Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1955)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Walter F. Bohls
Abstract/Introduction:
The testing and maintenance of meters is one of the most important functions in the gas industry since the revenue which a company receives is based on the accurace with which the gas is measured. This accuracy is of particular importance in large meters where any error involves a large amount of revenue. On the other hand, the maintenance program is an operating cost which represents an expenditure from this revenue. Because of these factors it is important that the maintenance program be designed to give the utmost in accuracy at the lowest practical cost. With this in mind, the maintenance program which our company has established is based on the following factors: A. basis for scheduling meter tests. B. Sizing of meters to prevent excessive wear. C. Design of meter installations to facilitate field testing and maintenance. D. Test methods and equipment. E. Reports and records. F. Transportation G. Trained personnel.
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Document ID: 248EC4BC

Regulators, Controls, And Related Equipment Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
The fundamental function of a regulator is that of a variable orifice where, by automation, a determined set of pressure conditions can be automatically controlled with complete safety to the system and consumer. An example of the above statement was the result of an Indiana farm boys experience with gas pressure and a small valve. He was incubating eggs 24 hours a day using gas heat. In the day-time he would watch the gas flame and pinch or open the valve accordingly. However, at night the inlet pressure would build up and cook the eggs. Therefore, the mother of invention came to his rescue and we had a regulator manufacturer and the first house service regulator. Fundamentally that regulator in principle is the same as those of today, and contained the essential parts of any regulator 1. Inlet and outlet connections 2. Orifice and valve 3. Mechanical linkage 4. Diaphragm 5, Counter balancing pressure means
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Document ID: 7AD1E42A

High And Low Pressure Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): Louis J. Delaney
Abstract/Introduction:
To properly treat this subject we must include an intermediate pressure regulator. For the sake of this discussion we will consider a low pressure regulator as that regulator which will reduce from less than one pound per square inch inlet pressure to inches of water column outlet pressure the intermediate pressure regulator, as reducing from above one PSI inlet to inches of water column outlet and the high pressure regulator as reducing from pounds per square inch inlet to pounds per square inch outlet.
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Document ID: 493A55EB

Gas Service Regulators-Installation And Operation
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Under the forgoing title, we will discuss the general subject of Gas Service Regulators by sub-dividing this paper into the following groups or titles of each phase of the subject: 1. Definition of a Service-Type Gas Pressure Regulator. 2. Low Inlet Service Regulators for Conversion Projects and High Leakage Conditions. 3. Description of Construction and Mechanical Operation. 4. Suggestions for Good Installation Procedure. 5. Methods used for Shop Repair. 6. Weather and Bug Proof Breather Vents for Service Regulators.
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Document ID: 89A74E85

High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters - A Demonstration
Author(s): G. W. Vincent, L. E. Eige
Abstract/Introduction:
By means of a slide showing a typical gas transmission and gas distribution system, the application of various high and low pressure regulators, as well as boosters were illustrated. With a transmission line pressure of PSIG, by means of two high pressure regulators and in two stage reduction set up, this pressure was shown as reduced from 600 to 250 lbs., in the first stage reduction, and from 250 to 50lbs., on the second stage reduction.
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Document ID: 3A344A93

Safety Relief And Shut-Off Valves For Distribution Systems
Author(s): Robebt C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
As the gas industry continues its tremendous expansion program, it becomes increasingly important that safety keep pace with progress in other phases. As increasingly high pressures have been introduced into systems designed originally for low pressure distribution, and as these higher pressures have been imposed on regulators and other equipment installed for a less rigorous set of operating conditions, the possibility of accidental excess pressure in low pressure distribution systems becomes more acute. Within recent years, there have been certain unfortunate accidents of great severity involving accidental excess pressure which could have been avoided, entirely through the use of equipment and techniques now well understood.
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Document ID: 4C182AC6

Density Measurement As Applied To Orifice Metering
Author(s): L. K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas orifice meter is really basically a weighing device, although the basic formula, velocity squared is equal to twice the acceleration of gravity times the head of flowing fluid would give the impression to measure head in feet of flowing fluid, it is immediately necessary to bring in a factor to convert manometer readings to feet of flowing fluid. This introduces the density factor.
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Document ID: EB9D606D

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): H. J. Evans, J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class, the discussion covered High Pressure Balanced Valve Regulators and Low Prssure Balanced Valve Regulators. Slides were shown to illustrate the subject matter presented. The following outline indicates the coverage of this demonstration and discussion.
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Document ID: FCF53339

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators A Demonstration
Author(s): Raymond P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
When selecting a regulator for a specific installation, it is essential that the regulator selected meets all the requirements of the installation, if possible. Therefore, if is obvious that the installation requirements and conditions be listed and a regulator chosen accordingly.
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Document ID: E62C7122

