the change in static pressure. Mathematically, it can be shown that the pressure drop due to this velocity change is proportional to the square of the velocity or V2 /h
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Document ID: 49DC67C2

Measurement For Gas Lift Operation
Author(s): Edward T. Cotham
Abstract/Introduction:
In this age of specialization we sometimes get so wrapped up in our own special field or area of interest that we fail to step back and take a look at the big picture. This certainly is true of many of us in our approach to Measurement for Gas Lift Operation. More than adequate information has been presented in the many previous Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Courses on the reasons for using gas lift, the different methods, the different tools available for use in measuring gas under difficult situations, etc. In addition, most of the equipment manufacturers are more than willing to discuss, explain and even demonstrate the application of their equipment to this problem. Therefore, instead of hashing over a lot of information that is already available elsewhere lets examine our subject from a different angle. Lets discuss it by looking at the over-all problem.
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Document ID: 9C29D824

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): W. B. Richardson, III
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been used for many years to measure gas under a variety of conditions. These meters are simple, dependable and accurate. They are in wide-spread use throughout the gas industry as arbiters for the exchange of large amounts of gas and money. In practical application, an orifice meter consists of several parts: the meter-a differential and pressure instrument, an orifice plate, and a meter run. The standards and specifications for the installation of these three parts are listed in the American Gas Associations Gas Measurement Committee Report #3.
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Document ID: CB65F556

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): B. G. Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
The trend toward higher operating pressures in the field of gas gathering and transmission has multiplied some of the problems of the field measurement man. To define the meaning of the term high Pressure is not within the scope of this paper but many of the problems which exist when measuring at 1000 pounds exist to some lesser degree at lower pressures. The basic components of the field measuring station are essentially the same whether the operating pressure is very low or extremely high pressure.
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Document ID: 83F4B47F

Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. P, Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
poor man once asked a sage, Why am I in such need? The sage broke off a willow twig and cut notches on it at equal intervals. Then he gave it to the poor man, saying, I give thee this sceptre of success - a stick for measuring. Remember, all things are made to measure-sandals for the feet, the sheath for the sword. Drive the stick straight into the ground and according to its shadow, which follows the sun, thou shalt measure time and arrange thy life. In the spring when the shadow shortens, sow thy grain in autumn when it lengthens, gather in the crops. Measure thy share and thy neighbors share do it honestly and thou shalt fare well.
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Document ID: D42F6B6D

Design Of Meter Tubes And Primary Elements
Author(s): Ralph H. Clemons, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing value of natural gas as a fuel has accelerated industry use of orifice fittings as a primary means of accounting for volumes sold and transported. The orifice measurement equipment manufacturers have kept pace with design requirements and it is the purpose of this paper to outline some of the equipment that is used as a reliable means of accounting for the exchange of gas
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Document ID: 0A5E842E

Problems In Off Shore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Charles Nunn
Abstract/Introduction:
Offshore gas measurement presents all the problems of onshore measurement, with a multitude of other troubles peculiar to offshore operations. Initial design is similar but due to space limitations and the close area in which all equipment must be installed, care must be taken that critical measurement equipment is not sacrificed simply because of these fimitations. Housing of equipment is a prime necessity. Operations offshore are completely influenced by transportation, space saving, and time saving equipment. Some special problems arise since the flow lines to shore carry both liquid and gas that has first been separated and measured before recombining for the trip to shore. Redesign is sometimes required to solve special measurement problems found during field operations
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Document ID: 7380D17A

Utilization, Installation And Maintenance Of Bellows Type Flow Meters
Author(s): G. m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The widespread application and popularity of the bellows type differential pressure gauge in orifice metering is due to its simplicity and reliable performance in difficult measuring installations. The bellows differential pressure gauge does not require mercury, nor critical leveling for operation. It is self-draining and generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. Other advantages include a high speed of response combined with high output torque, which makes the bellows gauge particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices.
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Document ID: 94BDE96F

New Applications Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Louis V. Hickman
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of existing and, or, new equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve orifice meters, both Dri-flo bellows and mercury type pneumatic controls with or without telemetering, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators,
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Document ID: FE42988D

Field Application Of Analogue Computers
Author(s): John Van Dyke
Abstract/Introduction:
The usage of analog flow computers has progressed quite rapidly within the Natural Gas fndustry. A great deal of this advancement has been obtained for two reasons. One. because of the rapid advancement of the Electronic fndustry and the techniques made available, and, secondly, because of the great strides made in automation as related to our industry, Automation here meaning the techniques of supervisory and automatic control in measuring, regulating and compressor stations. Where we have these automatic facilities, it is of great advantage to be able to automatically compute flow and integrate it for totalized daily or hourly flow.
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Document ID: 773E7FB4

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair-A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools. It is the purpose of this class to help the gas companies reduce the unit cost of repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been adequately covered in other classes, so this demonstration was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: A80967EB

