Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1950)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): I, L. Peppley
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic problem of gas distribution is a study of desirable pressures, and of pressure reduction. Without considering any factor except the cost of installation, the least expensive method of gas distribution would be at the pressure available from the supplying pipeline. This would make possible a network of one inch and two inch mains, with smaller service lines. There are several reasons why this type of distribution is not often practical. In many instances, maximum pressures are limited by franchise requirements, Also extremely high pressures would require special valves, fittings and regulators. Small lines are more easily broken than larger lines, and extremely high pressures would create major problems
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Document ID: 7A401987

Pressure Boosting Gas Regulators
Author(s): K. R. D. Wolpe
Abstract/Introduction:
: gas pressure boosters are automatic pressure having added feature and ability to increase :r boost the downstream pressure in related demand and flow of gas in the low presream distribution system. Thus, a velocity type d does automatically increase or decrease the at the regulator to compensate for the prese distribution piping to maintain a constant e end or at a selected distant point in the
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Document ID: FCCACA4C

Time-Temperature District Gas Regulators
Author(s): K. R. D. Wolfe
Abstract/Introduction:
The definite relation between atmospheric temperature and gas heating load is the principle upon which these regulators have been designed and used. This discussion will be confined to the construction, operation and use of district gas regulator? to which have been applied temperature boosting and time control equipment.
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Document ID: 366AF1E3

Balanced Valve Pressure Regulators: Their Selection And Capacity
Author(s): Allen D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
To equip a pressure regulator installation with the proper size and type of regulator is of extreme importance- . far beyond the obvious economic aspect of getting the least costly type and smallest size to do the job for the performance in maintaining the controlled pressure at a constant value will depend upon proper type and accurate size selection. Over half the service difficulties encountered in pressure regulators result from improper type selection and wrong sizes, usually on the large side.
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Document ID: 2133AB54

Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is based upon the principle that if an impediment is placed in a line of flow, a drop in pressure is created which is a measure of the rate of flow. The pressure drop is called the differential, the internal pressure in the flowing fluid is called the static pressure, the impediment or device which produces the differential is called the primary device and the meter which records the differential u.nd static pressure is called the secondary device
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Document ID: 3CCB494C

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulator Design
Author(s): Paul Wing, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this talk is to bring out in a general way the basic design factors governing the selection of simple pressure regulators, particularly the direct operated type. In spite of the fact that the pressure regulator is one of the oldest forms of control, very little specific information can be obtained on the actual expected operating characteristics. There are two principal reasons which account for this. In the first place, the term regulator generally connotes roughness. They are most often used on applications where the accuracy of control is of secondary importance. Secondly, they are sold in volume to many non-technical users, such as small laundries, etc, and sales emphasis has been on the non-technical side.
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Document ID: 9250EBC7

Helpful Hints On Installation And Operation Of Regulators
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
CHIPS IS ENEMY NO. 1 OP GOOD REGULATOR p-ATION. He may disguise himself as pipe scale, peb- - other foreign material, but he has no business in ri&tor. His favorite trick is to imbed himself in the .: disc material where it contacts the orifice edge hereby prevent lockoff. THIPS DOES HIS DIRTIEST WORK WHERE THE fcATOR IS TRYING TO DO ITS FINEST WORK. --re No. 1 this point is shown in the enlargement of - ilator inner valve. --RE MR. CHIPS
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Document ID: 0E5A5EB0

Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): J. D. Merchant
Abstract/Introduction:
ers, suppliers and operators of natural gas and ems today face more complicated problems than in rfore. The automatic control of pressure, temperaie- of-flow and liquid levels is of the utmost im- ! in the industrial plant system. Vast improvements ED made in the past on the original instruments, riratus and today the control of pressures cannot rely upon the simple weight or spring loaded regulator alone. The weight or spring loaded regulator was considered sufficiently accurate if the controlled pressure was held to within 5 or 10 per cent of the desired pressure, because that met with former general regulation demands. The low pressure regulator has always been more accurate than the high
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Document ID: 357E45E3

Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): J. D. Merchant
Abstract/Introduction:
r s . suppliers and operators of natural gas and z today face more complicated problems than in - : : : s . The automatic control of pressure, temperi:- of-flow and liquid levels is of the utmost im- - ST. the industrial plant system. Vast improvements IB made in the past on the original instruments, rrarus and today the control of pressures cannot rely upon the simple weight or spring loaded regulator alone. The weight or spring loaded regulator was considered sufficiently accurate if the controlled pressure was held to within 5 or 10 per cent of the desired pressure, because that met with former general regulation demands. The low pressure regulator has always been more accurate than the high pressure regulator,
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Document ID: 2D750A3A

High Pressure Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): L. E. Eige
Abstract/Introduction:
t as industry is indeed fortunate, because for the e gas distribution system it is easy to adopt relay i type of controllers, sometimes called pilot reguj order to obtain better and improved automatic . c o n t r o l . The reason for this is simply that ?as eal operating medium, and is always available t standard pressures. Its cost as an operating : to the gas industry is not prohibitive. Relay opera t o r s , such as the Wizard, are. therefore, particuptable to the gas industry. Although the use of not as widespread in the so-called Appalachian n the Mid-Continent area, the Central West and : Coast industry, the gas industry as a whole is - r ? better and improved pressure control, which can d only through such types of devices.
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Document ID: 50D67788

Remote Recording And Control
Author(s): W. E. Rufleth
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote measurement and control is a term being used more commonly every day, particularly in the gas industry. It is no longer necessary to travel to various points of a gas distribution system, nor to have men stationed at remote locations, in order to make measurements or carry out the necessary control operations. Telemetering can do a very efficient job of this, bringing measurements and control functions from remote points to central dispatch locations. Here the dispatcher has before him the complete picture of conditions existing throughout the gas system, and has at his finger tips means for making any necessary changes in gas flow or pressure anywhere in the system.
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Document ID: FEF3E167

