Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1956)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): L. A. Mcgowan
Abstract/Introduction:
The loads of commercial and industrial consumers play an important part in the structure of any gas distributing company, and loads of this type are becoming more and more important as time goes on. The accurate measurement of these loads is therefore a serious concern to the management of these companies.
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Document ID: 1591B6B6

Domestic And Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H .V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters, as manufactured by the American Meter Company, are four-compartment, two-diaphragm meters with bellows type diaphragms. These meters are made in four general designs: the Ironcase Meter, the Aluminuracase Meter, the Tinned Steelcase Meter and the Welded Steel Meter. In the Ironcase and Aluminumcase Meters, the body is one integral casting which forms the case, partition, table and gallery. The top, front and back covers are fastened to the body with machine screws, completing the housing for the measurement compartments and the meter mechanism. A threaded handhole plate screws into the meter top through this handhole it is possible to inspect the mechanism above the table and to make minor adjustments of the tangent and linkage.
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Document ID: 7B70031E

Displacement Meter Repair And Maintenance - A Demonstration
Author(s): Robert G. Burr, Stuart P. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Many a meter repairman has developed great skill in his work. That skill can be further supplemented by mechanical aids, such as jigs and guages in repairing Sprague Domestic Meters. Seven gauges will be used on actual meter assemblies together with charts for you to see. The order of use will be in the sequence required for a class four repair, as follows: Catalogue #129 - Valve Seat Centering Gauge Catalogue #128 - Main Shaft Height Gauge Catalogue #127 - Carrier Bracket Centering Gauge Catalogue #117A - Aligner Gauge Catalogue #118 - Tangent Crank Gauge Catalogue #126 - New Style Flag Height and Index Gauge Catalogue #133 - Combination Valve and Index Flag Height Gauge
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Document ID: 68D02868

Maintenance And Repair Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. H. Hemfelt
Abstract/Introduction:
The maintenance and repair of orifice meters fall into two general classifications: shop repairs and field repairs. Most of the maintenance and repair work can be performed in the field. However, it will occasionally be necessary to overhaul a meter completely in the shop.
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Document ID: 8EB7A4FF

Domestic Meter Proving
Author(s): Charles W. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Associations report for 1955 indilates that more than 26.8 million displacement gas meters are now in service. Based on a service period of seven years, more than 3.8 million meters will be repaired and tested this year. Meter accuracy should not vary beyond the close limits set forth by the separate state regulatory bodies. Meters that are either slow or fast, beyond these legal limits, result in financial loss to the customer or the operating company. To insure this degree of accuracy over long periods of service, precision and economy in repairs are essential. Finally, and of utmost importance are efficient, accurate and consistent meter test procedures.
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Document ID: 86B900C1

Domestic METERS-A Demonstration
Author(s): L. A. Mcgowan
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas meter is a device for measuring and recording the measurement of the volume of gas used by the consumer. Domestic gas meters are generally considered to be those meters which have a capacity up to 500 cfh when measured at W difference in pressure between the inlet and outlet of the meter. Gas meters must measure and record consumption of gas accurately and continuously over a long period of time without attention. They should not materially impede the free flow of gas. They should be easy to repair and must be accurate.
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Document ID: B8682A3F

Displacement Meter Trouble Diagnosis
Author(s): Ed R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the life of a meter and the serious business of measurement. So much has been written on what to do when repairing a meter that it should prove interesting to review the subject with a negative approach. The following words of caution, with the reasoning which prompts the warnings, may be helpful in overcoming some of the discrepancies in maasurement which have been experienced.
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Document ID: F63CC54D

Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Bernt G. Iversen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Roots-Connersville rotary positive displacement meter accurately measures volumes of gas by the rotation of two figure eight shaped impellers within stationary cylinders. The displacement is accomplished within the confined space which is formed by the cylinder wall, one impeller, and flat surfaced headplates at the ends. Refer to Figure 1 for a cross-sectional view of the meter. This figure shows the direction of the gas flow through the meter. As the right hand impeller rotates in a clockwise direction to a vertical position, a definite volume of gas is displaced. The continued rotation of the impeller releases this measured volume of gas to the bottom opening of the meter. The impeller on the left hand side of the meter rotates in a counterclockwise direction. When this impeller rotates to a vertical position, another definite volume of gas is displaced and discharged through the bottom opening of the meter. This operation is alternately repeated therefore, for one revolution there are four displacements from the measuring compartments. The speed at which the impellers rotate is proportionate to the gas flow. Meters operating at continuous rated capacity have a differential pressure drop nf approximately 1.0 water column.
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Document ID: 43FF9E75

Domestic Meter Shop Operations And Test Frequency
Author(s): J. R. Born
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not the purpose of this paper to outline meter repair procedure and test frequency for all meter shops. The proper procedure will depend on the size of the shop, the type of gas measured by the meters and the type of meters to be repaired and tested. The remarks that I make in the time assigned me are my own opinions of some of the ways the different operations can be carried put.
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Document ID: 245970ED

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): George L. Ray
Abstract/Introduction:
The Large Capacity Displacement Meter, as used by many gas companies, represents the cash register for a large percentage of the total sales of gas to its customers. Therefore, a sound, practical, maintenance program must be established and maintained if the company expects to continue in profitable business for any length of time. The present high cost of natural gas at the well head, and the almost certain increase due to escalator clauses in purchase contracts, also dictate a sound maintenance program.
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Document ID: 5D587C48