Maintenance And Repair Of Orifice Metersa Demonstration
Author(s): R. H. Hemfelt
Abstract/Introduction:
As indicated by the title, this paper will cover the maintenance and repair of orifice meters. It will consider both the mercury type and the dry type meters,
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Document ID: A03E7BF9

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair-A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools. It is the purpose of this class to help the gas companies reduce the unit cost of repairing and testing both regulators and meters, The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been adequately covered in other classes, so this demonstration was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: 16C9F30B

Theory And Application Of Thermometers And Pressure Gauges
Author(s): Jack A, Washburn
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to present day gas accounting procedures based on accepted standards, it has become increasingly important to those engaged in gas measurement that they know the basic concepts surrounding the physical characteristics and conditions of gases. Lets briefly discuss them. When subjected to a change in pressure the volume of any substance is changed, but the change in volume of a solid or liquid is usually very small. However, in the case of a gas, a change in pressure results in a considerable change in volume. Since, by definition,
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Document ID: DA350C10

Specific Gravity Instruments-Care And Operation A Demonstration
Author(s): J. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
The subjects discussed during the demonstration were: 1. The importance of accurate specific gravity determinations, particularly to the Engineering and Accounting Departments, since in the measurement of a gas, both the quantity and quality of the gas arc directlyrelated to its specific gravity. 2. Methods of arriving at these determinations, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these methods
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Document ID: 8D0C95F8

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Q C X /!i7Plwhere Qi. is the quantity, H is the differential, and P, the static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor. supercompressibihty factor, and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must be either assumed or measured
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Document ID: 53CE1226

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): O. W. Iieyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is the simplest of instruments for measurement of pressure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard from which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated.
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Document ID: C2E2C81B

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): m. R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry is certainly one of the largest industries in this country. Recent statistics show all time highs, including thousands of miles of mains, millions of customers served, billions of dollars of investments and revenues and trillions of cubic feet sold. Obviously, in undertakings of this magnitude satisfactory accounting demands increasingly accurate and reliable measurements in all phases of operations
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Document ID: A889E27D

A Discussion Of A.G.A. Supercompressibility Tables
Author(s): Rogers Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the general hydraulic flow equation involves the actual specific weight of the fluid at the point of measurement. In the measurement of gas this depends upon the flowing pressure and temperature. To translate the calculated volume at flowing pressure and temperature to base pressure and temperature it is necessary to apply the law for an ideal gas. All gases deviate from this ideal gas to a greater or lesser extent. This deviation has been termed Supercompressibility. A factor to take account of this supercompressibility is necessary in some gases. This factor is applicable at higher pressures
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Document ID: 61D3A3D0

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): Carl E. Swenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Underground storage of natural gas has become a vital part of the gas utility industry. This paper will deal with the measurement and regulation as it is being used by Consumers Power Company or its subsidiary, Michigan Gas Storage Company. It should be pointed out that the applications described in this paper apply to Consumers Power Company and may not apply to other gas utility companies. Many different applications of instruments and controls may be developed. Seemingly, the only limitation is the imagination of the individual
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Document ID: 40B833F3

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): m. Y. Hibler
Abstract/Introduction:
Very much study and investigation on the above subject has been done by the American Gas Association as well as different Gas Companies. There are many articles written about ingenious methods of evaluating the various factors used in trying to determine unaccounted-for gas.
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Document ID: 084D22AC

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): John Foyt
Abstract/Introduction:
Basically essential to gas measurement is the accurate determination of specific gravity-a characteristic necessary to calculate gas volumes metered through orifice type meters. There are several methods by which the specific gravity of a gas may be determined. These have been developed over a period of years and are now being utilized by various industries. However, before discussing the various means of determining the specific gravity of a gas, lets review the definition of specific gravity and its function in gas measurement. Specific gravity is a dimensionless number and it is defined by the National Bureau of Standards as,
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Document ID: 73344882

Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing the principles and performance of orifice meters, perhaps we should define what an orifice meter consists of, An orifice meter is a colfection of devices used for measuring the flow of fluids in terms of the differentiaf pressure produced across a restriction in the flowing path. Basic components of an orifice meter which will be discussed in this paper are:
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Document ID: 175CDCB8

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): G. E. Vvoolfall
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, we have a product to sell Gas. This product conta ns a terrific amount of energy therefore, it has value. At one time, we sold our gas on the cubic foot basis. Today, we sell our gas on the basis of heat units per cubic foot. Other companies use the Therm method, 100,000 B.T.U. The instrument generally used to determine the heating value is the Cutler-Hammer recording calorimeter. This instrument is very accurate but expensive. The accuracy is dependent upon proper selection, installation and testing methods.
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Document ID: 27B9C322