Principles Of Automatic Controls
Author(s): E. W. Put
Abstract/Introduction:
It might seem strange that a paper on controls should be presented at a Measurement Short Course, however measurement and control certainly go hand in hand. Accurate measurement could not be accomplished in many instances without adequate control of pressure. The pressure of the gas is controlled from the time it leaves the well until it is delivered to the consumer.
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Document ID: 5B1A761A

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): D. C. Wiley
Abstract/Introduction:
If we were to attack the problem of the measurement of the flow of natural gas as a new subject, without reference to the accumulated knowledge and experience of the past, the problem would appear almost insurmountable. Our first difficulty would be the fact that the gas is flowing continuously in a closed conduit, a pipe line, at high pressure and high velocity. We cannot get to the gas to see it or feel it and we cannot weigh it or count it.
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Document ID: B6DF940F

Field Measurement At Extremely High Pressures
Author(s): At Extremely High Pressures J. m. Ribble
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas at extremely high pressures presents problems which are inherent to two broad fields, i.e., metering wet gas at the well head and metering injection well gas from compressor station discharge lines. The Gulf Coast is well known for its preponderance of distillate wells producing from great depths. Were the conditions of measurement comparable, in an area such as Wyoming or the Panhandle of Texas, it is certain that there would be additional problems to those ordinarily encountered in the Gulf region due to extremes of winter weather. In the colder climates, recourse must be made to additional heating facilities to assure full time trouble-free operation of the meters, necessitating additional cost for installation and maintenance.
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Document ID: 6AF587A6

Meter Houses And Heaters For Orifice Meter Gauge Protection
Author(s): W. O. Moran
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas volumes, in the early days, were measured by positive displacement, and by pitot tube meters. The smaller volumes were measured by positive displacement meters: the larger volumes were measured by pitot tube meters. Most of the gas being measured at that time, was known as manufactured gas, and was dry and relatively free from moisture. Even in those early days, the housing of meters was of considerable advantage, but heating to prevent the freezing of the pitot tube meter was not so necessary, due to the low velocity of gas required to operate the pitot tube.
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Document ID: 50532E83

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): D. W. Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
of gas as a fuel and in chemical pro- I an important application for orifice c e high accuracy is demanded since ::. the basis of orifice meter recording. hese facts it has become essential for : have sound knowledge of the funda- : : : : e meter and be able to maintain all
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Document ID: F33C23C8

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): H. J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
The posilive displaceneDt ges metel measur-es the volLrme of gas passiDg through it. FoI this reason, ihe cubic foot tr. t eo- the staDdard unit for. the gas itdustly Actually (e are inlereslcd in mcasrLring gas because of the elergy uhich it contains. trVhen cubic ieet of gas are measured for selliDg purpases, it rnust be acculately describecl to iDsule ttrat it nas a celtein amount of heating value lf a sjmple mete could be devek)ped to measure thc number of BTUS passing thlough n line, the principles ol glls measulement rvoulct be more stlaight-folwarcl anct Dot complicated by the urrlt of volulne, hich var-ies nith pressule aud tempture
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Document ID: D6D1B6AF

Domestic Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
:e meters, as manufactured by the American Meter r, are four compartment, two diaphragm meters. principle of operation is fundamentally the same :: the large displacement meters, which is described detail in the paper covering those meters. These : meters are made in two general designs, the Ironfcte and the Tinned Steelcase Meter. In the Ironcase B body is one integral easting which forms the utition, table, and gallery. A cast iron top and steel front and back covers are fastened to the b machine screws, completing the housing for the -en: compartments and meter mechanism. There i i e d handhole plate in the Ironcase Meter which - to the meter top. Through this handhole it is o inspect the mechanism above the table and to nor adjustment of the tangent and linkage. In the 5:eelcase Meter, the mete- case is composed of rmed steel stampings, all of which are soldered f.rming the housing for the measuring eomparti meter mechanism. Consequently all drilled hole
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Document ID: 968F57A0

Domestic Meters
Author(s): E. F,. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
The EMCO domestic metei Iine is made up of the folloving sizes *00, +0, #1 and +2. Each of these meters is available with top connections the +00, however, can also be obtained with side coDnections ior L.P.G. service The *00 and +0 metels incorporate several e design features Nhich are not present in the familiar cast ilon meters such as the +1 and +2 Emcos.
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Document ID: 7829B7E4

Domestic Meter Maintenance
Author(s): T, J. Watt
Abstract/Introduction:
meters manufactured by the Sprague Meter i re three chambered, two diaphragmed, oscillate meters. They are fabricated in two designs, e Iron case and the Sprague Zephyr aluminum Leter types are similar in design, the main dif- - in the metals used for the castings.
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Document ID: AF9B9251

Domestic Meter Shop Practice
Author(s): R. A. Seipert
Abstract/Introduction:
:i--.:on in this paper to discuss tne details h because of the many outside factors that pnblem. There also have been several -:- of the meter school that have dealt feasts of meter maintenance and records. irvote our time to such information and i7 make the subject complete. -ep in this problem of meter maintenance -.he selection of a desired standard of obtain this desired or ideal standard of OK should be definite rules governing the to be given a meter. The nature of the Uo mined at the time of in testing ac- R proof and external appearance of the
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Document ID: 3F9AD239

Proving Domestic Meters
Author(s): F. Whitworth
Abstract/Introduction:
Test No. 1on Sprague cas NIeteIs consisrs oi immersiDg lhe metcr- in r,aler. ,ith an intet.nal air. pressur.e of i pounds. Flangc tcaks can usually be stoppccl bJ. retightenir) g lhe scr-e!s, iror.ous ir-on casliDgs caD be peenecl, and a tur-n or) the stlrffjnq box ptug usua y is sufficien, Lo stop aDy lcaks al this poillt. AD elabor.atc hydr.oDDeumatlc tester or evcD a siDk or.tub car) be used for-this tcsl. Tesrilrg at i l-.ounds inler-nal pressLlre assures a leak FIoof n1etcr- at 20 tiIncs thc uor-rnal opetating pt.essrlre.
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Document ID: 18918D7C