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): H. Mike Meuffels
Abstract/Introduction:
Customers service regulators covered in this demonstration include both high pressure and low pressure types. During the past 20 years the use of natural gas has risen sharply, and now supplies about a quarter of the countrys energy. The five state area of Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Kansas supply about 88% of the total gas production. The job of getting the gas from teh wells to consumer is divided into three separate groups: the producers who get it out of the ground, the pipe line operators who transport it, and the distributing companies who deliver it to the ultimate consumer. In all three operations the flow and pressures must be controlled.
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Document ID: 11D7A3F4

Automatic Regulation Of Field Gas Dehydration Plants
Author(s): Howard D. Wharton
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the actual performance of a properly designed dehydrator depends entirely upon the control methods used, it is of the utmost importance that certain basic rules be adhered to. These methods do not vary greatly in either the controlling of a triethylene glycol plant or a dry desiccant plant.
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Document ID: 032E36E9

Pressure Regulators And Flow Controllers With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): F. H. Wehrman
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been said that there has been, in fact, few basic changes in regulator design in the past 50 years. Much has been written of the four basic elements of a regulator, the third element is usually described as a movable valve. Basic patents on thsi movable valve or inner valve were granted some 85 to 90 years ago. Few changes have been made - these changes have been along the line of v-notch and specially contoured types of inner valves, better methods of guiding and better materials. However, basically the design has remained unchanged even though the number of manufacturers has multiplied.
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Document ID: 69C67688

Automatic Controls
Author(s): Joe C. Laley
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to briefly cover the basic theory of automatic control in terms of our every day language. This paper will limit its treatment to air operated controllers and will deal specifically with the functions they perform and their application.
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Document ID: 9AAC5ED4

Principles Of Automatic Controls
Author(s): Daie G. Hugley
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Industry operating men are in an occupation that demands a working knowledge of automatic control, therefore it is essential to their professional advancement that they understaud the basic principles. It is the purpose of this paper to make their understanding a little easier. Examining the title in the light of Webster Dictionary definitions Principle is defined as Beginning, foundation a fundamental truth, a primary or basic doctrine. Automatic is defined as Having a self-acting or self-regulating mechanism that performs a required act at a predetermined point in an operation. Control is defined as To exercise a restraining or directing influence over.
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Document ID: F2A0CB39

Diaphragm Control Valves And Regulators
Author(s): Joseph Oconnor, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the title of this paper is all inclusive it is the intention to discuss construction of control valves and regulators with a view to indicate how selection of control valves and regulators must be made from a service standpoint. Where possible, specific applications and examples will be discussed.
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Document ID: 85E4069C

Telemetering And Remote Control Elements()
Author(s): W. E. Rufleth
Abstract/Introduction:
TELEMETERING - TO MEASURE AT A DISTANCE. REMOTE CONTROL - AS THE NAME IMPLIES - TO BE ABLE TO CONTROL REMOTELY. These are the tools that the modern gas dispatcher makes good use of. He has before him on a panel in his office telemeter receivers which at all times keep him informed of conditions along his pipeline or about his distribution system. He also has control switches on this same panel or on his desk which allow him to change position of valves, or otherwise alter conditions at distant points of the gas system.
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Document ID: 66C4F480

Telemetering And Remote Control Advanced( Techniques)
Author(s): W. E. Rufleth
Abstract/Introduction:
The last two years we have attempted to present at the Advanced Techniques class on Telemetering and Remote Control a typical current installation which would bring out the latest methods of applying telemetering, remote control, and its allied equipment. Last year the Tennessee Gas Transmission installation at Clendenin, West Virginia was described. This year, we will consider the system used by Algonquin Gas Transmission Company.
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Document ID: 7570E363

Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. L. Mcalister
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement by orifice meter must of necessity involve all of the componenet parts that go to make up the complete measuring device which consists of: (1) Meter run and orifice plate (2) Gage line piping (3) Differential manometer, or what we normally think of as the orifice meter
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Document ID: 482D2EBF

Maintenance And Calibration Of Pressure Gauges
Author(s): Oliver L. Clay
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure gauge, while a simple instrument, is a very important instrument in the field of gas measurement. In this paper, we will discuss the selection, installation, maintenance and calibration of pressure gauges.
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Document ID: 25E66AF4

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): A. m. Ream
Abstract/Introduction:
Disirict regulators, together with various valves, controllers and relief valves are the essential means of controlling the pressures which are necessary for an efficient distribution system. This regulation and control of pressure along with properly designed and engineered distribution lines are the fundamentals for good load distribution.
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Document ID: 3D8E35F7

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): J. T. Pruet
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal briefly with pressure reduction of natural gas from high pressure transmission lines operating at a minimum of 600 psig and a maximum of 1000 psig.
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Document ID: E54A3329