New Developments In Design Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): James Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject New Developments in Design of Domestic Meters may be a little premature in the sense that at the present time the Metering Subcommittee of the American Gas Association is in the process of preparing Standard Specifications for the Purchase of Meters, which may bring about an entirely new concept in the assembly of meters. Therefore this subject may be classified as a supplementary progress report of the paper New Approach to Meter Design DMC 54 - 1 A.G.A. There has been considerable thought and development of new ideas and methods of fabricating small capacity meters since that dte. Although the basic operating priciple of the diaphragm type gas meter has not been changed, we do have a more modern method of assembly. With all of the modern methods and equipment which are available today, we should be able to get away from the hand assembled seam.
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Document ID: 0B629AF7

Measurement By Orifice - Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): H. H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject assigned to this class by the Meter School Committee is Fundamental Principles of Orifice Meters. Tnis paper will attempt to stick to that very thesis- Fundamentals! in order to establish a basis for discussing the orifice meter, it might be well to delve into some of the history behind its perfection and see just where, and why the Idea of measuring fluids through an orifice was conceived.
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Document ID: C177A01A

Regulators, Controls, And Related Equipment - Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Kenneth R. D. Wolfe
Abstract/Introduction:
The American public has grown so accustomed to the convenience and service of the magic flame of natural gas that little thought is ever given to the tremendous task of discovering the gas fields, drilling the gas wells, building the thousands of miles of transmission pipelines, compressor stations and distribution systems. In all of these stages of the natural gas industry, automatic pressure controllers play an important part. These controllers in the industry are commonly referred to as gas regulators or governors.
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Document ID: B6EBEE15

Orifice Fittings For Meter Runs
Author(s): Philip m. Vickery
Abstract/Introduction:
In view of the steadily increasing cost of materials and labor, plus the extreme shortage of skilled technicians, mechanics and engineers, it behooves each person in the industry to take every advantage of the newer labor-saving and cost-saving mechanical devices. This is particularly true of the Natural Gas Industry, where consumer demand for all of the multitude of end products of natural gas as production creates each year a more serious shortage of trained personnel.
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Document ID: 150E49E1

Orifice Meter Run Fabrication - A Demonstration
Author(s): E. A. Bartolina
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and fabrication of Orifice Meter Runs is covered in complete detail by the American Gas Association Committee Report No. 3, published in April, 1955. This report can be secured from the American Gas Association, 420 Lexington Ave., N. Y. 17, N. Y., al a nominal cost. Committee Report No, 3 is intended to supplement Report No. 2. Generally, all the data in this report is the same as included in Report No. 2, except that it has been expanded to cover a wider range of conditions. In many instances, slight changes were made and statements added in order to clarify some of the conditions which were brought about from practical application of Reports Nos. 1 and 2. The orifice factors have been established for a pressure base of 14.73 psia in place of the former pressure base of 14.4 psia. The base pressure factor table contained in this report enables the determination of the volume of gas flow to be made in terms of any contract pressure base. The results are consistent with those obtained from Report No. 2.
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Document ID: A0472ECF

Measurement For Gas Lift Operations
Author(s): D. A. North
Abstract/Introduction:
During the production of an oil well the formation pressure frequently will decrease such that the well will no longer flow the desired volumes of fluid. When a well has reached thsi stage of depletion, an outside source of energy must be introduced to enable continued production.
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Document ID: 752779C7

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. F. Downey
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has been in used by the gas, oil and chemical industry for approximately 40 years and has proven to be a very accurate and dependable device for obtaining measurement of gases and liquids. The use of this type of meter is very desirable due to its flexibility in the measurement of small or large volumes at wide ranges of pressure from a vacuum to several thousands of pounds psig.
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Document ID: 7C221F19

Field Measurement At Extremely High Pressures
Author(s): E. A. Thoes
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter measurement of the well effluent at pressures above 1,100 psi with acceptable accuracy offers real challenge to the measurement engineer. Very small errors in the measurement are magnified many times by the high pressure. Therefore, to eliminate measurement errors which accumulate, it becomes imperative that the meter station conform to the definite specifications set by the American Gas Association. Small additive errors can be expected if the meter station does not duplicate the basic elements under which the orifice coefficients were originally obtained. Also, consistent errors in the determination of the compressibility, specific gravity, or other factors used to reduce the gas to a standard volume can be additive. Even when the mechanical problems of obtaining the orifice measurement are solved, the measurement error can amount to millions of cubic feet of gas a year.
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Document ID: 0F5B21B1

Orifice Meters
Author(s): D. m. Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
The increase in the value of natural gas, together with the continuing increase in the volumes of gas being measured calls for the utmost in metering accuracy. This paper will, therefore, concern itself largely with a number of factors which lead toward this desired end.
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Document ID: 28B5C343

High And Low Pressure Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): Harold F. Kruzan
Abstract/Introduction:
In this demonstration class the subject of high and low pressure regulators was discussed. The following phases of this broad subject were covered: I. Definition of a Regulator II. Basic Design (1) Spring Loading (2) Weight Loading (3) Pilot Loading (4) Instrument Loading III. Regulator Capacity IV. Types of Valves V. Pressure Springs VI. Selection of a Regulator
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Document ID: AC98FBF0