Synthetic Diaphragms
Author(s): E. C, Hemes
Abstract/Introduction:
r a better diaphragm material probably :usly with the invention of the dry gas pressure regulator-prior to 1850. History :T8 a Boston gas engineer, named Alexan- : acquainted with the detrimental effect neepskin, recommended the use of beil - preference to the diaphragm units then t century later, J. J. Morgan notes similar r.i observes that no one dressing for sheep- n d to be satisfactory in all gases. By 1930, -g with the repair of positive displacement -: it has been impossible to predict the iijphragms but gives the average as under ?--.zr. Office files bear mute evidence of the .v. existing materials and reflect the ac- - :he search for improvement
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Document ID: B73D8FDA

Theory Of Automatic Control In Simple Language
Author(s): Henry W. Stoll
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to put in terms of our everyday language the theory underlying automatic control. The first question one could ask is, What does the word control include? One answer, which incidentally serves as the basis for this paper, defines it as a method of proportioning any variable in accordance with process needs. Along with this thought, too, should go the idea that control aids in the reproducibility of a product, guards its quality. and contributes to process efficiency.
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Document ID: B85A6A39

Review Of Research On Orifice Meter Measurement By Joint A.G.A.-A.S.M.E. Committee
Author(s): E. E. Stovalls
Abstract/Introduction:
The Joint AGA-ASME Committee is composed of members of the Gas Measurement Sub-committee of the American Gas Association of which Mr. E. P. Schmidt. Lone Siar Gas Company, is Chairman and the Fluid Meters Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers :: which Professor S. R. Beitler of the University of Ohio s Chairman. Mr. Howard S. Bean of the National Bureau .: Standards, Washington, D. C. is Chairman of the Joint Committee. The Bureau of Ships is assisting in this research project.
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Document ID: C8F8337D

Regulators With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): A.TJ. Bryant
Abstract/Introduction:
expansible tube type valve is an unconventional type 3.1ve which is coming into use more and more as a regulator. This type of valve has been manufactured be Grove Regulator Company since 1940 under the trade -r of FLEXFLO. For the sake of brevity and clarity, :ype of valve will be referred to in the remainder of aper by the trade name FLEXFLO.
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Document ID: 4AD3A812

Rotary Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): G. R. Kunze
Abstract/Introduction:
The to impellers are car.r.iecl on shafts which ar.e sup Ilortecl by carefully selecteLl aniilriction bealings. They are kept iD the sante r.elative posilioD ylNh each other. by timiug gear.s located on the shafts A pair of timing geats ..rF rls.d rr i,.h Flld oj rlrp mplpI ro mrnimLzo Uaxa.dr. -The outer. enclosure, or housing, forming the boundarv of anchlc,t umo. fl,urirrg .omp.Lrolerr..nnr.. of ,rr hti ,,r. ver.tical headplates. InLegral with the hcadplates are the gear compRrtments and beadDg carr.ier.s rsee Fig ure 2). The whole assembly is mountecl on a substantirl bedplate in rhich is cast the outlet connectlon.
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Document ID: DB265277

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): R. P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
be operating principle of all gas pressure regulators is scally the same and comparatively simple. The gas as at the inlet of the regulator and passes through the or through both ports in a balanced valve to the -t:. From a point in the outlet line, preferably eight or pipe diameters downstream, a pipe connection is made -s diaphragm case which transmits the outlet pressure da square inch of the diaphragm area, exerting a valve -g force. en the outlet
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Document ID: D408AB8F

Measuring Gas For Gas Lift Operations
Author(s): Earl Kightlinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for accuracy in gas measurement is a function of gas price per Mcf. With steadily increasing cost of gas in the fields, measurement departments must endeavor to increase their accuracy in all types of measurement. Gas Lift operations have in the past come in for very little consideration when accurate measurement was discussed. For accurate lift operations the gas flow is of a necessity at a high rate for very short intervals. This paper will endeavor only to make a few suggestions on increasing accuracy under certain conditions and hope to promote thinking on this problem.
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Document ID: C8DC1C23

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Vars W. Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was discovered by the Chinese a thousand years ago vhile boling for salt, These vells rvele around t!o thousand feet deep and the gas r,as used for evaporating Lhe salt also lor domestic pur-poses. HoJcever, huDdreds of years before this, the people ol Asiawolshipped fire that came out of crevices in the ground. In the United States c rping rth gas bubbllnts up rhrough tlre aler wcs found in West Virginia. This spring lvas dedicated to the country as a national palk by George Washington in the year of 1??5. Tn l82l gas was lilst produced commercially in this countIy.
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Document ID: 2AAA592A

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
While attempting to apply this principle, it would be found that the pressure lag in connecting tubing and the inertia of moving parts of the pressure sensitive element make the customary form of the pressure indicator almost useless in the measurement of the very small pressure differentials involved. To obtain accurate graphic records
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Document ID: 98301F87

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. H, Walters
Abstract/Introduction:
The iIoD or steel metet is clesigned Lo operate aDCi uraiDtain its ploof at pressur.e losses corrsiderabl-v above the i! .c. usually alloed for. the smaller- domestic meter, often times ranging as high as 4 or 5 v.o. OperatiDts at high differentials, all moviDg parts must bc designed to irrsure long life all euiding and stloke limiting parbs must be rugged enough to resist deflection. cood exanlples of this strength can be founcl iD the flags and flag iilms also the tangent and valve liDks rvhich Rre made fr.orn uralleable ilon ceslings. The llag lods are of large dianeter cold-r.ollecl steel. Bear-lnt materals musl be choscn to ninimize undue real. ln some metels high-91ade seal-type l)re-lublicetecl ball bear-illgs that Iequir-e no subsequeDt lublicetion ar-e nsed, hile in others replaceRble br.oDze bushings al.e used. Diaphragm assemblies mLlst also be so constructed IL) lrit
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Document ID: 5997449A