Maintenance Of Gas Service Type Regulators
Author(s): W. P. Leblanc
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure at which gas is delivered to a customers appliance greatly affects the quality of gas service rendered. Domestic gas burning appliances usually reach peak efficiency when operated at a constant pressure of 4 ounces. Some fluctuation is permissible but not desirable. This constant pressure can only be delivered by a regulator which is in a good state of repair. In order to keep regulators in good operating condition and to render the highest quality of service, it is necessary to establish a planned preventive maintenance program for service type regulators. The major factors considered by our company in setting up such a program were: A. Basis for scheduling periodic repair. B. Tools and equipment. C. Repair procedure and badging. D. Test procedure. E. Personnel.
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Document ID: D292B3A1

Operating Experiences With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): B. E. Reading
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of application for remote control and telemetering is vurtually limitless in the remote indication and control of almost any process in almost any industry. More companies are resorting to its use every year as an economical solution to difficult operating problems. The Lone Star Gas Company has made good use of these devices for many years in all operating departments. For the purpose of this study, however, the application is limited to their use in doing specific jobs in distribution system operations.
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Document ID: 81C7D0DE

Pressure Reducing And Back Pressure Field Regulators
Author(s): A. W. Reddick
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control in any type of gas system is the first prerequisite for accurate gas measurement. Since field regulators are subjected to surging well rates, they present one of the most difficult problems in gas regulation. The selection of a regulator for field service becomes important in teh interest of economy to both the producer and the purchaser. Field regulators for back pressure service booster stations and rotative gas lift. Pressure reducing regulators may be applied to compressore inlets and field distribution systems.
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Document ID: 281D7FE7

Integrating Devices For Orifice And Positive Meters
Author(s): B. R. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of gas flow, two general methods are regularly employed: (1) measurement of the volume by means of the gas displacement meter, (2) measurement of the rate of flow by means of the orifice meter. Each method has its advantages but is subject to certain limitations which make the use of integrating devices is a result of characteristics which are inherent in all conventional displacement of gas meters and orifice meters.
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Document ID: B2BC3A16

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair - A Demonstration
Author(s): Charles D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the end efficient use of time and labor saving devices in the gas company shop. It was the purpose of this demonstration to make suggestions regarding the use of certain devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools, with the intention of helping the gas companies to reduce the unit cost for repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been covered in other classes, so this demonstration was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: 21E4DE89

Measurement By Orifice - Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Leland K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter Men who are allergic to mathematics can take comfort in the knowledge that it is not necessary to be a mathematlctan to understand ihe fundamental principles of the orifice meter. It is only necessary to have a reasonable amount of horse sense. We are going to present the subject from a strictly non-mathematical angle. The basis of the orifice meter is a restriction which creates a resistance to flow and a differential gauge or manometer which measures the drop in pressure which is produced. In purpose, the orifice plate, which is thee restriclion, is no dlflerent from a pinched valve. The orifice plate is chosen to create the pressure drop because it is easy to reproduce and there exists calibration data or coefficients for it for determining the quantity passing at any given differential.
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Document ID: C5EB3CBD

Orifice Fittings For Meter Runs
Author(s): Ernest L. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to give a brief review of orifice meter runs and the various types of orifice fittings that are available. From the earliest record of civilization, measurement has played an essential part in the material relationship of mankind. Accurate measurement of volume, weight, time and any other standard is not new. However, the importance of accurate measurement has increased due to larger volumes being handled and the demands of the consumer for correct billing.
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Document ID: E4F665EB

Orifice Meter Run Fabrication
Author(s): E. A. Bartolina
Abstract/Introduction:
Committee Report No.2 1952 Edition published by the American Gas Association covers thoroughly the specifications by which orifice meters run and related equipment such as orifice plates and straightening vanes are to be manufactured. The specifications and recommendations of this report are limited to the following two types of orifice meters.
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Document ID: A5B4AEA6

Measurement For Gas Lift Operations
Author(s): H. R. Ceaddock
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years there have been numerous papers written on the advantages and disadvantages of using high pressure gas as a means of producing oil from wells which do not have sufficient energy to flow. No doubt you have observed a large majority of the published data on lift operations has dealt with oil production or recovery only. however, conservation practices, higher operating cost, the scarcity of free gas supplies, and the increased value of gas have made greater efficiency and more accur&te measurement important factors in gas lift operations. It is our desire to discuss the gas measuring facilities involved in lift operations and methods for improving the measurement.
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Document ID: 84AC96F0

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): E. P. Prater
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most widely used device for measurement of gas and liquid flow. This is due primarily to the fact that it alone can satisfactorily measure almost any quantitiy of gas or liquid in a limitless variety of circumstances. It is used to measure any substance that will flow the lightest gases as low as -300 F and temperature of gases or liquids as high as 1000 F and pressures of 10,000 P.S.I. and more. This adaptability in such a wide variety of conditions makes the orifice meter unquestionably the most versatile and indispensable of all measuring devices.
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Document ID: 3CC8EDC6

