Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1960)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Aaass Flow Measurement
Author(s): J. L. Martin And Harry Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass may be defined as the measuee of inertia of a body as indicated by acceleration imparted to it when acted upon by a given force,- or the quotiett of the weight of a body divided by the acceleration due to gravity. Mass flow metering is defined as a method of measuring matter flowing past a point by continually measuring the inertia! momentum and comparing it with a standard. Since the acceleration due to gravtty is basically constant over the surface of the earth, mass is then expressed as weigh.. Therefore, mass-flow metering or measurement is the practical terminology applied to the measurement of fluids and gas, using pounds as the standard measure
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Document ID: 43F47AFE

The Foxboro Density Cell
Author(s): W.F. Covert
Abstract/Introduction:
The Foxboro Denstty Cell was purchased by Northwest Natural Gas Company to explore its accuracy, dependability and also the appiications in which we could put it to profitabee use. The instrument was designed primarily as a device to indicate the density of a gaseous fluid at a point in a line
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Document ID: 81DFE43F

New Development In Gas Regulators
Author(s): Jerry Aaccormick Frank Ceseran
Abstract/Introduction:
The information which is to be passed on to you has been obtaindd solely from the literature furnishdd by the seveall manufacturers. At the present time our requrrements do not include regulators of the type we are going to discuss, therefoee our experienee with these regulators is nil. Let us take a look at the Jet Stream Regulator, manufactured by the APCO Division of Textron Inc., in Whitfier, Californa.. The Jet Stream is an expansion type, pneumatic-hydraulic opeated regulator. It utilizes conveniionll controls and a diaphragm motor as the actuating power source. The diaphragm plate is connected to a master hydrauiic piston, which operates a slave piston within the regulator body.
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Document ID: E10482BB

Plug Valve Regulators
Author(s): J. R. Chinn, R. T. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
With the growhh of the Natural Gas Industry there has built up a demand for automatic and remote control of much larger volumes of gas at higher pressures. Since the standard control devices have three inherent drawbacks, that of high restriction in wide open position, high noise level, and loss of positive shut off in closed position due to rapid wear, some individual gas companies, in experimenting, found that a plug valve would overcome to a large extent these failings. Next, these companies sought an actuator for automaiic and remote control of these valves. They adapted rams from other pneumatic and hydraulic system electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic motors with gearing to operate the plug valves.
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Document ID: E20FCB62

Regulator Terminology
Author(s): Fred King, Leslie Coope
Abstract/Introduction:
With the soaring 60s ahead of us we seem to be enterigg the space age of pressuee regulation. The jet stream regulator has just been discussed. The famliiar gas pressuee regulator is getting long names attached to it where we seem to be more in the electronics industry than we are in the gas busines.. We would like to take some time today to discuss some of these terms, what they mean, where they come from and how they are appiied within our industry. Many of these terms are the resutt of the instrumentation age we entered in the 1950s
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Document ID: FA09CE0F

Telemetering
Author(s): Frank Smith And John Grey
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemeteiing is a means of transferring information between remote sources. In Gas Distribution work, flows, pressures, temperatures, holder heights, etc., can be remotely read or controlled by use of this equipment. There are seveall systems available. Howeve,, the Bristol Metameter system is widely used by the gas industry. It is the one we are going to consider in detail
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Document ID: AA66E774

Gas Quality Determinations
Author(s): Reed Hulsey
Abstract/Introduction:
The quality of the gas that we deliver has to meet certain requirements. These requiremens are set forth in the gas purchase agreements which we enter into with other companies. The properties that concern us here are as follows: a. Odors and Solids b. Oxygen Content c. Liquids d. Hydrogen Sulphide e. Total Sulphur f. Heating Value
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Document ID: E07C09B6

Odorization
Author(s): C. R. Hillier And John Grey
Abstract/Introduction:
In the manufactured gas industry the subject of gas odorization was rarely mentioned as the manufactured gases usually had sufficient traces of impurities that rendered a distinctive gassy odor. This does not apply to the Natural Gas Indusfry. Natural gas at the well head usually contains sufficient sulphurous products so as to have an offensive odor. Often some of these sulphurous products are corrosive or are not suitable to pass through a transmission system. It is then necessary for the transmission company to remove these products
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Document ID: 782972E1

Dew Point Testing Of Natural Pipe Lines
Author(s): C. W. Way
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas leaving a Wellhedd or gas oil separator, is usually saturated with water vapor at the existing temperature and pressure. In areas of lower atmospheiic temperatures, such as Northern Canada, a dehydratinn unit is usually installed at the wellhedd site. In this manner the water vapor content is lowered considerably, but, an active dew point testing program is necessary to check the efficienyy of the dehydration units thereby giving the operationcontrol of the amount of water vapor present. In most gas contracts the amount of permissable water present, is seven pounds, per million cubic feet of natural gas. In areas of extreme cold conditions, the maximum amount of water present, is three pounds per million cubic feet of gas
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Document ID: 1D690ADF

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of A Gas In The Field
Author(s): S. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
By definition, specific gravity of natural gas is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of gas to the weight of an equal volume of dry air v/hen both densities are determined under the same temperature and pressure conditions. -Besides other usesrthe-deteTminatlorrfthTspecifir-vit-flis-eireTTiinsasu ment by orifice meter, due to the effect of the specific gravtty on orifice meter calculations
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Document ID: ED61CFDB