Gas Accountiig For Production Systems
Author(s): G. B. Ghdgee
Abstract/Introduction:
counting starts in the field. Reports and records ting in the field are the basis of gas accounting and e accurate if the accounting is to be accurate. HI not be possible in the allotted time to enter into iled discussion of all of the phases of gas accounting :re. due to the fact that this course is attended by p made up of both field and office personnel and their closest and most important contact is prob- . the gas measurement phase of their mutual oper- Bmt function will be given primary consideration iiscussioil, with a more general reference to other . gas accounting, time permitting.
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Document ID: 4C745551

Gas Accounting For Transmission And Distribution Systems
Author(s): R. S. Peace, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
What is Gas Accounting? It is that branch of accounting which deals with methods of recording gas volumes. As the term has been employed in this school, it comprises the records maintained in connection with metering, billing customers, checking gas purchases, royalty payments and the tabulation of all statistics and reports relating to gas volumes. This paper Will not include domestic meter reading and billing.
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Document ID: 10BD732C

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): Calculation Of Meter Charts B. J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Any discussion covering the many good methods or practices by which meter charts may be processed would be as complex as a discussion of the variations in gas measurement clauses of purchase and sales contracts. Much of gas is measured in accordance with formulas recommended by instrument manufacturers, while other contracts call for measurement in accordance with formulas recommended by the American Gas Association. Some gas is measured under the assumption that the fluid behaves in accordance with Boyles Law. Yet other contracts stipulate correction for this deviation. Some companies arrive at their pressure extensions by manual calculation, while others have found it expedient to use the gas chart integrator to obtain these extension values.
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Document ID: F402A3A9

Operation Of The Orifice Meter Chart Calculator
Author(s): J, L. Cottbell
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart integration is the final step in orifice meter measurement, where you retrace the recorded lines of pressure and differential and thereby develop the figures which show the volume from each meter. We have discussed chart integration each year of this school since 1929 when it was first introduced to the industry. For the benefit of those who have not attended previous- schools we will give a brief outline of the development of this machine.
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Document ID: C2819072

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): L. G. Rheinberger
Abstract/Introduction:
been my privilege to have been in attendance at western Gas Measurement Short Course many B indeed a pleasure to have the opportunity to is class on the subject of ELEMENTS OF GAS -*- r*rs. be borne in mind that this discussion is prea practical, not a legal standpoint. It should -embered that I am not an authority on the tfter and my personal opinions expressed herein iiscounted by each of you, using the correction i m your opinion is appropriate. Although my strictly a seller of gas, I shall endeavor to e subject in an impartial manner. eject is one which can be narrow and brief or i detail. The intent is to handle the subject allow sufficient time for answering any ques- aay be of individual as well as general interest
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Document ID: C154C917

Orifice Meters
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
We are engaged in a fast growing business and apparently ihere is an unlimited demand for our product. The Natural Gas industry, by virtue of its vast network of pipe line systems, now has connecting pipe lines from San Francisco bo New York City. This does not mean that gas will go from California to New York, or vice versa, but it does travel :rom the Mid-Continent area to the east and west coasts. Ve, in this school, are interested in the science of measuring and regulating gas from the well to the market. We are certain that the Italian, Venturi, and the German, Clemens 3erschel, who worked on flow meters centuries ago, had no :aea that the orifice type meter would be the basis of measurement in a business like ours.
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Document ID: 6B357BCE

Recent Legislation Affecting Gas Measurement
Author(s): E. N. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The passage of a Standard Gas Measurement Law by some states, the immediate consideration of such a law by others, and the prospect in eventuality of wide adoption of such statutes has given the natural gas industry cause to examine its present position and to carefully plan for the future with respect to the requirements of this type of legislation.
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Document ID: 87416C13

Orifice Meters
Author(s): D. C, Wiley
Abstract/Introduction:
Xbe wide field of usefulness of the orifice meter and its SZSTS.1 acceptance as an instrument for measuring flow are e result of three major factors. First, the principles of pe-aUon of the orifice meter are well known and the nu- r.:i-.l values of the necessary coefficients have been a*ed out to a high degree of accuracy. Second is the Khanical development of the instrument to secure ac- y. compactness, convenience and dependability at low L The third factor is that specifications for the orifice : measuring runs, and for the installation and operation tbt recording instrument are definite and generally wed upon, so that the instrument is used with confidence. fefe paper will deal with some of the features of the souring instrument including new features and with Ese installation and application factors.
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Document ID: 9712DE11

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): G. C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of Fundamentals of Regulators or Automatic Pressure Controls covers the means by which a determined set of pressure conditions are automatically maintained. These conditions are controlled automatically by the adaptation of simple mechanics wherein the force developed by pressure acting on a flexible diaphragm or combination of diaphragms is utilized to operate various types of regulators and valve structures.
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Document ID: 64160EC6

Gas Gathering System Regulators
Author(s): R. B. Baze
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators for Gas Gathering Systems are of two gen- -::.. types, self-operated and power or pilot operated. The --operated regulator has its own self-operated measuring r-.ns and its self-operated controlling means. The power pilot operated regulator has an outside measuring means .:h transmits power to the main regulator to effect the r.:rol of the system pressure. Both of these types have -t.r.iie purposes and applications for which they are park - arly suited. Z - gas gathering systems these can be classified as
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Document ID: 4C202FCD