Measurement By Displacement - Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
A definition of a positive displacement meter could be a meter which directly measures volume at line conditions regardless of temperature, pressure, or density of the gas. This type of meter is fundamentally the same whether it is designed for the measurement of water, petroleum products, or gas. For the purpose of simplicity, we will only consider the two diaphragm, four compartment meter with D-slide valves which is the most common type of meter used in domestic gas measurement.
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Document ID: 62C0519B

Gas Service REGULATORS-INSTALLATION And Operation
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Under the foregoing title, we will discuss the general subject of Gas Service Regulators by sub-dividing this paper into the following groups or titles of each phase of the subject: 1. Definition of a Service-Typs Gas Pressure Regulator. 2. Low Inlet Service Regulators for Conversion Projects and High Leakage Conditions. 3. Description of Construction and Mechanical Operation. 4. Suggestions for Good Installation Procedure. 5. Methods used for Shop Repair. 6. Weather and Bug-proof Breather Vents for Service Regulators.
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Document ID: 08C669E8

Density Measurement As Applied To Orifice Metering
Author(s): L. K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas orifice meter is really basically a weighing device, although the basic formula, velocity squared is equal to twice the acceleration of gravity times the head of flowing fluid, would give the impression that it is a Telocity device. Inasmuch as it is impossible to measure head in feet of flowing fluid, it is immediately necessary to bring in a factor to convert manometer readings to feet of flowing fluid. This introduces the density factor.
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Document ID: FCE72AE6

High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters - A Demonstration
Author(s): Gaines W. Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
By use of a slide, a diagram of a typical gas transmission and gas distribution system, from well head to appliance, was shown. At various points throughout the system, the application of various high and low pressure regulators, as well as booster regulators, was pointed out.
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Document ID: CEFD704B

Safety Relief And Shut-Off Valves For Distribution Systems
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
As the gas industry continues its tremendous expansion program, it becomes increasingly important that safety keep pace with progress in other phases. As increasingly high pressures have been introduced into systems designed originally for low pressure distribution, and as these higher pressures have been imposed on regulators and other equipment installed for a less rigorous set of operating conditions, the possibility of accidental excess pressure in low pressure distribution systems becomes more acute. Within recent years there have been certain unfortunate accidents of great severity involving accidental excess pressure which could have been avoided entirely through the use of equipment and techniques now well understood.
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Document ID: 08FCF5E9

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): Raymond P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
When selecting a regulator for a specific installation, it is essential that the regulator selected meets all the requirements of the installation if possible. Therefore, it is obvious that the installation requirements and conditions be listed and a regulator chosen accordingly.
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Document ID: CE8F0953

High And Low Pressure Gas REGULATORS-A Demonstration
Author(s): G. C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
The demonstration in this class covered Regulators used to control the flow of gas to both Industrial and House Service customers. Cutaway models and large drawings were used to show their construction, operation and methods of loading. With each new type of regulator discussed a Relief Valve, Seal or Monitor Safety System was shown.
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Document ID: 2349D14B

High And Low Pressure Gas REGULATORS-A Demonstration
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class, the discussion covered High Pressure Balanced Valve Regulators and Low Pressure Balanced Valve Regulators. Slides were shown to illustrate the subject matter presented. The following outline indicates the coverage of this demonstration and discussion.
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Document ID: CD093489

Control Valve Sizing For Gas Flows
Author(s): Donald J. L. Lin
Abstract/Introduction:
In conjunction with the rapid increase of automatic controls applications in all industries, came the added emphasis on the controllability, stability, sensitivity and the cost of the automatic control equipment. While acknowledging the importance of the accuracies and sensitivites of the sensing and acutating instruments the accurate sizing and selection of the final element of the automatic control system, such as the control valve, must be fully exercised to attain the best system performance at an ecomonic cost.
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Document ID: CCF78017

Pressure Regulators And Flow Controllers With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): F. H. Wehrman
Abstract/Introduction:
Some fifteen years ago an entirely new regulator was designed. The important first step was the determination to build a regulator basically different from anything ever built to do a specific job. During the past six years it has been increasingly used by gas companies, as well as for other services. This is the expansible tube type regidator, more commonly known as the Flexflo.
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Document ID: 7C64A146

Principles Of Automatic Controls
Author(s): L. m. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic controls have gained widespread use in the gas industry in the past number of years. With the increasing complexity of gas systems, this trend can be expected to continue. It is, naturally, to the advantage of the men concerned with producing and transporting natural gas to understand at least the basic principles of automatic control.
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Document ID: 3BBD4935

Diaphragm Control Valves And Regulators
Author(s): Norman Lieblich
Abstract/Introduction:
Many factors enter into the selection of diaphragm control valves and regulators (Figure 1). The first group of factors to consider is the fluid to be controlled, its characteristics, and the construction features required by the control valve to properly perform its specified function. Information required to select the proper valve should include the fluid state - gas, liquid, or combination of states. If entrained solids are present, their maximum size and percentage by weight or volume should be noted. Special valves are normally furnished for handling entrained solids such as the Saunders or Crane diaphragm operated control valves.
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Document ID: C75C0E89