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Jack E. Lay
Abstract/Introduction:
At this time it would be well to define some of the terms which are commonly used in discussing the testing for water vapor in natural gas. Hydrocarbons Any of the heavier ends of natural gas such as Propane- Butane-Pentane, etc. Dew Point The temperature at which a vapor will drop out as a liquid. Water Content Number of pounds of water per MMCF gas at a specific pressure base and temperature. Hydrate A combined mass of water and hydrocarbons in a state similar to ice.
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Document ID: 5781862F

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas
Author(s): L. L. Harmon
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the expanding gas industry, content test equipment has been improved considerably contributing greatly to our test methods. The following test methods are most commonly used in our field testing and laboratory testing: 1. Compression Test A.G.A.-N.G.A.A.- Code 101-43 2. Charcoal Adsorption A.G.A.-N.G.A.A.-Code 101-43 3. Charcoal Adsorption C.N.G.A.-TS-351 (latest revision) 4. Analysis by Low Temperature Distillation, N.G.A.A. Publication, 1957. 5. Tentative Method of Natural Gas Analysis by Gas Chromatography, N.G.A.A. Publication 2261-61
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Document ID: 8A251B77

Problems In Measuring Natural Gas Containing Hydrogen Sulphide
Author(s): Problems In Measuring Natural Gas Containing Hydrogen Sulphide
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the natural gas fields of the United States contain hydrogen sulphide in varying amounts. These amounts range from seventy per cent of the total to only a few parts per million. Its origin is uncertain but is probably due to organic or inorganic action or sulfur beds located in the vicinity of oil and/or gas deposits.
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Document ID: 0A4496E2

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Eguipment-A Panel Discussion
Author(s): W. D. Franke Doyle L. Booth V. K. Selfkidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The formation of hydrates is the main cause for freezing in measuring and regulating equipment. Pressure, temperature, composition of gas, water content, obstructions and various other factors determine when hydrates may form. Hydrates, when removed from this equipment, are usually white, porus and have the appearance of packed snow
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Document ID: 3AA5A04D

Deliverability Method Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): Bob R. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The deliverability method of testing gas wells has already been adequately covered in previous short courses by individuals who have devoted a considerable period of time in developing the different methods of testing gas wells throughout the years. This paper, will generally be concerned with the procedures and definitions, with respect to testing in Texas, and certain comments that may have already been covered by previous papers
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Document ID: 34D1CF85

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): G. V. Atkinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The assignment of discussing Safe Practices In Measurement and Pressure Regulation covers too broad a field for one to discuss all of the safety aspects related to this subject in one short session. As you are well aware, there are any number of safe practices involved in gas measurement and pressure regulation operations which in themselves would require at least an hour to properly discuss each one. To emphasize this point, we might enumerate just a few of these safe practices which most of you perform with regularity in your job activities. They would be
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Document ID: 780BE847

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): J. V. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
A measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement of varying rates of flow at constant pressure and should deliver the desired pressure downstream. There are many station designs which differ in size, shape, header style, and kinds of equipment used. Each has been found most suitable for a particular situation and is usually an improvement over previous stations because of the knowledge gained each time a station of a new design is used
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Document ID: 7B2659BE

Determination And Application Of Supercompressibility Factors
Author(s): Paul Vv. I
Abstract/Introduction:
Except for hydrogen, helium and neon, all gases at room temperature occupy less volume at medium pressure than predicted by the Ideal (or Perfect) Gas Law, According to kinetic theory, this effect is due to the attractional forces between molecules as they either collide or come close together. The effect has been called a hidden pressure, as it acts as if there were more pressure acting than is actually present
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Document ID: C070F5BC

Orifice Meters-A Demonstration
Author(s): Don L. Louvier
Abstract/Introduction:
The theory of orifice meter measurement has not changed in many years. Most of the calculations were verified or modified with data obtained from test runs using the Mercurytype orifice meter. For many years the Mercury-type orifice meter was the only commercial device used to record orifice flows. The Mercury-type orifice meter is still doing the major part of measuring orifice flows therefore., it is necessary now. and for years to come, to understand the principle of operation and maintenance practice used with this device. This is what will be discussed in the following paper.
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Document ID: 1EA800EC

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): A. J. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is a technique for separating one or more components from a mixture. It had been used with mediocre success as an analytical tool for many years before workers and groups of workers in the early 1950s developed it into a leading present-day analytical method and into a very important addition to plant instrumentation and control
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Document ID: 35CBB2E2

Calculation Of Open Flow Potential Tests Using Ibm Computers
Author(s): Wesley m. Owen
Abstract/Introduction:
I have enlarged the subject matter of my paper to cover the calculation of deliverability tests as well as open flow potential by using IBM computers. This paper will deal with our Companys methods and experiences in using the IBM computers for calculation of these tests.
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Document ID: 0BE4B03A