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): J. E. Gesner
Abstract/Introduction:
Low pressure regulators are used for reduction of pressure in distribution systems, for controlling pressure to industrial furnaces and commercial heating applications and for domestic appliances such as water heaters, furnaces, gas refrigerators, and pilot lights. For distribution systems low pressure regulators are generally of the balanced valve type and are usually either weight or pilot loaded. Where inlet pressures reach twentyfive or fifty pounds per square inch and volumes are relatively large, it can be readily seen that a balanced valve is suitable. For example, if a single valve seat one square inch in area is used to reduce a pressure of fifty pounds per square inch to eight inches water column pressure and a lockup of two inches water column is specified, the two inches would have to be multiplied enough by the diaphragm and leverage to overcome the fifty pound thrust against the valve.
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Document ID: 3ACEF243

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): High Pressure Regulators
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator may be defined as a mechanical device capable of maintaining gas pressures at a predetermined value regardless of variations in flow and inlet pressures to which it may be subjected. It must also be capable of satisfactory operations under adverse conditions such as extreme weather variations, pressure variations, as well as changes in composition of the gas being regulated. This necessitates the design of mechanical equipment essentially trouble-free under all conditions of operation as well as a unit designed for easy installation and repair.
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Document ID: 78F81EB3

Gas Service Regulators - Operation, Installation And Shop Repair
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Under the foregoing title, we will discuss the gen subject of Gas Service Regulators by sub-dividing this p S e r into the following .roups or titles of each phase of the subject: 1 Definition of a Service-Type Gas Pressure Regulator. I Lot M e t Service Regulator, for Conversion Projects i n d High Leakage Conditions D e t c S t i o n of Construction and Mechanical Operation Suggestions for Good Installation Procedure Methods used for Shop Repair Weather and Bug Proof Breather Vents for Service Regulators. 3. 4. 5. 6. DEFINITION OF A SERVICE-TYPE GAS PRESSURE REGULATOR The term Gas Service Regulator, commonly applies
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Document ID: 63E3EB49

Customers Service Regulators
Author(s): Customers Service Regulators
Abstract/Introduction:
d growth of the gas business is taxing every iustry and the facilities for the handling cannot keep pace with the demand. New creds of miles in length is being built :n many Han to supply new markets and to increase Hfctfag consumers. The elimination, or rerestrictidns of gas for heating has increased -: record proportions. :: service to homes, shops and factories has ::rroved. making gas more desirable. Since highly adaptable for heat treating of metals gical, chemical, and food processing indusnow large increases. Manufacturers of gas s have been, and are, spending thousands arch and improvement of their equipment. i r e spending millions to deliver gas to the vide satisfactory service every day of the
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Document ID: 5642EC20

Medium And Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): J. E, B. Lundy
Abstract/Introduction:
7 of pressure regulation and of regulator design -: roughly covered in past courses and in other tar. Therefore, for this class, I should like to with the theory and devote most of the time Balanced Valve Regulators in particular, to e Balanced Valve Regulators. regulator is an automatic mechanism con- :-interact any force that tends to increase or rtlet pressure beyond a predetermined margin. inufactured and natural gas, distribution pres- . -- is essential to effect il) complete and efs t i on of the gas, (2) the maintenance of pre- -issures for transmission of the gas effectively 3i accurate metering-, (4) protection against -T and strains that might damage or de- : property.
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Document ID: 1FB886F3

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): C. B. Seidenglanz
Abstract/Introduction:
Some of you men have been here before, and others may be attending their first Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. Therefore, today when we discuss high pressure regulators, I want to try and make our discussion interesting to both old and new students. To measure accurately and to secure the best combustion of gas, a regulator or regulators are necesary. All pressure regulators work on the same basic principle namely, a diaphragm on one side of which is the controlled or outlet pressure and on the other side we apply a counter force by springs, weights, or possibily a combination of both. This diaphragm is connected to a valve or valves by a stem, or lever, or toggles. Any change in the line pressure tends to change the position of the diaphragm and the valves then move closer to, or away from the seat, depending on an increase or decrease in demand
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Document ID: FBA08F4F

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): J. E. Gesner
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of a pressure regulator is to reduce and control pressure. Quite often a regulator is placed In a line to reduce a constant pressure of one value to a constant pressure of another or lower value. Other times it is desirable to reduce a variable high pressure to a constant lower pressure. The reasons for reducing pressure are many and varied, ranging from the first reduction of pressure at the gas producing field to the final reduction at a burner of an appliance. Pressure reductions are made because of safety, economy of transmission and distribution, accuracy of measurement, and efficiency of utilization.
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Document ID: 9F6B0477

Gas Regulation At Extremely High Pressure
Author(s): W. A. Shellshear
Abstract/Introduction:
Problems presented in the regulation of gas at extremely high pressures may be resolved into those of pressure reduction. prevention of freezing in order to insure steady trouble free operation, maximum removal of fluids and adequate, safety protection to personnel and property. A. The principle problem in regulation of gas at extremely high pressures is one of pressure reduction. There are four general methods of accomplishing pressure reduction in present day practice. These are by the use of: (1) positive chokes, (2) adjustable chokes, (3 pressure reducing regulators, and (4) by combinations of the first three.
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Document ID: FB3CB35F

Auxiliary Measuring Devices
Author(s): D. C. Wiley
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for auxiliary measuring devices is a result of characteristics which are inherent in the conventional positive displacement meters and orifice meters. The positive displacement meter has as a major advantage its remarkable accuracy for all rates of flow from practically zero up to the full rated capacity of the meter. However, the maximum capacity of the positive meter is small in relation to the size of the enclosing case. Also, working pressures are usually limited to 250 psi or less. The positive meter indicates the summed up total of the volume of gas that has passed at flowing temperature and pressure. It requires auxiliary devices to convert the volume at the flowing pressure and temperature to the volume at base conditions.
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Document ID: 6C2BFC59

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): H. S. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The testing and recording of gas heating values has become more and more important with recent years to the Natural Gas Industry as a whole. Every year more companies are changing over to buying and selling gas on a term basis. It was therefore out of necessity that there has been developed, recording calorimeters which are both accurate and dependable. Much time and research was spent to this development. The purpose of this paper is to outline and. explain the requirements as effects the installation and testing of these recording calorimeters.
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Document ID: EE8D036E