Telemetering And Remote CONTROL-(ELEMENTS)
Author(s): W. E. Rufleth
Abstract/Introduction:
Although telemetering is not a new art, little was heard about its use in the gas industry until a few decades ago. Telemetering, the art of measuring at a distance, came into prominence in the gas utility field with the expansion of transmission and distribution systems. Further impetus was given to its use by the requirements for higher operating efficiency. Naturally, the new code on Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems known as ASA B31.1.9-1955, published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, will tend to further the use of telemeter. Referring to Article 855.2 of the above code, we quote Every distribution system supplied by more than one district pressure regulating station shall be equipped with telemetering or recording pressure gauges to indicate the gas pressure in the districl. . . . Suitable periodic inspections of single district pressure regulation stations not equipped with telemetering or recording gauges shall be made to determine that the pressure regulating equipment is functioning properly.
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Document ID: C4C058F1

Orifice Meters
Author(s): Robert L. Mcalister
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most widely used type of measuring device in the differential-pressure class. This is due primarily to the basic advantage of this type of meter in satisfactorily measuring relatively large quantities of fluids in an almost limitless variety of circumstances throughout the chemical and gas industries. It is successfully used for the measurement of helium, the lightest known gas, and for tar, one of the most viscous liquids. It is also employed in the measurement of the mineral sulphur which, in its native state, is a solid that is brought to the surface of the earth by means of high pressure steam. The orifice meter is used for measuring fluids at temperatures ranging from -300F. to in excess of 1000 F., and under pressure conditions ranging from a vacuum to 5000 psL or more. This adaptability to such a wide variety of conditions undoubtedly makes the orifice meter the most versatile of all measuring devices.
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Document ID: 71FF9516

Telemetering And Remote CONTROL-(ADVANCED Techniques)
Author(s): W. E. Rufleth
Abstract/Introduction:
As we have done in the past, we would again like to present to this class, something which is becoming currently popular in the field of telemetering and remote control. At the 1953 Class on Advanced Techniques, we touched briefly on a method for telemetering a number of gas-flows and automatically totalizing and correcting for static pressures, temperature, and specific gravity. If anyone present at this class had occasion to read over the 1953 Southwestern Short Course Proceedings, or attended that class, they may recall that an alternating current network was used for totalizing and computing.
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Document ID: 8DABB0CE

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): George W. Wells
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject, District Regulators and Load Distribution, is far too broad to be covered by a single paper, Many factors are involved in maintaining adequate, delendable service to the consumer. In those areas where design and construction are modern, the Distribution Superintendent has no problem other than good regulator maintenance. In the older areas where design was poor and peak load exceeds the normal capacity of the distribution system, the Distribution Superintendent has many problems. It will be the purpose of this paper to outline briefly three principle types of distribution systems with the regulators and controls used for each.
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Document ID: 1EE15D4A

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): C. R. Stephenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Considering the modern trend toward tighter Federal controls it may be wise for me to give my interpretation of the title of this paper. Gas regulation is the control, by means now available to the industry, of the motivating force which makes possible long distance transmission of gas. We call it pressure. It compares with what is called voltage in the electrical industry. High pressure is also a somewhat vague expression. Distribution men consider 100 pounds per square inch a relatively high pressure. High pressure transmission lines, for this discussion will be considered as having pressures ranging from 500 pounds per square inch to 1,000 pounds per square inch. Briefly then our title means the control of the pressure of the gas is it leaves a transmission line at 500 to 1,000 pounds per square inch.
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Document ID: AEDEE0EE

Operating Experiences With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): T. K. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Tennessee Gas Transmission Company has several systems of telemetering installed, and each has its own characteristics and peculiarities. Starting with the simplest system and working up to the most complicated one we have installed, let us look at each system for the following points: 1. Initial problem requiring remote indication and control. 2. Telemetering systems designed to handle the problem. 3. Operation of the telemetering system. 4. Maintenance and repair of each system since its initial operation.
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Document ID: 74B9679C

Pressure Reducing And Back Pressure Field Regulators
Author(s): A. W. Reddick
Abstract/Introduction:
Field regulators present a difficult problem in gas regulation since they are subjected to surging well rates. Their selection should be carefully made with respect to the conditions of operation and the end result desired. Back pressure regulators perform a number of functions in the field, such as vent service on production units, booster stations and field systems to prevent excessive pressures and in gathering systems where constant preure is important to gas measurement. Pressure reducing regulators may be applied to compressor inlets and field distribution systems for the sale of gas or field consumption.
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Document ID: D46D3D1C

Integrating Devices For Orifice And Positive Meters
Author(s): B. K. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
The widespread use of natural gas in the past few years has created a demand for accurate instruments which apply through mechanical means various factors necessary to correct measurement. In positive or displacement meter measurement it is not always possible to measure gas at reduced pressures and it is impracticla to build meters of such size as would accommodate the large volume corresponding to the reduced pressure. The American Base Pressure Index permits the application of a pressure factor only while the American Base Volume Index permits the application of both a pressure factor and a temperature factor to the volume of gas being measured by the displacement meter at line condition.
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Document ID: A0717AC2

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair - A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools, with the intention of helping the gas companies to reduce the unit cost for repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: 43D9CF5A

Synthetic Diaphragms For Displacement Meters And Regulators
Author(s): Edward C. Hemes
Abstract/Introduction:
While we occasionally hear synthetic diaphragms for gas meters, regulators and controls referred to as new, their history actually now covers approximately 20 years of field performance. Since the late 1930s, tremendous strides have been made in the development of the ideal combinations of frabics and compounds to produce the desirable characteristics of diaphragms for meters and regulators of all classes.
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Document ID: C0727EC2