The Sampling And Analysis Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Author(s): R. L. Huntington
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the determination of the composition of a liquid or gas consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbon is generally thought of in terms of the laboratory analyst. The importance of the analytical laboratory is not to be minimized however, it is a total loss of time to carry out careful work in the laboratory unless one can be certain that the proper sampling is made of the stream or batch of material under investigation. In other words the analytical results are of no value to the engineer unless they represent the average composition over a definite period of time in the case of continuous process or a portion of a truly homogenous mixture in the analysis of a large batch of stored liquid hydrocarbon.
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Document ID: C7F3C5A1

Gas Cleaning
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past ten years the term gas conditioning has come into general use within the natural gas industry to identify a well-defined group of operations for the removal of diluents and contaminants which make natural gas unmerchantable. In this decade, significant advances have been made in dehydration, acid gas removal and hydrocarbon dew point control processes and techniques. The economic removal of nitrogen still challenges the industry. Gas cleaning is the oldest of the gas conditioning operations, born with the industry itself.
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Document ID: F7B77C60

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the metering of gases the fundamental gas laws play a major role. The determination of the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure base and temperature base is the usual objective. The gas laws are equations expressing relationships of gas properties, such as pressure, volume and temperature, under varying conditions
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Document ID: FA5D6128

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): m. P. DEI3AETS
Abstract/Introduction:
While doing research for this paper, it was obvious that people presenting this class generally followed one (1) of two 121 patterns namely, (1) set up a table at the Exhibits and there display a few samples, new devices or pieces of equipment or 12) choose from, no doubt, numerous newdevices a few selected items and present a paper by discussing a few of these items. Both approaches are good and certainly have merit. However, remembering words that have appeared in trade magazines and other publications: namely, that Gas Measurement people are not progressive, imaginative, ineffective ambassadors of the art and intellectually inactive, etc.,
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Document ID: 2EFF2BFC

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): T. H. Eddleman
Abstract/Introduction:
The term wet gas measurement/ as used in the title refers to measurement of casinghead gas and to some of the more common measurement problems encountered in the operation of a plant gathering system. Although the fundamental principles of orifice measurement are the same for wet gas as for any other, measurement of casinghead gas does present physical conditions, as well as other conditions which require special handling, in order for the lease operator as well as the plant operator to receive maximum economic return for the gas being delivered. To elaborate briefly, the leases from which the gas is being measured are operated primarily for the production of oil, gas being an incidental byproduct
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Document ID: FD03B0B7

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressue volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and eompressibility. In addition, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases, Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: D0C2F9EC

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. E. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
Kinetic energy is that energy which matter has by virtue of moton and. all other factors being equal, is proportional to density. This principle is the basis of a commercial instrument which was developed about 40 years ago for automatically measuring the specific gravity of gases. It is the object of this class to explain the operation, illustrate the physical equipment and, as time permits, to answer your questions
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Document ID: 1366AAC2

The Operation Of A Flow Meter Test Site
Author(s): J.T. Beeithaupt
Abstract/Introduction:
Interest in totalizing gas meters for oil company production department operations began in the early 1950*s arising from the development within the industry of lease automation practices. An organized testing program was started by Shell Oil Company in 1957 for direct comparison of several types of meters under controlled conditions in the Elk City, Oklahoma, Gas Plant. Subsequently, the project was transferred to the Sheridan, Texas, Cycling Plant and this paper will deal with the testing equipment and procedures used at this location.
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Document ID: E8836358

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): W. S. Christian
Abstract/Introduction:
i -he turn of the century, the gas industry was in rite need of a practical way to measure large volumes ri:ural and manufactured gas. The displacement type ideally suited for accurate measurement of small i of low pressure gas, could not meet the new requiredue to practical considerations of design and appli- 3onscquently gas companies and manufacturers turnorifice measurement as the best solution to their 9B. With the acceptance of the orifice plate as a rerinary device, attention was concentrated on the seciV. iee-the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 0BB4C16E

Fundamentals Of Electronics As Applied To Measurement
Author(s): F. J. Kern
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of electronics is an ever expanding one which is generally conceded to have started with the invention of the vacuum triode although it could have as easily been brought about by the invention of the light bulb. In general, electronics has to do with the art of development of hardware which makes use of electron devices. The most commonlyknown of these devices arc vacuum tubes and transistors, In order to understand the present state-of-the-art capabilities in this field one must first know something of the behavior of electron devices themselves. Proper grasp behavior requires a vocabulary of basic electrical quantities and terms.
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Document ID: 0CBA8174

Flame Propagation And Explosion Proof Electrical Equipment
Author(s): Thomas E. Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1937, the Bureau of Mines Engineers in Dallas, Texas, developed equipment for reproducing on a laboratory scale actual fires and explosions which have occurred in the mineral and allied industries. Up to this time, few people had ever seen how flame travels through a sewer or pipe, how pressures built up as that flame travels, or how pressure can cause piping to rupture and sewer manhole covers to be blown off
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Document ID: 366395C6