Operation And Maintenance Of Recording Calor w.u7
Author(s): G. m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
The unprecedented expansion of the natural gas industry in the past ten years has seen pipelines extended to practically all parts of the country with a combined length even surpassing that of all of our railroad systems. The potential energy as represented by the volumes of gas flowing through these pipelines is now more than five times the electrical energy generated by the entire Electrical Utility Industr
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Document ID: C0505FE4

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): m. A. Hardie
Abstract/Introduction:
The literature has been enriched abundantly in recent years with information dealing with cause, effect, treatment and cure of freezing occurring in the measuring and control equipment of the natural gas industry. Reduced to essentials, the cause is presence of water at such pressures and temperatures as are amenable to the information of hydrates the effect is loss of measurement and/or control of pressures with such ensuing results as may range from the merely irritating to the extremely hazardous the treatment involves the maintenance of such pressures and temperatures or the use and arrangement of materials to deter or eliminate hydrate formation the cure rests in the removal of the water to such low level that freezing will not occur under the minimum conditions probable.
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Document ID: 97929E40

The Use Of Pneumatic Pressure Transmitters In Gas Measured
Author(s): O. L. Clay
Abstract/Introduction:
In view of the rapid expansion of gas transmission lines and the ever increasing utilization of natural gas, it is becoming more important each day to improve the efficiency of pressure measurement, both locally and remotely. The instrument industry has available several types of pressure transmitters operating either pneumatically or electrically. Todays modern high pressure gas transmission lines, compressor stations, and gas processing plants have many applications for instruments of this type. To mention a few, the inlet and discharge pressures of a compressor station transmitted to a central control room or the dispatchers office. The transmitting of various process pressures to central instrument panels. The use of a differential pressure transmitter and a pressure transmitter to transmit flow to a distant flow recorder or controller. The type of pressure transmission to be selected depends upon the distance between the transmitter and receiver, and upon other application factors.
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Document ID: D27E7AA4

Orifice Fittings And Meter Runs
Author(s): Oliver W. Muff
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of an orifice meter set up depends largely on the care with which the orifice fitting and meter tube are installed and maintained, To give sensible care to any mechanical device, it is necessary to be familiar with the design and principles of its operation. This paper will attempt to cover enough of the description of orifice fittings and meter tubes that the user of such equipment will be able to use it with the greatest accuracy and still not find it necessary to spend excessive time in maintenance work.
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Document ID: 574E7127

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas
Author(s): A, G. Tillman
Abstract/Introduction:
The term gasoline content of gas denotes the amount I condensable hydrocarbons, which can be recovered from I unit volume of gas measured under specific conditions Buottne content is usually expressed in gallons per thousmd cubic feet or gallons per million cubic feet. The four most common methods of determining the gaso- -.e content of natural gas are: Low Temperature Fractional Analysis, A.O.A.-N.GA.A. Compression, A.G.A.-N.G. VA. Charcoal Absorption, and c.N.G.A. Charcoal Absorption. The two methods that will be discussed in this paper arc ie Low Temperature Fractional Analysis and the C N GA --larcoal Absorption.
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Document ID: E5E8D548

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): S. V. Carmichael
Abstract/Introduction:
There is very little that can be added to the theoretical onsiderations regarding the various methods of determin- .r.g specific gravity for they have been very clearly and very :jmpletely presented in the proceedings of previous years. However, since this is a school, and since probably most of TOU are attending this class for the first time, this subject must hold some special interest for each of you. This paper Trill of necessity cover to some extent the same ground that has been covered in the past. It is, of course, our purpose In learn all that we can in the time at our disposal, about -.he various methods of measuring specific gravity, the :ypes of equipment available, and their practical application El relation to the problem of orifice meter measurement.
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Document ID: 8E0F3C36

Gravity Balance And Gravitometer
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the specific gravity of gases is an sportant item in gas measurement due to its effect on :rifke meter calculations. Several methods for making this determination have been developed over a number of years Bid are presently in use by various industries. The indirect weighing methods have found considerable acceptance in -ise fuel gas field due to their convenience and accuracy, -d the present discussion will deal with two instruments if this type.
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Document ID: EFF8D2EE

Care And Operation Of Recording Gas Gravitometers
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing the Arcco-Anubis Recording Gas Gravitometer the term specific gravity will occur frequently. It is, therefore, well to define the term specific gravity as applied to gas measurement and to emphasize its importance In the commercial measurement of gas. A common term, specific gravity, simply refers to the ratio of the weight of a unit volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of some other substance selected as a reference standard. Therefore, we refer to the specific gravity of any solid or liquid as its weight in terms of the weight, of an equal volume of water when the value of water is taken as 1.0. Under this reference standard iron has a specific gravity of about 7.5, lead about 11.3, and mercury about 13.6, while air at one atmospheric pressure and at 60 degrees F. w:ould have a specific gravity of .001223. In other words
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Document ID: C8767661

Problems In Measurement Of Natural Gas Containing Hydrogen Sulphide
Author(s): G.O. Craqin
Abstract/Introduction:
What is hydrogen sulfide? Why do problems result from its presence in natural gas? Let us examine these two questions carefully for they represent large expenditures and tttany headaches to our industry each year. To Webster, hydrogen sulfide is an inflammable, poi- --mous gas, H..S, of disagreeable odor, found in many min- -il waters. To the chemist, it forms characteristically :ltired precipitates of metallic sulfides when bubbled -trough salt solutions, which are useful in analytical chemstry. TO those engaged in the transportation and sale of c r u r a l gas, it presents the necessity of removal of a most tirmful constituent, Although HJ3 is not contained in all ias in its natural state, some companies derive 95% to of then- pipeline requirements from fields containing : thing but sour gas-gas containing hydrogen sulfide in trying amounts from a few thousandths of 1% to more titan 10% by volume.
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Document ID: FEA848BF