Field Measurement At Extremely High Pressures
Author(s): Guy W. Leflar
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION The accurate measulement of any gas stream is dependent upon a large number of factors with which a gas measurement man should be familiar and over Which he has control. high pressure measurement magnifies the necessity for normal precautions against errors in the basic data and introduces additional sources of error and difficulty.
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Document ID: C2590D1A

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The Displacement Gas Meter is frequently referred to as the Positive Desplacement Meter, not because measurement with this device is any more definite or accurate than the measurement which might be obtained with another type meter, but because the measurement that affords is a positive volumetric quantity in cubic feet at line conditions regardless of temperature, gravity or pressure of the flowing gas.
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Document ID: ED1A1C8C

Synthetic Diaphragms For Displacement Meters And Regulators
Author(s): Dale J. Mcknight
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters and regulators are outstanding for achievements as a superior kind of development in the history of mechanical progress. The heart or basic feature of these sensitive instruments, that are operated by pressure differential, is the diaphragm. For many years the need for an improved diaphragm material was long recognized in the gas industry. Both manufacturers and gas companies cooperated in the development of an improved diaphragm material.
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Document ID: B85246FF

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): R. G. Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of measuring relatively large volumes of gas, such as industrial or field loads, differs in many ways from the more common problem of measuring gas at domestic flow rates. Industrial and field loads are larger, at times are widely variable, and at other times they are maintained at a high rate for long periods of time. Sometimes the measurement is performed at high pressures, and many times the meter location and setting is not the most desirable. To measure under these conditions the meter must be of rugged design, both as to external case and as to mechanical working parts.
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Document ID: 97274169

Theory And Application Of Thermometers And Pressure Gauges
Author(s): John F. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Present day gas accounting procedures stemming from various practices and legislative instruments, have made it increasingly necessary to know and understand the application and interpretation of the fundamental gas laws. Direct volumetric measurement of gases depends upon these laws, and it will be to our advantage to review them briefly.
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Document ID: C7B49EE1

Domestic And Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters, as manufactured by the American Meter Company, are four compartment, two diaphragm meters with bellows type diaphragms. These meters are made in three general designs the Ironcase Meter, the Tinned Steelcase Meter, and the Aluminumcase Meter. In the Ironcase Meter, and the Aluminumcase Meter the body is one integral casting which forms the case, partition, table, and gallery. A top and front and back cover are fastened to the body with machine screws, completing the housing for the measurement compartments and the meter mechanism.
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Document ID: 9A1072E6

Servicing Orifice Meters And Automatic Controllers
Author(s): W. R. Kehoe
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic theory of instrumentation dictates that any variable which we desire to control must first be measured. Following this line of reasoning, we will first discuss servicing and maintenance of the differential pressure gauge - better known as the secondary device of an orifice meter.
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Document ID: 1F78F737

Displacement Meter Repair And Maintenance - A Demonstration
Author(s): Charles W. Stewart, Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
This demonstration, in conjunction with charts and diagrams, centered about the proper sequence of assembly of a domestic size meter. Labor saving methods and correct use of six principal gauges werer demonstrated in the following sequence: Main Shaft Height Gauge, Valve Seat Centering Gauge, Carrier Bracket Centering Gauge, Tangent Crank Gauge and Aligner, Flag Centering Gauge and the Valve and Index Flag Height Gauge. Other characteristics of of the Sprague Meter principles and functions were pointed out, and discussed with the express purpose of helping the meter repairman use Spragues standard gauges to reduce time and errors in meter repairs.
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Document ID: 0E820666

Recording Instruments For Temperature And Pressure
Author(s): E. T. Oettinger
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is limited to a discussion of recording instruments for temperature and pressure of the type commonly referred to as mechanical to differentiate them from the various electrical devices. Both temperature and pressure instruments of the mechanical type are basically the same. In the case of the pressure recorder the change in pressure is picked up on a sensing element within the instrument, which in turn gives a change in the pointer or pen. In the case of the temperature instrument we are really sensing pressure, the pressure being varied by either the volumetric change in a solidly filled system or the change in vapor pressure in a vapor pressure acutated system.
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Document ID: D04A8741

Specific Gravity Instruments - Care And Operation - A Demonstration
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
The subjects discussed during the demonstration were: 1. - The importance of accurate specific gravity determinations, particularly to the Measurement Engineering and Accounting departments, since in the measurement of a gas, both the quantity and the quality of the gas are directly related to its specific gravity. 2. - Methods of arriving at these determinations, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these methods.
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Document ID: CCEB270F