Theory And Application Of Thermometers And Pressure Guages In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jack T. Teed
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to present day gas accounting procedures based on accepted standards, it has become increasingly important to those engaged in gas measurcinent that they know the basic concepts surrounding the physical characteristics and conditions of gases. Lets briefly discuss them. When subjected to a change in pressure the volume of any substance is changed, but the change in volume of a solid or liquid is usually very small. However, in the case of gas, a change in pressure results in a considerable change in volume. Since, by defintion, the pressure coefficient of a gas is the fractional change in pressure per degree change in temperature at a constant volume temperature must be considered in direct volumetric measurement of gases. This presents three basic measurable quantities, pressure, temperature, and volume which can be used to state the physical condition of a gas.
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Document ID: 81871F45

Recording Instruments For Temperature And Pressure
Author(s): E. T. Oettinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording instruments for temperature and pressure which are covered in this paper are of the type that are generally referred to as the mechanical type to differentiate froni the various electrical devices. Mechanical temperature and pressure instruments are basically the same. In a Pressure Recorder the change in pressure is picked up in a sensing element within the instrument, which in turn causes a change in the position of the pointer or pen. In a temperature instrument we are really sensing pressure, the pressure being varied by either the volumetric change in a solidly filled system or the change in vapor pressure in a vapor pressure actuated svstem.
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Document ID: C90FE587

Servicing Orifice Meters And Automatic Controllers
Author(s): W. R. Kehoe
Abstract/Introduction:
An orifice meter is made up of several component parts which are combined into two basic devices, namely the primary device and secondary device. The primary device consists of the upstream and downstream sections of the meter tube, the orifice plate or other differential producing device, the taps and gauge line connections. The secondary device embodies the manometer which records or indicates the differential pressure, and if gas is the fluid being measured, then the static pressure measuring element should also be included as part of the secondary device.
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Document ID: CCE266D7

Specific Gravity Instruments - Care And Operation - A Demonstration
Author(s): J. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
The subjects discussed during the demonstration were: 1 - The importance of accurate specific gravity determinations, particularly to the Measurement Engineering and Accounting departments, since in the measurement of a gas, both the quantity and the quality of the gas are directly related to its specific gravity. 2 - Methods of arriving at these determinations, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these methods. A - THE PORTABLE GAS BALNCE. A brief summary of the calibrated and the non-calibrated types was given. A balance of the calibrated type was used to illustrate the extreme portability of this instrument. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the portable gas balance were discussed - also the accuracy that should be expected from this type equipment.
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Document ID: 44B21C0C

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires the information furnished by instruments described in this paper. Orifice meter computation of natural gas flow is made by using the formula Qb C x /HwPr where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pr the static pressure, with C being a constant. This constant C is only a constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor, and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors, the values of the quantities from which they are derived must be either assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments mea.suring pressure, specific gravity and supercompressibility. (For further details refer to AGA Gas Measurement Report No. 3.)
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Document ID: 772568A2

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): A. A. Hejduk
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is an accurate and simple pressure measuring instrument widely used in the gas industry. It is a primary standard used in measuring pressures, vacuums, and differential pressures of but a fraction of an inch of water or several pounds per square inch. One must not lose sight of the fact that a manometer is a base or primary standard. By primary standard we mean that the unit is a base reference or measuring yardstick which will be used in observing certain conditions or results. In measuring pressures with the manometer, we are comparing an unknown pressure which we are seeking with that of our measuring standard manometer reading - or in other terms, comparing the unknown with the known. Many instrument men classify a dial type pressure gauge as a primary standard of measurement. This type of gauge being a mechanical unit having cams, gears, levers or bellows, is correctly termed as a secondary standard, or a unit of measure which is not a base primary standard.
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Document ID: 32C88D0B

Operation And Maintenance Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): George m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever expanding market for natural gas, the building of new transcontinental pipelines to these markets and the growing complexity of these problems, there is the need for closer control of all of the operations which go to make up these activities. Measurement and control of gas heating value plays an ever increasing important part in the transfer of gas from the producer and pipelines to the local gas utilities.
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Document ID: CCA0FB43

Meter Houses And Safety Heaters
Author(s): W. O. Moran
Abstract/Introduction:
Weatherproof meter houses represent many years of experience in teh efficient housing and protection of all types of instruments. These houses afford protection against weather hazards of rain, ice, snow, sand and dust. This protection is as important for the protection of the instrument, as it is for the protection of the job for which the instrument was installed. The advanced improvement in orifice measurement and the increased value of gas has emphasized the need for adequate housing, and more dependable and safer heating of the meter house. It is a proven fact that much valuable time and money are saved in repairs and adjustments when the vital meters, instruments and control valves are properly protected. While weatherproof meter houses are primarily designed for use in production fields and the processing plants of the oil and gas industry, they are not limited to this field. They are applicable, in any industry, where meters and instruments are subjected to the elements.
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Document ID: 3EAF38A8

A.G.A. Gas Measurement Committee Report No A Panel Discussion
Author(s): L. K. Spink, H. B. Mcnichols, J. L. Griffin
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1924, the American Gas Association Board of Directors established the Gas Measurement Committee and charged it with the responsibility of: 1. Determining the correct method ot installing orifice meters for measuring natural gas. 2. To determine the necessary corrective factors and operative requirements in the use of orifice meters. 3. To obtain the assistance of the National Bureau of Standards and the United States Bureau of Mines to assist in this work.
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Document ID: BCE2D3D0