Mass Flow Metering In The Field
Author(s): J, N. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement personnel do exactly what their name implies-they measure gas. Considering that the gas they measure is invisible, practically odorless, tasteless, and is lighter than air, they do an excellent job in their measurement and accountability. For even as they are measuring extremely large quantities of this gas. they are forced to use a unit of measurement as elusive as the very substance they are measuring.
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Document ID: 09AF4BE3

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meter Measurement
Author(s): Howard J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
While the turbine meter concept is quite old, it has previously been applied almost exclusively to the measurement of liquids. Gas measurement is a totally new area. As the positive displacement meter compares with a piston steam engine, so a turbine gas meter compares with a steam turbine. In principle, a rotor with specially shaped blades is mounted in a gas passage, and fluid is directed axially toward the rotor. Passage of the gas stream through the rotor exerts a force which turns the rotor at a speed directly proportional to gas flow rate.
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Document ID: 2FF92040

Regulators, Controllers And Related Equipment Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Harold F. Kruzan
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of a regulator is to reduce and control pressure. There are many reasons for desiring to accomplish this end such as safety, economy of transmission and distribution, accuracy of measurement and efficiency of the utilization of the gas. A regulator must be capable of reducing either a constant or variable pressure to a constant lower outlet pressure
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Document ID: 5EEBEABC

High And Low Pressure Regulatorsa Demonstration
Author(s): Harold F. Kkuzax
Abstract/Introduction:
This class covered a demonstration and discussion of the newest models and innovations of high and low pressure regulators. Both single valve toggle actuated regulators and balanced single valve regulators were displayed. Slides were shown and cut-away cross section models were used to illustrate the various principles discussed
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Document ID: E2B3EB96

Gas Service Regulators-Installation And Operation A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
For the duration of this class the subject of gas service regulators was covered for the many styles, types, construction and application of such regulators. Actual operation of regulators was demonstrated by the use of a regulator test stand using compressed air and a manometer to show reduced pressure. Sectional regulators, their component parts, weather and bug-proof vents and other allied items were used to assist in this
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Document ID: C84D5D9A

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters
Author(s): Alan Trewhitt
Abstract/Introduction:
The growth and development of the gas industry over the past few years has been phenomenal. In this time. housing developments have reached far into the suburbs of our cities and new communities have grown, resulting in an increased demand for gas service. This, coupled with the extension of gas service to the smaller cities and industrial users, has presented to the transmission companies the responsibility of answering this demand. The result has been the increased transmission pressures to the point where today, line pressures of 1000 p.s.i. are the rule rather than the exception
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Document ID: 8AA041BA

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators-A Demonstration
Author(s): Raymond P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
When selecting a regulator for a specific installation, it is essential that the regulator selected meets all the requirements of the installation if possible, therefore, it is obvious that the installation requirements and conditions be listed and a regulator chosen accordingly
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Document ID: D7889ABB

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Jack D. Muff
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of an orifice meter set up depends largely upon the care with which the orifice fitting and meter tube are installed and maintained. To give sensible care to any mechanical device, it is necessary to be familiar with the design and principles of its operation. This paper will attempt to cover enough of the description of orifice fittings and meter tubes that the user of such equipment will be able to use it with the greatest accuracy and still not find it necessary to spend excessive time in maintenance work.
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Document ID: E7F75238

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulatorsa Demonstration
Author(s): Donald L. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Since not all areas of the country classify regulators for various pressure conditions in exactly the same category we will, during this class, break them down into three separate categories for the purpose of discussion
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Document ID: ABA8EEB3

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Raymond Schweitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
When talking about large capacity regulators, it follows that the subject relates to regulators capable of handling large flows with a minimum pressure drop. Flow requirements arc usually such that maximum flow is needed when the inlet pressure is at a minimum. A regulator able to meet these high flow conditions and keep the overall pressure loss across the control valve to a minimum, is highly desirable. The regulator must also be capable of handling the minimum flow at the maximum inlet pressure
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Document ID: 4240BF0D

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Forest H. Weiirman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Flexflo is a valve of unique design. The operating member is an expansible tube. This tube is slipped over a cylindrical metal core having a series of longitudinal slots at each end, with a separating barrier between. Action of the expansible tube is determined by control of the differential pressure across it. In its operation the Flexflo valve resembles a diaphragm motor valve with the expansible tube acting as both diaphragm and inner valve. The tube is made from a formulated synthetic elastomer especially compounded to assure a high degree of tear and abrasion resistance, flexibility and strength
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Document ID: 41637F5F