Gas Laws And Thierr Use In Measurement
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental gas laws are relationships dealing with the behavior of gases. Engineers are interested in this behavior as it affects the properties of gases such as pressure, volume, temperature, heat, enthalpy, etc. The earth, sun, moon, planets and stars follow certain laws. Mans health, growth, development and success are .subject to the laws of nature and the laws of God. Mechanical equipment, made by man, such as engines, motors, fans, pumps, boilers, heat exchangers, when subjected to tests, give results that indicate, when plotted graphically, the trend of operation, performance characteristics or the laws under which it operates
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Document ID: 7526FE2C

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Distribution System
Author(s): John P. Con-Nob
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject Determination ol Leakage and Unaccounted For Gas in Distribution Systems is one of prime interest to every gas company. It is one which demands constant study and investigation as it has a direct bearing on both economic and safe operation. The two go hand in hand so that a concentrated leakage mitigation program should be reflected in a reduction of unaccounted for gas. Equally as important as the reduction of gas leakage and the resultant savings is the necessity at distributing gas in such a manner that it does not affect public safety
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Document ID: 2BE77DB6

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): A. A. Hejduk
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is an accurate and simple pressure measuring instrument widely used in the gas industry. It is a. primary standard used in measuring pressures, vacuums and differential pressures of but a fraction of an inch of crater or several pounds per square inch. One must not lose sight of the fact that a manometer fe a base or primary standard. By primary standard we mean that the unit is a base reference or measuring yardstick which will be used in observing certain conditions or results. In measuring pressures with the manometer, we are comparing an unknown pressure which we are seeking with that of our measuring standard manometer reading-or in ::her terms, comparing the unknown with the known. Many instrument men classify a dial type pressure gauge as a primary standard of measurement. This type of gauge being a mechanical unit having cams, gears, levers or bellows correctly termed as a secondary standard, or a unit :f measure which is not a base reference standard. In .he manufacture of low pressure dial type gauges
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Document ID: E1BB8502

The Variable Area Flow Meter
Author(s): D.R.C. Fischer
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently, practically all gas flow measurement was done either with an orifice meter or positive displacement meter. However, within the last few years, a third type of measurement, the Variable Area Meter, has proven itself for many difficult gas streams. We will here endeavor to give you the reasons for the success of this newcomer, and show you where it will fit into your operation
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Document ID: 18872603

Measurements Of Pipe Line Efficiency
Author(s): J. D. Killough
Abstract/Introduction:
The transaction of a fuel business may be summarized as he delivery of a fuel from a point of supply to a point of demand. In our industry the fuel is gas. and in this area natural zas. Pipe is the medium through which gas is moved in production, gathering, transmission, distribution and utilization. Each of these phases is the same essential operation under different conditions. The part analyzed here will be transmission the movement of gas in large quantities at high pressure over long distances, with a considerable loss between inlet and outlet pressure. The methods developed and the conclusions reached apply to all branches, subject to modifications required for the different operating conditions.
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Document ID: B6DB9FDA

Design And Fabrication Of Orifice Meter Runs
Author(s): E. A. Bartolina
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and fabrication of Orifice Meter Runs is a subject that has in the past received and is, at the present time, receiving a considerable amount of attention by the American Gas Association, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the National Bureau of Standards, and member companies at these organizations. Much of the research work now being conducted is far from finished but it is hoped that when all the data is collected and studied that the measurement of gases and liquids by means of orifices Will be greatly improved and standardized throughout the entire oil and gas industry. This research work will, no doubt, also clarify a great number of points that are now being argued pro and con by measurement engineers who do not have, as of this date, sufficient reliable data on which to base their arguments.
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Document ID: 26775463

Application Of Pitot Tube To Recording Meters
Author(s): T. J. Kirkpatrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the last few years the need of determining rates of flows in natural gas pipe lines and through compressor stations, for operating purposes, has greatly increased. With many pipe lines operating at or near capacity, the necessity of maintaining peak operating efficiency is obvious. Before the efficiency of any particular section of line or compressor station can be determined the rate of flow through that section of line or station must be known. Since it may not be practical or advisable to provide orifice type meteringstations at all necessary points or locations, some other means of determining flow rates may be desirable
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Document ID: 04BD4538

Recording Instruments
Author(s): A. G. Koenig
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss as briefly but as completely as possible such recording instruments as are most commonly used by the gas industry. There are of course recording instruments manufactured today to record practically all physical phenomena encountered in industry. such as for electrical values, light, pH. B.t.u.s, radiation, specific gravity, and a host of others. The most commonly used recording instruments in the
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Document ID: E1241DBE

Meter And Regulator Shop Equipment
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices in the gas company shop. It is the purpose of this paper to make suggestions regarding the use of certain devices, jigs, and fixtures, as well as tools, with the intention of helping the gas companies to reduce the unit cost for repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been covered in other classes so this paper will be devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools- and devices for speedingup this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: 35E8852A

Explanation Of Retrograde Condensate In Gas Condensate Reservoirs
Author(s): Explanation Of Retrograde Condensate In Gas Condensate Reservoirs
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of deep high-pressure reservoirs have been discovered throughout the Southwest over the past 20 years, which contain hydrocarbon fluids having properties which are contrary to, or rather, the inverse of those fields producing oil and gas from shallower depths. These fluids appear to be gaseous in nature, as they are found to exist originally in the reservoir. Actually these condensate hydrocarbons are present as a single phase fluid of relatively high density but possessing no surface or liquid meniscus. The peculiar behaviour of these hydrocarbon mixtures in partially condensing when brought to the surface under reduced pressures has resulted in their being termed retrograde or opposite in nature to ordinary gas which requires an increase in pressure to bring about condensation
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Document ID: E42C2491