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): E. F. Trunk
Abstract/Introduction:
The term lost and unaccounted-for Gas is an accounting term and the name of the term certainly states very clearly what is meant by the figure. Analysis of the figures appearing under this title in company reports is, however, not so simple. In most eases the difference between the gas delivered to the mains for sendout and the total of sales to customers, including the gas used by the company, is called lost and unaccounted-for gas. Many factors and facets of company operation affect the magnitude of this figure.
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Document ID: 05A28FB7

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): H. R. Hanna
Abstract/Introduction:
Among other uses, the determination of the specific gravity of gases is es&ential in gas measurement by orifice meter, due to the effect of the specific gravity on orifice meter calculations. Several methods of making this determination have been developed over a number of years and are presently in use by various gas utilities and industries. The methods of determining the specific gravity of gas may be classed according to the principles upon which the gravity of the gas is determined, such as: 1. Direct weighing 2. Velocity of flow (effusion method) 3. Kinetic energy of gas (resistance due to fluid friction) 4. Indirect weighing
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Document ID: 3646E4A7

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Thomas H. Oakes
Abstract/Introduction:
Any precision instrument should be given proper care and attention at all times to insure an accurate record and good results. Good installation and testing is included in the term proper care. The recording calorimeter, being a precision instrument, should be installed and operated accordingly,
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Document ID: 8CC1B0EC

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): James m. Hamilton, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
It is very important to know the amount of water vapor that is in a stream of natural gas. Most purchasers of gas specify the amount of water vapor that will be accepted. This factor has to be known and controlled in order to transport natural gas in the long high pressure systems where low ground temperature is expected. The method of determining the amount of water vapor has to be accepted by the producer and purchaser. In some cases the transmission companies dehydrate and in some cases the producers sell dry gas.
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Document ID: 35FFF63D

Orifice METERS-A Demonstration
Author(s): W. H. Shenkle
Abstract/Introduction:
This demonstration will cover the Rockwell mercury orifice meter as used in flow measurement today. We will discuss installation, use and proper maintenance as applied to obtaining accurate measurement, and accessory equipment available for use with these meters.
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Document ID: B3411C18

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gasa Panel Discussion
Author(s): Jack J. Fox, Dan Allen, L. S. Briggs
Abstract/Introduction:
In every field of endeavor there are newcomers who are entering upon the threshold of a career that is to provide their livelihood in modern society. Our national population is rapidly growing and coincidently we must expect a similar growth in industry. We, here, are principally concerned with the natural gasoline industry and more specifically the determination of gasoline content of gas. The art and science of testing gas has become an important segment of the gasoline industry and we may expect a continuing influx of men into the field of gas testing. It is to those new men that this paper is primarily directed.
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Document ID: 86E0C55A

Problems In Measuring Natural Gas Containing Hydrogen Sulphide
Author(s): G. D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulphide in many fields of the gas industry is referred to as sour gas. Webster defines it as an inflammable poisonous gas with a disagreeable odor. In the natural gas production fields where you find hydrogen sulphide content, there is usually a trace of carbon dioxide, or it can be vice versa. Both hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are termed as acid gases and gases cause the measurement men a great deal of extra work in maintaining measurement instruments.
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Document ID: 3C5A04BE

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment - A Panel Discussion
Abstract/Introduction:
For the purpose of this discussion we will divide Freezing Problems into four areas with a panel memeber representing each division as follows: Vicinity of Well Head - Mr. W. C. Robertson, Louisiana Gas Co., Shreveport, La. Dehydration - Mr. Asbury S. Parks, Consultant, Houston, Texas Gathering System - Mr. Milton D. Buie, Wilcox Trend Gathering Sytem, Cuero, Texas Transmission System - Mr. Pat H. Miller, Texas Eastern Transmission Corp., Shreveport, La.
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Document ID: B393080B

Deliverability Method Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): Lewis D. Galloway
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is meant to deal with the development and usage of deliverability methods of rating gas wells in San Juan Basin area of northwestern New Mexico. The production of natural gas has become one of the major industries, and is the mainstay of the economy this portion of New Mexico. It has been estimated that with new drilling and the completion of additional pipe line gathering facilities, this area will be producing approximately a billion cubic feet of natural gas per day mid-1957.
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Document ID: 64EADB18

Safe Practices In Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): Richard S. Sidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety has been a must in the gas industry ever since its beginning. Each of us in the industry should be training constantly in the latest safety methods and techniques to keep accidents at a minimum. This vigilance has been gratifying because the safety record in the gas industry is better than the overall industry rate. No one is free from dangers or hazards, but the degree of danger or hazard can be controlled through safety consciousness.
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Document ID: 8F6DE4D7

Field Sampling Of Gas
Author(s): E. m. Routh
Abstract/Introduction:
Field sampling of gas is a common practice employed most oil companies. Whether the gas is to be processed in a natural gasoline plant, gas cycling plant or deed into a transmission system, a sample must be obtained so that an accurate determination of the composition of gas may be made.
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Document ID: 7141AAE8