Domestic Meter Proving
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas meter must have accuracy built into it if it is to accomplish its purpose of assuring the gas company its full income and guaranteeing the customer full value for his money. This accuracey and resultant efficiency are developed by three tests: Test No. 1 - Pressure or Tank Text to determine external leaks. Test No. 2 - Low Flow or Low Light Test to check internal leaks. Test No. 3 - Proving the meter.
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Document ID: 7100C63A

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity, Water Vapor, And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement of natural gas is principally accomplished by means of orifice meters, and their use leads to the requirement for the information furnished by instruments to be described in this paper.
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Document ID: 9DDA5256

Maintenance And Repair Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): T. L. Garvin
Abstract/Introduction:
The maintenance and repair of orifice meters fall into two general classifications: Shop repairs and field repairs. Most of the maintenance and repair work can be performed in the field. However, it will occasionally be necessary to overhaul a meter completely in the shop. The first consideration is a suitable method of checking the accuratcy of the meter calibration. Figure 1 illustrates a calibration unit that employs either pressure or vacuum as an operating medium.
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Document ID: DFC4E403

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): A. A. Hejduk
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is an accurate and simple pressure measuring instrument widely used in the gas industry. It is a primary standard used in measuring pressure, vacuums and differential pressures of but a fraction of an inch of water or several pounds per square inch.
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Document ID: F134329B

Domestic Meters-A Demonstration
Author(s): L. A. Mcgowan
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important pieces of equipment belonging to the gas company and no doubt the thing most prominent in the customers mind is the gas meter. This meter, often referred to as the cash register of the gas indushy, is a vital link between the company and the customer because it measures the gas used by the customer and thus determines the amount of his bill.
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Document ID: 03706C6E

Operation And Maintenance Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): George m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
All combustable gases, of which natural gas is our most important from the standpoint of production and distribution, have several distinguishing qualities of interest to both producers and consumers. These are, compostion represented by gas analysis, combustion characteristics described by flame appearance, velocity of flame propagation and combustion air requirements, - specific gravity or relative density when compared with air taken as 1.0 volume in terms of standard cubic feet, - and heating value as measured in BTUs per standard cubic foot.
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Document ID: DC09D080

Meter Houses And Safety Heaters
Author(s): W. O. Moran
Abstract/Introduction:
The advanced improvement in orifice measurement and the increased value of gas has pointed up the need for adequate housing, and more dependable and safer heating of the housing. Experience has shown that the industry needs two general types of meter houses for use on gathering systems of gasoline plants and gas pipe lines: First - A small portable meter house, mounted on the line or the meter support which protects the meter and the meter piping system Second - A larger portable or semi-permanent meter house which is installed on a concrete floor. This meter house affords protection to teh meter, the meter piping, and in addition it also protects the meter man.
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Document ID: 5C96453B

Displacement Meter Trouble Diagnosis
Author(s): Ed R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors which play a part or influence the position of the entire diaphragm at the end stroke positions. There can be many troubles in a meter which cause it to operate improperly but only slightly affect the displacement. Troubles which occur during a diaphragm strike do not necessarily affect the final volume displaced by the diaphragm. The position of the entire diaphragm at the end of its stroke, both the starting end and the stopping end, determines the volume desplaced by the strike of the diaphragm: provided, of course, that there are no leaks.
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Document ID: BBE3FA3E

AGA Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3 - A Panel Discussion
Author(s): J. E. Overbeck, E. E. Stovall, E. N. Armstrong, Pat H. Miller, A. m. Hutchison
Abstract/Introduction:
In May 1924 the Gas Measurement Committee was established by the Board of Directors of the Natural Gas Association, which later became the Natural Gas Department of the A.G.A., through its main Technical and Research Committee. The Gas Measurement Committee was directed to determine correct methods of installing orifice meters as well as the mecessary factors and operating requirements needed to measure natural gas.
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Document ID: B5768FF3

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): Morgan Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper concerns the handling of Ethylene gas to and from underground storage. Recent developments in the huge chemical processing industry on the Texas Gulf Coast have created a demand for this basic petrochemical, now being produced at Port Arthur, Texas. Storage must be provided in connection with the distribution system, in order that a stable ethylene supply will be available to the connected plants at all times.
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Document ID: 71C075AA

Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): B. G. Iverson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Roots-Connersville rotary displacement meter, as the name implies, accurately measures gas by rotary action of two figure eight shaped impellers that rotate within a stationary cylindrical housing. The metering compartment is formed by the side of one impeller, cylinder wall, and flat surfaced head-plates at the ends. Referring to Figure 1, as the right hand impeller rotates in a clockwise direction to a vertical position a definite volume of gas is displaced. As this impeller continues to rotate it releases a measured volume of gas thru the bottom opening of the meter. The impeller on the left hand side, rotating in the opposite direction closes to a vertical position confining another definite volume of gas. This operation is alternately repeated so that for one revolution there are four discharges from these measuring compartments.
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Document ID: 7A1CAF11