Operation And Maintenanee Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): J. C. Briant J. L. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
At the turn of the century, gas was used mainly for illumination and was sold by volume and a candle power standard. As industry found other uses, the necesstty of a heaiing standard was obvious.Manycalorimeters-we-e-constructed-usingprincipiesofflame-color-or-Iength7o-fh-eatiRgmeasured quantities of water and measurigg the expansion of different types of heat eccurately. The most popuarr and accuraee modern designdd unit for measurigg heat value is the Cutler- Hammer recording calorimeter in which a ccntinuous flow of measured gas and measured air are burne,, impartigg the total heat to a controledd flow of air. The temperature of this medium of air is accurately measured befoee and after passing around the combustion chamber. The difference in the temperarere is transformed and continually recorddd on a roll chart.
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Document ID: F9DE5D8D

Problems In Orifice Meter Calibration
Author(s): O. A. Kash F. E. Meiningrr
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpoee of testing an instrument of any nature is to establish the accuracy and to dete-mine the exact condition of the instrument in which it is operating. It is most important to have and keep all orifice metess in as near perfect condition and accurate as possible at all times. The orifice meter and its accessories are designed.and manufactured to-measure veryiargevlilumes 6f-FtC?F5rg-iri-nd8therp75durtrTheaccurecy in orifice meter measurement is obviously important to the seller or buyer in dollars and cents as well as public relations, the welfaee of the gas compan.
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Document ID: 28563825

Comparative Methods Of Natural Gas Analysis
Author(s): H. S. Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
Much of the work done by engineers in nearly all phases of the natural gas industry, has its start with laboratory analyses of natural gas. Most often complete data as to its chemical composition and physical properties is supplied from specialized analyses conducted by laboratories all over the country. Scientists are. continuously searching for new and better tools for conducting these analyses more quickly and accurately. One of the newer instrumenlal methods for doing just that is the chromatograph This instrument, although only developed a very few years ago, has become a major tool by more quickly and accurately analyzing mixtures of organic chemicals. This is even more true in the lighter hydrocarbon field such as the natural gas industry. The chromatograph is rather rapidly displacing the low temperature distlllation methods such as the Podbielniak in these types of analysis.
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Document ID: 86543E32

Orifice Meter Chart Reading
Author(s): Royal S. Ostby
Abstract/Introduction:
Since this convention is gathered for the primary purpose of discussing and solving the problems connected with gas measurement, it is fitting and proper to discuss the methods of reading and calculating orifice meter charts. Inscribed on thesechartsJs the-record-of fiowthrough ali-orfflce m-iterlJbe7rhu7 il is just asimportant to handee and read the charts carefully and accurately as it is to calibraee the meter property and accurately
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Document ID: C7AC8E23

Displacement Meters
Author(s): Geo. T. Jennings
Abstract/Introduction:
The common type of displacemett meter is referred to as the diaphragrnorpositive. . displacement-type.-ThT-flrsrmtess used for measuring gas to customers were the diaphragm type, and were introduced in England more than 100 years ago. The domestic meter of today operates essentially on the same principle as the originll two-diaphragm desig..
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Document ID: A41240DC

Vortex Velocity Meter
Author(s): Henry C. Judd
Abstract/Introduction:
The Rotron Vortex Veloctty Meter is a relativeyy brand-new meter to the gas industry. Our company has recently purchased one of these meters, and we have been testing it for the past several months. In theoyy the operation of this meter at first glance appears quite simple. As shown in Figure 1, to a piece of standard pipe -a-n-offs-itlifTdFiclchimbrhas been added in which an eddy or pool is created as gas flows through the pipe
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Document ID: 1AF3EC02

Field Testing Meters
Author(s): Henry C. Judd
Abstract/Introduction:
The probeem of testing metess in the field has been with the gas indusrry as long as there have been large volume displacement meters used by gas companies. We have already heard discussed how metess can be tested in the shop by using the bell prove.. The beli prove,, when properly utilized, still represents the most accurate means of testing displacement meters of all sizes..Thequesiionthat.some-of.you..then-must-beasking-isr-why-dont-we-be!lprover-test-al- meters in the shop?
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Document ID: 2DAFE657

Diaphragm Meter Set Design
Author(s): Henry C. Judd
Abstract/Introduction:
A general discussion on the subject of meter set design could very easlly take up a full aftenoons discussion. I fee,, howeve,, that we would be remiss, since we are on the subject of displacement meters, if we did not briefly describe at least one of our most commonyy used meter set designs. The design to be discussed is the one that we use for customesswiiosetotac connected hourly- . - -oad-is-between-2,500arrd-15000SCF-airdwhi7efhT maximum inlet pressuee does not exceed 60 p.sii.g. The attachdd drawngg No. A12-339 is an exampee of such a set and represents what we hope is the last of many revisions of the original drawngg made at the time of the advent of natural gas. The advantages of this design are:
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Document ID: 59424389

Pressure & Temperature Compensatigg Indexes
Author(s): W. F. Covert
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas delivery to the Northwest Natural Gas Company resulted in many changes in our methods of operaiion compared to the manufactured gas era. Gas became obtainabee for an ever expanding market and made possible deliveyy of gas to customers in large volumes at relatively high pressures. The high pressure metering needs in this company grew from a half-dozen meters to over one hundred and eighty. Metering conditions became more complex, and the need for compeTsatinuj:orrectiondeMces .grewjrom Jhese
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Document ID: B6D98B47

Altitude Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): W. F. Covelt
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of altitude on average Barometric pressuee is a recognized fact. The Barometric pressuee for a given elevation can be determined from calculation, or more easlly, from an established table based on these calculations. The point to be made is the effect thai variations in Barometric pressuee will have on the cash reister of the gas company-the billing mete
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Document ID: 19BC86C4


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