Principles And Application Of Automatic Control
Author(s): B. W. Tiavis
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increasing cost of natural gas has come a heightened interest in measurement and control instrumentation for gas transmission and distribution systems. More precise control of gas flows and pressures makes possible the most efficient use of gas handling facilities and. in addition, promotes the general reliability of a system. Although there is considerable overlap between principles and applications of conventional balanced, or pilot-operated, regulators and automatic controllers of the recording or indicating type, this paper will deal only with the latter
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Document ID: CCEFECCE

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): James R. Hereington
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper is intended to cover the practices of our company in serving some 200,000 residential, commercial, and industrial customers. Our facilities are supplied through some 2,750 miles of 3-inch equivalent main with some 45,000 customers being served from utilization pressure systems (atmospheric pressure plus 4 ounces). We have approximately 42 major points where gas is purchased and/or delivered, the pressure is regulated and the gas odorized. Our interior system regulation facilities are comprised of 60 utilization pressure (4 ounces), 139 intermediate pressure (5 to 60 p.s.i.g.), and 13 high pressure (greater than 60 p.s.i.g.) regulation points. A network of high pressure mains interlaced through the system is operated from a low of approximately 45 p.s.i.g. to a maximum of 140 p.s.i.g.
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Document ID: 85D9F21D

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): Harold Langereis
Abstract/Introduction:
The key words in this papers title are high pressure. Regulation from high pressure transmission lines embraces many different problems not encountered in the usual low pressure dstribution systems. High pressure regulation may be defined as that contending with inlet pressures between 300 and 1000 p.s.i.g. and outlet pressures between 100 and 600 p.s.i.g. Low pressure regulation concerns itself with reducing pressures from 100 p.s.i.g. or less to pressures low enough for industrial and domestic utilization (generally around 8 W.C.), There is more to the difference between high and low pressure regulation than figures, however. In dealing with high pressures, a number of new problems must be considered. Failure to take these additional factors into account at the design stage can and often does lead to serious complications later. These resulting operating difficulties can at the least be disconcerting, but are more likely to create real hazards.
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Document ID: FDA92BB6

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): Ralph S. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary purpose of this paper is to relate one companys operating experience with remote supervisory control and telemetering equipment controlling remotely located orifice meter measuring stations. Pursuant to this purpose. a review of company history, equipment selection, and equipment function may better acquaint the reader with the total concept of the Columbia Gulf telemeter and control system.
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Document ID: 8AB857A5

Flow Computing And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Raymond Hardcastlf
Abstract/Introduction:
Analog gas flow computing has been available to the industry for a number of years. With the gas distribution companies, for example, the continuous up-to-the-minute flow information, provided by a gas flow computer system, enables them to stay within demand contract. Transmission companies have found the computer offers a way to keep their pipelines operating at maximum efficiency, thus assuring their customers of an adequate gas supply. The operations group within gas companies term the gas flow computer ideal for providing more and faster information on which to base decisions concerning load dispatching, peak shaving and storage
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Document ID: 4E5C62DC

High Pressure Farm Tap And Service Regulatorsa Demonstration
Author(s): Donald W. Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
High pressure farm taps are normally considered to be those small reducing stations along a high pressure natural gas transmission line reducing pressures ranging from 100 to 500 p.s.i.g. to usable pressure measured in inches water column. These stations normally feed an individual domestic customer. However, high pressure reducing stations feeding small industrial customers were included.
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Document ID: 7D6954C5

Trouble Shooting In Metametertelemetering Systems
Author(s): E. P. Bousquet
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to discuss trouble-shooting in Telemetering Systems. lets first define the word Telemetering. Telemetering is the art of measuring at a distance. A simple form of telemetering, which we all have available to us, is a gasoline gauge in our automobile. The level of our gasoline is made to actuate a slider on a variable resistor which, when combined with the automobile battery, varies the voltage to a simple voltmeter calibrated in gasoline capacity
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Document ID: 8DDB3D81

Orifice Fittings-A Demonstration
Author(s): W. R. Henry
Abstract/Introduction:
A class demonstration and discussion explaining the various types of Orifice Fittings. Visual slides and models were used in the demonstration of operation and construction. The discussion covered design, selection, operation, maintenance and application of the various orifice fittings and related parts.
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Document ID: 37179AC1

Telemetering - Advanced Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): B. C. Joyce
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years, the most notable change that has occurred in the Field of Telemetering, has been the trend toward large systems brought about by centralized dispatch operations. As dispatching has progressed from a local to centralized mode of operation, great amounts of data have been required in order to make the Dispatcher knowledgeable of the happenings, in his system, As a result, the need has been evident for new approaches to our Telemetering problems, and these have been developed over the past few years.
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Document ID: 5AA31852

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): Jr. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
When looking at a regulator which utilizes a solid rubber plug for the first time, it is not quickly apparent how it operates. In the ease of the regulator herein described, the rubber plug makes up the inner valve which is secured in the regulator body in such a way as to perform several important functions. A point to consider is that the rubber plug regulator was designed, within the Gas Industry, to elimnate certain regulation problems and it has been found that the rubber plug and the way that it can be worked have combined to give heretofore unavailable action.
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Document ID: E5877608