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted - For Gas
Author(s): C. W. Pankratz
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of leakage and accounted for gas is a problem that requires the vigilance and repeated efforts of all personnel of the Operating Department and the accurate keeping of many records.
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Document ID: 502902C1

Methods Of Determining Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific gravity of gas is a property of gas which is of utmost importance in the science of gas measurement. Since gas measurement employs so many of the basic principles of physics and chemistry it may well be considered a science.
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Document ID: 956EF3F8

Orifice Meters - A Demonstration
Author(s): W. H. Shenkle
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will cover the use of the Rockwell mercury type orifice meter in flow measurement work. Information necessary for proper installation, use, and maintenance of the meter to insure accurate measurement will be discussed.
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Document ID: 512FE3B7

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Joe Tiner
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording calorimeter is an instrument used in the Gas Industry to record gas heating value in BTU per standard cubic foot. It consists of two units: a tank unit in which a sample of gas is measured and burned, and a recorder which records the heating value of the burning gas.
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Document ID: 875B23B8

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natuarl Gas
Author(s): Neal C. Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems confronting the natural gas industry in its endeavor to transmit gas from the source of gathering to the ultimate consuming market is the possibility of stoppage of gas flow due to hydrate freezing in the pipeline and pressure regulators. Gas hydrate as it is usually obtained from pipelines looks much like packed snow. A mass of hydrate is very porous and light in weight. When freshly obtained, relatively large volumes of gas evolve from it at atmospheric pressure. When ignited at atmospheric conditions, gas hydrate burns quietly and completely, leaving only a small amount of water which is not necessarily a true indication of the relative amount of liquid water in proportion to the volume of hydrate. Undoubtedly some of the water evaporates from the decomposition of the hydrate during the burning.
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Document ID: C04751BB

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas - Panel Discussion
Author(s): C. B. Holmes, R. L. Vogt, m. W. White, L. E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for effectively determining gasoline content of casinghead gas has increased significantly over the past few years, in line with the growing importance of gas and natural gas liquids as commodities produced by the petroleum industry. Equipment for making gasoline content tests has been improved, but in a large measure, the accuracy ol the tests is dependent upon the skill of the tester, and the precautions he takes in carrying out his work. It is the purpose of this paper to outline some of the pitfalls that await the unwary tester, and to suggest ways to overcome them.
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Document ID: 605D2A42

Domesttc Meter Shop Operations And Test Frequency
Author(s): E. A. Bryant
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many reasons for a gas distribution company to strive for accuracy in gas measurement. The gas meters in service account for most of the revenue which must cover all expenses and leave a fair share of profit. Since gas utilities are regulated by governmental agencies, higher rates are hard to obtain and since expenses continue to rise due to such factors as the rising cost of gas in the field, rising wages, rising cost of materials, etc., accurate methods of measuring and accounting for all gas purchased and sold becomes more important. An accurate meter projects the gas company by preventing undermeasurement and protects the customer by preventing over-measurement. At the same time accurate meters are an aid in keeping unaccounted for gas to a minimum. Generally speaking, the bulk of a gas distribution companys revenue is derived from its domestic and small commercial customers. Gas to these customers must be measured by small capacity meters geared generally to measure gas at 4 ounces gauge pressure. These are the meters which will be covered by this paper.
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Document ID: 20576B1F

Problems In Measuring Natural Gas Containing Hydrogen Sulphide
Author(s): Vars W. Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most widely used type of measuring device in the differertial class. It is accepted by the gas industry as a standard of measurement. It is used in measurement of fluids with extremely low temperature and pressure and extremely high temperature and pressure. It is used for the measurement of very light gases as well as very heavy liquids.
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Document ID: 891BF4CA

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulattng Equipment-Panel Discussion
Author(s): W. H. Osborne, John A. Pennington, Harold E. Vaughn, Howard S. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
Before the days of long line, high pressure gas transmission, a measurement mans worry of meter and regulator freezing was limited to the days of exremely cold weather. This was especially true because the volumes involved were generally small. Now, however, we are working with extremely high pressures originating in the fields of deep structures. As a result of improvement in materials and methods, we maintain our gas stream at high pressure right to the town border stations utilizing large diameter pipe and transmitting large volumes. As a result, the prevention of freezing in metering and regulating equipment has become a day-to-day problem regardless of ambient temperatures.
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Document ID: 6DC2A599

Deliverability Method Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): Gordon W. Swinney
Abstract/Introduction:
As is the case with any commodity, the greater the demand, the more valuable it becomes. Gas has been no exception to this economic principle. The ever increasing use of gas for a fuel domestically, industrially, and as a feedstock for petrochemical plants, has caused the development of a multi-million dollar industry of gas production and transportation. The development of this industry has depended and will continue to depend upon the availability of gas for delivery into the gathering systems and pipelines, therefore, the deliverability testing of gas wells is one of the most important field functions. The information obtained from such tests will often be used as the basis for decisions which involve the investment of millions of dollars.
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Document ID: 861B7FD8