Safe Practices In Gas Measurement
Abstract/Introduction:
This is not my first time to talk on the subject of safe practices in gas measurement. As a matter of fact, I presented a similar talk last year at a morning session of this school. I enjoyed it immensely but, a few days later, I ran into a friend of mine who said he had heard about my talk and was sorry that he was unable to be present to hear it. In polite response, I assured him that he had not missed anything, whereupon he staggered me by saying thats what everybody says
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Document ID: 04B313A7

Determination And Application Of Supercompressibility Factors
Author(s): C. m. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
Engineers who have had to calculate volumes of gases have come to recognize that no gas obeys exactly Boyles Law which in its simplest form is: PV P,V, All known gases that are collected under pressure show deviations in either direction and in various amounts from the above simple statement. Those with which the engineers of our industry have to deal are usually more compressible than the law states and hence a factor greater than unity has to be applied to the calculated volumes on re-expansion to arrive at a fair measurement of the amounts delivered. It will help in our thinking if a kind of down-to-earth analogy is used about the problem such as: When you empty a container filled with natural gas under pressure, you will find that the amount of gas you take out of the container is greater than the amount the law stated was in there. And conversely:
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Document ID: B9150AF2

Theory And Application Of Thermometers And Pressure Gauges
Author(s): John P. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Present day gas accounting procedures stemming from various practices and legislative instruments, have made it increasingly necessary to know and understand the application and interpretation of the fundamental gas laws. Direct volumetric measurement of gases depends upon these laws, and it will be to our advantage to review them briefly
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Document ID: 9DF21994

Prediction Of Gas Temperatures Of Buried Pipe Lines
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
The formation of gas hydrates is a continuous threat to the operation of high pressure gas gathering systems during cold weather. In many areas, ground temperatures fall well below hydrate formation temperatures so that the gas cools rapidly, water vapor condenses and hydrates form with relative ease. Frequently, line stoppages result when hydrates form and are compacted in a pipe bend or in a valve or regulator setting. These plugs are hard to locate and even harder to eliminate. Often they result in extended interruptions to deliveries, upset production quota schedules. and sometimes endanger upstream facilities because of excessive pressures. An extended flow stoppage allows the gathering line to cool to ground temperature More water is condensed which may form hydrates when flow is resumed and the gas-water mixture agitated, so it is often difficult to keep a gathering line in service once it has been shut in. This is particularly true in long, small-diameter lines handling relatively small quantities of gas.
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Document ID: 42AEC370

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): W. F. Hoag
Abstract/Introduction:
Water vapor present in natural gas has long been a problem to the companies who have natural gas operations and has been an expensive troublemaker to all phases of operation whether it be the producing, processing, transmission, or distribution. Natural Gas, with very few exceptions, is always saturated or close to the saturation point with water vapor from the time it leaves the well heads, through the various processes and into the transmission lines unless some means of dehydration is used. This saturated condition results in water condensing in the pipe lines with every decrease in temperature of the gas, causing corrosion, formation of gas hydrates, icing, and various other difficulties.
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Document ID: 1D41B8E7

Dehydration Of Gas At Well Head
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas dehydration at the well-head is a relatively new operation which is gaining favor with gas producers. Extreme well-head pressures, higher operating pressures required by the newer pipe lines, and low gathering system temperatures present many serious problems in gas gathering. In some instances, the gas can be heated and re-heated with sufficient regularity to conduct it to a central plant without encountering hydrate formation troubles. In many other cases, it is impossible to locate and service heaters where needed, because of geographical conditions such as swamps, open water or mountainous terrain, or heat losses may be so great that multiple heater installations are economically unsouna. Here, well-head dehydration is an absolute necessity.
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Document ID: B254B42A

Orifice Fittings And Meter Runs
Author(s): W. A. Griffin
Abstract/Introduction:
OK purpose of this paper to go into the back- : inferential measurement. Suffice it to say that I measurement had its early beginnings some 250 ben it was recognized by several early physicists - Dow of fluid in a closed system the loss of pres- Through an orifice, or any restriction, was pro- : the square of the velocity of the fluid. Further this basic physical law and its application to -:.: and control resulted in the development of - i a r y elements such as the Pitot tube, Venturi C.-.-x nozzle, and the flat orifice plate.
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Document ID: C192E8F7

Back Pressure Tests Of Gas Wells
Author(s): L. L. Jordan
Abstract/Introduction:
With the discovery ou natural gas in such quantities that it could he used commercially, one of the first things operators or owners of wells tried to find out was the amount of gas they could get from a well. The only known method was to open the well wide open and measure the flow of the gas. a method which was soon found to be injurious to the wells, as well as being wasteful. By happy circumstance, many of the early fields were in depletion type reservoirs and no damage was done to the reservoir except the wastage of a valuable natural resource.
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Document ID: 07706913

Deuverability Method- Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): m. F. Shaffer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Railroad Commission of Texas defines DELIVERABILITY as the ability of a natural gas well to produce gas at a working pressure equivalent to 807, of the shut-in wellhead pressure of that well.* Further, it could be gaid that DELIVERABILITY is a term applied to the daily volume rate of flow attained by a natural gas well at the end of a specified time period when the well is being produced against an assigned wellhead operating pressure with the gas being delivered into a pipe line. EVOLUTION OF GAS WELL RATING (Testing) The method of rating the daily delivery capacities of natural gas wells has progressed over the past fifteen years as follows:
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Document ID: B550F65D

Orifice Fittings For Measurement Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Gordon Z. Greene
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seem unbelievable to the unitiated to say that essentially all of the gas used in Industry or in domestic service has at some time between the source and the consumer, been measured by passing it through a restriction in the gas line. The initiated recognize the importance of this kind of measurement, which we know as Differential Type Metering. It is surely unreasonable simplification to refer to differential type measurement as passing the gas through a restriction in the line but by attention to detail and taking full advantage of the extensive research data available, industrial measurement is quite readily held within the accepted 2, variation.
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Document ID: 94B68173


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