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Given the following gas company conditions, select the proper size valve body, orifice diameter, diaphragm case, spring and safety equipment
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Document ID: 77B469B2

Measurement By Displacement Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): William Deminie
Abstract/Introduction:
The control and measurement of the ever expanding consumption of natural gas in the United States and Canada has placed a greater emphasis on accurate metering, Literally speaking, the gas meter is the cash register of the gas industry, The analogy-of course, would be truer, if the index were calibrated in dollars and cents. As it stands today, the meter is the basis for correct billing to the customer.
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Document ID: 33D823D8

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): John W. Harrigkr
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity meters arc used to meter commercial and industrial loads where the orifice type meter is not suitable, due to pressure loss conditions, load ratio, and other reasons. In these installations the proper size and type of diaphragm meter makes an excellent measuring device.
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Document ID: F12AE791

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters can be defined as positive displacement meters having a capacity of 500 cubic feet per hour or less, operating at a differential pressure of W water column. These meters are generally classified by capacity and case material. Case materials used are tin plated steel, cast iron, and aluminum. In the Southwestern area in particular, and more and more throughout the United States, aluminum case meters are becoming more popular. For this reason, plus the fact that the working principles are all the same, we will confine this paper to a discussion of Ironcase and Aluminumcase meters
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Document ID: 9D231CAF

Domestic Meters
Author(s): John W. Harriger
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 100 years, gas has been measured by means of a positive displacement meter. There have been various types and sizes but the basic principle is still the same. In addition to this, the basic difficulties are also the same that were encountered in 1850. Let us dig deeper and see how the present day domestic gas meter overcomes these difficulties
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Document ID: 3DAE9AF5

Automatic Proving Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): P, A. Palmer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is automatic? What does it mean? Do we want it? There are very few processes or pieces of equipment that are fully automatic. Someone must bring the item to the machine, position and lock it in place, activate the equipment, and remove the finished article. In a truly automatic operation, all these steps would bo programmed and handled without outside help. This would have many obvious advantages, but the costs and inflexibility may be prohibitive. So-we consider semi-automatic, or a compromise between manual and fully automatic
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Document ID: 7822CF11

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): C. W. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
It might be of interest Lo note that it costs between thirty and fifty cents to test and adjust the average domestic meter. When one considers that the average domestic meter in this area records in the neighborhood of S75.00 worth of gas petyear and that meter change periods have increased due to better parts, better materials, and better testing equipment and procedures, ten years is now the average service life. Multiply this by S75.00 and you have a potential of S750.00 revenue before you will see your meters again.
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Document ID: CA62D206

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): Lekoy B. Laycock
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion is primarily directed to the application of rotary positive displacement iRPD) gas meters, ROOTSMETERS, in the area of gas production measurement. ROOTSMETERS have been in use, primarily in the gas distribution field, for over 40 years and have built up an excellent performance record. During the past three years with the introduction of the Series 125 line-mounted meters and the 600 & 1200 p.s.i. working pressure meters, wide areas of application have been developed in all phases of the gas production and gas transmission field.
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Document ID: 89ECEB54

Orifice Fittings
Author(s): Philip m. Vickery
Abstract/Introduction:
It is no longer entirely correct to refer to the orifice plate exclusively as the primary element. Exhaustive research, calculations and actual tests, such as the A.G.A. Rockville, Maryland tests in 1948, have conclusively proven that the primary element is indeed a very precise and closely controlled marriage of no less than three equally important mechanical devices. This would be the flat orifice plate, the orifice plate housing and the carefully selected approach and outlet piping referred to as the meter tube.
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Document ID: 98367ADC

Domestic Meter Shop Operation And Test Frequency
Author(s): John E. Dugan
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of operating gas meter repair shops has been cussed and discussed many, many times at many gatherings. We will take what seems to be the easy way out and discuss only what we do in our situation and why we do it. There are many factors determining the domestic meter shop policy and the use of the facilities to carry it out most efficiently. Some of these are:
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Document ID: 8B18072D

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. B. Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of gas is a function that directly affects the economics of the gas industry. The contract purchase and selling price of gas is a meaningful figure only when gas volumes are accurately metered. Since revenues are determined to a large extent by the volume registered on a meter index then, without question, a program of testing and maintenance should be resolved that will result in accurate measurement at a minimum cost. In this discussion we will attempt to cover the more important aspects of a testing and maintenance program.
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Document ID: CBD80A21

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniquesa Panel Discussion
Author(s): James W. Chrisman E. E. Arther George S. Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
of meter repair shops since the early 1920s when the meter repair shop was often the only building or space that there was littte or no other use for. Planning a new repair shop or remodeling an old one requires much time and study. The meter repair shop should have planned lighting with no glare or shadows.
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Document ID: 2AED54C8