Safe Practices In Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): Wallace F. Kienast
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has become one of the leading industries of our country. Increasing public demands for natural gas have and will cause an ever accelerating growth of the industry. To meet these demands the men of the industry must develop their skills to the utmost. They must produce, transmit, and serve to the public, adequate quantities of this perfect fuel, using safe practices.
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Document ID: DC18E66E

Field Sampling Of Gas
Author(s): C. A. Edmonds
Abstract/Introduction:
To find the chemical and physical properties of natural gas whether in a plant, a gas system, or at the source of this gas, it becomes apparent that obtaining a sample of sufficient quantity for analysis is of paramount importance. The term sampling of gas seems a simple thing, but due to the importance of the usage of information obtained from a gas sample, accurate sampling then becomes a matter of greater magnitude. Gas cycling plants, natural gasoline plants, reservoir engineers, and gas transmission companies, and a myriad of other groups depend upon the results of accurate gas sampling. The ramifications of this can be shown easily in the control and performance of their separate businesses. An improperly obtained sample, or one that is not truly representative of the gas sampled is of no value, regardless of the precision of analysis, and could lead to erroneous appraisals of the products for which they were to be used. Misleading results due to improper sampling could cost a company or corporation a considerably monetary loss.
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Document ID: 62ED6340

Gas Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): W. L. Gaines
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a gas metering and regulating station normally includes the orderly planning of specifications of equipment and auxiliaries as limited by the peculiar conditions of a given load. This planning process involves a definite sequence of four steps as follows: 1. Assembly of necessary data on load requirements to give a complete picture of the control and metering problem. 2. Dctermination of size and specifications of equipment. 3. Selection of the specific equipment to be used. 4. Layout of equipment in suitable fashion.
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Document ID: F562B969

Determination And Application Of Supercompressibility Factors
Author(s): D. H. Lindsey
Abstract/Introduction:
From the beginning of the Natural Gas Industry the behavior of Natural Gas has been assumed to follow Charles Law and Boyles Law. Charles Law is defined as: The volume of a body of gas varies directly as the absolute temperature when the pressure remains constant Boylers Law is defined as: The volume of a body of gas varies indirectly as the absolute pressure when the temperature remains constant. At ordinary temperatures and under moderate or small pressures all gases (escept Hydrogen, Helium, and Argon) are somewhat more compressible than the Law of Boyle would indicate. With gases that are hard to liquefy such as air, oxygen, or nitrogen, the changes in volume at ordinary temperatures and pressures exceed those calculated by Boyles Law by only a few tenths of one percent. With the more readily condensible gases, such as carbon dioxide, ammonia, or the hydrocarbons, the discrepancies may amount to several percent.
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Document ID: A6E8CB6B

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. I. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Although a few single bellows unites have been used in gas measurement, when one speaks of a Bellows-Type Orifice Meter today, he is by convention, referring to the dual-bellows rupture proof type differential pressure recorder. The differential across the orifice plate is continuously recorded on either a square root or uniformly graduated chart. By using the proper orifice and flow constants, a correct meter factor can be calculated to give rate of flow. The basic differee between this meter and other orifice meters, is the Differential Pressure Unit commonly referred to as the Meter Body. Briefly, it consists of a bellows unit assembly and two housing heads fastened together with a set of bolts. A cross section of one of these units is illustrated in Figure 1.
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Document ID: F6C9CDB4

Methods Of Approximating Open Flow Of Gas
Author(s): F. C. Turley
Abstract/Introduction:
Before the development of the back pressure method of testing, the potential capacities of gas wells were rated by open flow tests. The capacity by open flow was determined by flowing wells wide open to the air and measuring the rate of flow at the end of a given time or at the time the flow has reached stabilization.
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Document ID: 5BFA1A69

Back-Pressure Tests Of Gas Wells
Author(s): J. R. Mottley
Abstract/Introduction:
Back-Pressure tests have been accepted by state regulatory bodies upon completion of a gas well as a method of testing for determining the wells ability to produce. The rules for conducting these tests vary from State to State. This paper is concerned primarily with the Back-Pressure Test prescribed by the Railroad Commission of Texas, Oil and Gas Division. It is intended to clarify the procedure and calculations as set out in their manual, Back-Pressure Test for Narural Gas Wells, State of Texas, and point out the effect of incorrect data and certain well factors which with influence the Absolute Open Flow Potential obtained.
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Document ID: C3AB56F4