Gas Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): D. C. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
A broad definition of the primary function of a meter and regulator station is the accurate measurement and dependable regulation of natural gas. There are of course many factors to be considered in designing a station which are influenced by contract provisions, measurement specifications, operating conditions and service requirements. In every installation, before proceeding with the design one basic requirement is a complete tabulation of reliable data outlining the maximum and minimum as well as the average conditions under which the gas will be measured and regulated. Where a part of such data is not available, a thorough and intelligent analysis of probable conditions should be made with allowances given for unknown performance requirements.
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Document ID: AB23786E

Determination And Application Of Supercompressibility Factors
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
The volume of a definite mass of gas is not easily defined. Positive definition is often hampered by the effects of temperature and pressure and the limitations of accepted laws or gas behavior. One such law concerning the behavior of gases is known as Boyles law. The name of this law is derived from its author, Robert Boyle, an Irishman of note and the peer of all persons gainfully employed as Measurement Technician. The term supercompressibility is used within the gas industry to explain the phenomoenon of gas behavior under pressure and the departure from Boyles Law. A supercompressibility factor is one of the mathematical tools used to determine the altered volume of a gas when the pressure exerted upon the mass is changed.
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Document ID: 6AD9445B

Methods Of Approximating Open Flow Of Gas
Author(s): F. A. Richmond
Abstract/Introduction:
For years, the industry has used many methods and various types of equipment for the approximate determination of open flow of gas. New methods and better equipment have been developed. There are two general flow equations that can be used in connection with the present gas measurement equipment to determine rates of flow of gas in open or closed pipe.
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Document ID: FE737CF9

Back Pressure Tests Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Bruce S. Coe
Abstract/Introduction:
In the infant years of the oil and gas industry the primary product being sought was oil for which there was a market. Then, as today, the only way to obtain this product was to drill for it. Upon finding the desired product, the production practices were of an open flow nature. Many old-timers speak of the days when 50,000 to 100,000 bbls, of oil per day were produced upon initial completions. When drilling for oil and encountering gas, the first thought was to blow the cap off and pull the oil in. The most adept method to obtain the desired results was to open the well unrestricted to the atmosphere. It is not surprising that a test procedure of the open flow nature was a common practice for the determination of the capacity of gas wells. This practice was a standard procedure up until about the year of 1925. The most common practice in determining a wells open flow capacity was to measure the impact pressure at or near the mouth of the flowing stream which was done by the use of the pitot tube.
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Document ID: 205AE943

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. I. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The function of an orifice meter is to produce a precise record, on either a square root or uniform chart, of the differential pressure created across the calibrated orifice plate in the flow line. The essential difference between orifice meters is in the type of differential pressure unit or meter body used. Currently there are two basic types available-one using the conventional mercury manometer and the other using the bellows unit. Although single bellows and diaphragm units have been used, when one currently speaks of a bellows type orifice meter, he is by convention referring to the contemporary rupture-proof dual bellows type pressure recorder. Briefly, it consists of a bellows unit assembly and two housings or heads fastened together, A cross-section of one of these units is illustrated in Figure 1.
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Document ID: 28AA909F

Measuring Gas With A Gate Valve
Author(s): C. E. Terrell
Abstract/Introduction:
Snice 1950, Southern Natural has been experimenting with the use of special body gate valves in the measurement of intra-system gas. The idea arose from the fact that there are a number of points on the pipe line where measurement would be useful but the cost of the usual orifice metering hindered the installation. As valves are common items on a transmission line and if a proven primary measuring element could be incorporated in the bodies of some of these, it followed that metering information might be available at desired points at a comparatively small additional cost.
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Document ID: FDFD5576

The Sampling And Analysis Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Author(s): R. L. Huntington
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the determination of the composition of a liquid or gas consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons is generally thought of in terms of the laboratory analyst. The importance of the analytical laboratory is not to be minimized however, it is a total loss of time to carry out careful work in the laboratory unless one can be certain that the proper sampling is made of the stream or batch of material under investigation. In other words the analytical results are of no value to the engineer unless they represent the average composition over a defnite period of time in the case of continuous process or a portion of a truly homogenous mixture in the analysis of a large batch of stored liquid hydrocarbon. A number of the major companies are making an effort to improve upon sampling practices either by sending out mobile laboratories into outlying districts or by having the technical man go to the field to obtain the samples. In the absence of the engineer in the field, a set of clear-cut written instructions may serve fairly well as a means of ensuring proper sampling.
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Document ID: E415437C

Pre-Dehydration Use Of Hydrate Inhibitors
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
The prevention of freezing in gas pipe lines by the addition of some substance which will depress or lower the gas hydrate formation temperatures is, perhaps, the oldest method of hydrate control. Use of hydrate inhibitors has not been uniformly successfvd because of their selection and their application so that with the advent of improved heating equipment and new dehydration techniques and processes, the method lust favor and fell into general disuse.
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Document ID: DF5F10E5

Gas LAW5 And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the metering of gases the fundamental gas laws play a major role. The determination of the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure base and temperature base is the usual objective. The gas laws are equations expressing relationships of gas properties, such as pressure, vohnne and temperature, under varying conditions. These gas laws are usually known as Ideal or Perfect Gas Laws. There is, however, no ideal or perfect gas. While no actual gas conforms exactly to perfect gas laws, many of our actual gases, such as air, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, follow so closely in accordance with these laws that engineers use these ideal laws with some actual gases to a high degree of accuracy.
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Document ID: B64537B3