Large Capacity Displacement Meters And Auxiliary Devices
Author(s): James K. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity positive displacement meters fill a definite need in the gas measurement field. These meters are used in the measurement of gas to the industrial or commercial customer. This type of measurement requires that the meter be capable of accurate measurement over a wide flow ratio while operating at relatively high pressures.
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Document ID: DE88C101

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Robert G. Heffernan
Abstract/Introduction:
A domestic gas meter is generally understood to be any meter that will pass up to about 500 ft. per hour, but because there are more of a type called the Glovers meter in use than any other, we will confine this tall to that type.
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Document ID: 43DEAD36

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meter And Regulator
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
The Combination Meter and regulator is designed for the capacity of the meter. The regulator components readily fit the top easting-simplicity of construction resulting in economic maintenance and a high degree of accuracy
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Document ID: 51BC2DA5

Displacement Meters
Author(s): E. R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
Extreme care must be exercised in manufacturing or repairing any mechanism. It is well for the meter repair mechanic to know something of the precautions taken in the manufacture of gas meters. His knowledge of the assembly and test methods of properly moulded or machined parts, used by the manufacturer, can prove of great value to him in the care and repair of the meters
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Document ID: 3847A4F8

Gas Accounting Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Gas Accounting Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Abstract/Introduction:
Not too many years ago, the Oil Industry had a real problem in what to do with the natural gas that came pouring out of the well head. Millions of cubic feet were allowed to escape into the atmosphere or were burned at the well head. Eventually, some of this gas was piped short distances and natural gas soon became a competitor to other fuels. There was still a large surplus of gas and, hence, in many instances, it was sold on the basis of so many dollars per month and you could use all the gas you wanted
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Document ID: 4FFB5AE7

Gas Accounting For Production Systems
Author(s): T. m. Sabin
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Accounting for Production Systems is a broad and complex subject. A paper on the subject is rendered extremely difficult because of decisions necessary for clarity and brevity. Matters concerning lease and gasoline plant accounting of particular interest to the writers will be discussed. Statements made will necessarily reflect the writers experience in gas accounting in this firm and doubtless will expose ignorance of methods and procedures of other companies. Oil accounting and gas measurement will not be discussed in this paper. Gas measurement is thoroughly covered in other papers presented at the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. Discussion of expenses relating to Gas Accounting will be limited to those affecting revenue, tax and royalty
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Document ID: FFC029A4

Gas Accounting For Transmission Systems
Author(s): W. C. Ingram
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas accounting provides records which deal with volumes of gas exchanged, purchased, sold and used in company operations or transferred from one system to another. It, also, involves values assigned to the gas volumes as they affect the producer, the customer and certain specific taxes
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Document ID: FA2E7EC4

Orifice Meter Tube Fabrication-A Demonstration
Author(s): Don J. Betts
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and fabrication of Orifice Meter Runs is covered in complete detail by the American Gas Association Committee Report No. S, published in April 1955. This report can be secured from the American Gas Association, 420 Lexington Avenue, New York 17, New York, at a nominal cost.
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Document ID: 9E30C820

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): R. E. Randall
Abstract/Introduction:
The Chart Department or Gas Accounting Department is that department within a gas company whose duty is to take a paper record reflecting recordings of differential and static pressure of an orifice meter station or cycles and pressure recording of a displacement (Positive) meter station, and convert these recordings into representative amounts of that companys commodity gas. Since this department calculates or computes these meter charts, it should be very clear that they have to do this in an accurate manner, as these charts represent the revenue of that company.
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Document ID: F766A924

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): E. Rue Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion of the elements of gas contracts will concern itself with contracts for the sale of gas by a natural gas producer and the purchase thereof by an interstate gas pipe line transmission company. There arc, of course, other types of gas contracts, namely contracts for the sale of gas by a transmission company to a distribution company, contracts for the sale of gas by a transmission company to an industrial consumer, contracts for the sale of gas by a natural gas producer to an industrial consumer or to a central gas processing system. However, it is felt that the category which we will discuss, the contract for the sale of gas to an interstate gas transmission company, is by far the most common and of greatest interest to you who are attending this Measurement Short Course
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Document ID: 3C178654

Application Of Electronic Computers To Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): Paul A. Fedde
Abstract/Introduction:
The widespread availability of high speed digital computers has done a lot to simplify the increasing tedious calculations that an advancing technology has made a necessary part in the computation of gas measurement factors. This paper details three specific examples: a) calculation of supercompressibility test determinations using the Bureau of Standards Apparatus (Bean), b) calculation of the basic orifice factor Fb, and c) calculation of the supercompressibility factor Fpv, where the use of electronic computers has speeded the calculation of gas measurement factors
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Document ID: 1FE4ADA3


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