The Sampling And Analysis Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Author(s): R. L. Huntington
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the detenrdnation of the composition of a liquid or gas consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons is generally thought of in terms of the laboratory analyst. The importance of the analytical laboratory is not to be minimized however, it is a total loss of time to carry out carefull work in the laboratory unless one can be certain that the proper sampling is made of the stream or batch of material under investigation. In other words the analytical results are of no value to the engineer unless they represent the average composition over a delinite period of time in the case of continuous process or a portion of a truly homogenous mixture in the analysis of a large batch of stored liquid hydrocarbon. A number of the major companies are making an effort to improve upon sampling practices either by sending out mobile laboratories into outlying districts or by having the technical man go to the field to obtain the samples. In the absence of the engineer in the field, a set of clear-cut written instructions may serve fairly well as a means of ensuring proper sampling.
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Document ID: 90A0EAEB

Pre-Dehydration Use Of Hydrate Inhibitors
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
The prevention of freezing in gas pipe lines by the addition of some substance which will depress or lower the gas hydrate formation temperature is, perhaps, the oldest method of hydrate control. Use of hydrate inhibitors has not been uniformly successful because of their selection and their application so that wibh the advent of imploved heating equipment and new dehydration techniques and processes, the method lost favor and fell into general disuse.
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Document ID: B4E9463A

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the metering of gases the fundamental gas laws play a major role. The determination of the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure base and temperature base is the usual objective. The gas laws are equations expressing relationships of gas properties, such as pressure, volume and temperature, under varying conditions. These gas laws are usually known as Ideal or Perfect Gas Laws. There is, however, no ideal or perfect gas. While no actual gas conforms exactly to perfect gas laws, many of our actual gases, such as air, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, follow so closely in accordance with these laws that engineers use these ideal laws with some actual gases to a high deeree of accuracy.
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Document ID: 65749F3A

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Pat H. Luckett
Abstract/Introduction:
After natural gas reaches rhe surface of the earth measurement becomes a magical word and determines if this commodity like others can be bought and sold on a fair and equitable basis. Thus, on this word measurement does our industry depend today as to whether or not gas can be marketed in exact units to return to the cornpanies providing the commodity a fair return on their investment. With the ever-increasing demand and price of natural gas, a more exacting science of measurement has been achieved of which the industry is justiftably proud.
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Document ID: 55CAFDD5

Gas Accounting For Production Systems
Author(s): Curtis A. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
To most people, the title Gas Accounting for Production Systems would imply the art of bookkeeping whereby values would be applied to gas volumes in order to determine the profit or loss of a gas production operation. Such a conclusion would be correct however, due to the many regulatory bodies having jurisdiction over gas production, the difference in tax laws of the various states and the dictates and policies of management of the individual producing companies, it will be the aim of this report to cover only a part of the overall subject, that being some of the problems and procedures used to account for the gas in a producing system. It is lhe hope and desire to present a few techniques and procedures that will be of mutual interest to all and also to stimulate a desire for all to give more considerartion to gas accounting as the problems encountered are many and varied for the personnel working in such a fast growing industry.
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Document ID: B3D43F80

Gas Accounting For Transmission Systems
Author(s): James T. Underwood
Abstract/Introduction:
The business purpose of a gas transmission system is to aquire by a process of production or by purchase volumes of natural gas at one end of the system and to dispose of such gas at the other end by the process of sale. The success of this activity, whether measured in terms of dollars or by the standards of efficient service to the consumer, requires the coordinated efforts of numerous departments.
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Document ID: 472D19AF

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): Wayne Coffman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Measurement Department is commonly referred to as the cash register of a gas company. Essentially this is true as all cash revenue from purchase and sale of gas is reflected by the accuracy of the measurement.
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Document ID: 3E6125B9

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): E. A. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas contracts are agreements for the purchase and sale of a commodity. The terms of such gss contracts are the rules under which both Buyer and Seller must conduct their business relationship. Such being the case, careful attertion should be given to the various provisions so that each party fuly recognizes its obligatlons as well as its rights and privileges. A contract has been defined as a meeting of the minds of competent persons and the written form is a formal expression of such oral agreement.
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Document ID: D7357A1B

Orifice Fittings For Meter Runs
Author(s): Oliver W. Muff
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of an orifice meter set up depends largely upon the care with which the orifice fitting and meter tube are installed and maintained. To give sensible care to any mechanical device, it is necessary to be familiar with the design and principles of its operation. This paper will attempt to cover enough of the description of orifice fittings and meter tubes tha tthe user of such equipment will be able to use it with the greatest accuracy and still not find it necessary to spend excessive time in maintenance work.
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Document ID: 5DE9FCE5

Orifice Fittings And Meter Runs
Author(s): W. A. Griffin
Abstract/Introduction:
The thin plate square edged orifice is recognized today as being outstandingly superior for most applications in flow measurement. It has been investigated more thoroughly than any other restrictive device, and has a correspondingly greater amount of research data available for comparative purposes. Because of its simplicity it is more easily duplicated than any other such device.
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Document ID: 56959081


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