Provisions Of Asa Code B31.1 Which Pertain To Control And Limiting Of Gas Pressure - A Panel Discussion
Author(s): Ben Worley, m. J. Peterson, Gordon G. Dye
Abstract/Introduction:
It should be emphasized that any opinions expressed or interpretations made here are personal and do not necessarily reflect the official position of the ASA Code Committee (Subcommittee 8). Since World War II, the natural gas industry has experienced rapid expansion. Many large diameter crosscountry pipelines have been constructed to bring natural gas into areas not previously served with this kind of fuel, as well as to reinforce areas already served. This rapid development led to the use of new materials, equipment and construction methods. It became apparent that the existing gas industry safety code, Section 2 of Pressure Piping Code ASA B31.L should be reviewed and enlarged or modified as necessary to cover these changing conditions.
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Document ID: 04FE0E6A

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Pat H. Luckett
Abstract/Introduction:
Many courses are being taught at this gas measurement short course on the fundamentals of orifice measurement, the orifice meter, and demonstrations as to the proper operation and maintenance of orifice meters. All of these papers have been scheduled because of the importance of the orifice meter as the prime measuring device of the gas industry. Its charts record is the transcribed record of purchases and sales-the cash receipts, if you please, of our industry. The cost of producing and selling or the price of gas itself leave no room for flippant, careless handling of these cash receipts. Rather, the precise calculation of orifice meter charts is recognized as another important step in the exacting science of measurement for which our industry can be justifiably proud.
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Document ID: 0EDB449D

Gas Accounting For Production Systems
Author(s): Thos. H. Knight
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of this paper to many may have as many definitions as there are problems inherent with accounting for produced gas encountered by the Gas Accountant and the Gas Engineer. It is the intention to discuss herein only the accounting fundamentals with which the gas producer is commonly confronted: There is no doubt that certain problems, with which each individual company has been confronted, must necessarily be treated as an individual accounting problem, since no parallel of these types of operations has heretofore existed in large enough numbers to establish a recognized procedure in the industry.
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Document ID: CE61049B

Gas Accounting For Transmission Systems
Author(s): Bernie Wilenzick
Abstract/Introduction:
A transmission system is what the name implies, that is, a company formed to construct and operate a transmission system, which will acquire natural gas either through production or purchase contracts, and transport same for delivery either to industrial accounts under private contracts, or to city gate sales to private companies or municipalities under tariffs. The functions of a gas accounting system of such a company are not only to compute, classify and summarize so that in the final analysis all figures are converted into MCF and monetary values in order that overall balance sheets and profit and loss statements can ultimately be determined for the owners, but also, and what is equally as important, proper information can be deduced and recorded so that management, operational departments and all governmental bodies can be furnished with data required for their peculiar function. With this in mind, companies of various sizes and proportions have developed systems and processes that are best suited to their own type and size of business and will perform the functions above noted.
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Document ID: B32D4812

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): J. R. Bynum
Abstract/Introduction:
The calculating of meter charts is simply the process of taking the quantity of gas measured at the meter and converting it into unit proportions as specified in the applicable contracts under which gas is purchased and sold. Information needed in the processing procedures to accomplish this purpose is derived from the contracts, the meter installation reports, and, of course, the charts themselves. In establishing office procedures consideration must be given to the different kinds of charts to be calculated, the type of machines to be used, and the experience and training of personnel employed, The reporting requirements of regulatory authorities and the accounting demands for company use also must be considered.
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Document ID: 849C6A0E

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Danny D. Echols
Abstract/Introduction:
The title Elements of Gas Contracts is so broad that there is some question in my mind as to exactly what phase to attempt to cover. The phases Im speaking of may be categorically listed as: 1. Elements and issues taken into consideration during the contract negotiations. 2. Effects of the contract on the Seller such as field operation, gasoline plants, federal and state regulations, etc. 3. Contract enforcement. 4. Basic contract provisions. For purposes of this paper, I believe it advisable to limit our discussion to the actual provisions written into the contracts, i.e., the basic contract provisions. Bear in mind that this paper is given by a Seller representative, somewhat biased from the producers standpoint. It also represents my opinions only. Needless to say, my opinions are not necessarily (nor generally) recognized as the last word in the industry!
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Document ID: 754C22CE

Orifice Fittings For Meter Runs
Author(s): Oliver W. Muff
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of an orifice meter set up depends largely upon the care with which the orifice fitting and meter tube are installed and maintained. To give sensible care to any mechanical device, it is necessary to be familiar with the design and principles of its operation. This paper will attempt to cover enough of the description of orifice littings and meter tubes, that the user of such equipment will be able to use it with the greatest accuracy and still not find it necessary to spend excessive time in maintenance work.
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Document ID: 661F69DE

Orifice Fittings For Meter Runs
Author(s): W. A. Griffin
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of the orifice in the measurement of fluids, particularly water, has long been employed by mankind. This use in measurement in open systems dates back - any hundreds of years. We find mention made in both Egyptian and Greek historical records of the orifice and its use on water measurement. In 1797, an Italian physicist, Giovanni B. Venturi, at the University of Modena, demonstrated through many experiments, the important principle that fluids under pressure in passing through converging pipes gain speed and lose head, and vice versa in diverging pipes.
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Document ID: 13460616


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