Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1945)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

The Natural Gas Industry In The South
Author(s): F. S. Kelly, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a pleasure for me, as President of the Southern. Gas Association, to appear before you at this, 20th meeting of the Southwestern Gas Measure- urement Short Course. As a former would-be measu rement engineer, I have been interested in and have followed the development of your worthwhile organization since 1928, when I attended one of the earlier schools held here, at Norman. My recollection is that we had an attendance of approximately 100 measurement men and engineers from the South and Southwest. The present estimated attendance of 600 to 700 is the best indication, to my mind, of the value and high esteem in which the natural gas, natural gasoline and oil industries hold your so-called meter school.
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Document ID: AA5C4B56

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): W. B. Coffee
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject before the class is the familiar one entitled Field Testing and Maintenance of Large capacity Displacement Meters. To start it off, this paper has been prepared for the purpose of my relating to you some of our experiences in the above regard for possible purposes of comparison with your own experiences.
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Document ID: D1EBB6F0

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Iviike Meuffels
Abstract/Introduction:
The year 1775 marks the discovery of gas in Virginia but it was not used commercially until 1825 when the streets of Ferdonia, New York were lighted by gas from a well drilled to a depth of 27 feet. Since that time the gas industry has steadily moved forward and today it is one of our leading industries. Many large gas fields have been discovered in the pa.st 50 years and it is interesting to note that right in our own back yard we have the huge Hugoton field in southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma-one of the worlds largest-which assures an abundant supply for more than a century, at the present rate of withdrawal. Last year 122 billion cubic feet of gas were marketed from this field alone and many of us here are connected with some phase of the distribution of this gas.
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Document ID: D984A728

Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): D. W. Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
In the application of regulators for pressure control there are many operating conditions which reruire a very high degree of sensitivity and control accuracy. Pilot loaded or pilot operated regulators are the answer to this need. Pilot loaded regulators in reality consist of two closely coordinated units. First, the pilot loading head which is the actuating device of the regulator, This head consists of a case with a large diaphragm, the bottom of which is charged by gas from the low side of the regulator.
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Document ID: 1120D339

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): W. R. Mclaughlin
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increasing use of gas transmission requirements have made higher pressure necessary. Thus, at various points along the transmission and distribution system pressure regulators must be used to controi to an accurate and lower pressure. REASONS FOR PRESSURE REGULATION There are four basic reasons for pressure regulation: Safety, Measurement. Economy, and Combustion.
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Document ID: B1615C72

Velocity Type Pressure Boosters
Author(s): K. R. D. Wolfe
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject we are going to discuss is that of improving distribution pressures with gas pressure boosters of the velocity type. It is assumed that all of us are familiar with the conventional gas distribution system, and on that assumption, we all know that as gas is put through a pipe line, there is a certain pressure loss due to the friction of the gas moving inside of the pipe line. Therefore, to maintain a given constant pressure at the far end of the system requires an increasingly higher pressure at the town border station as the demand for gas increases. This discussion will be confined principally to intermediate or high pressure loop lines where the pressures generally run from one pound pressure on up to much higher values. The Fisher- King Booster which we are considering is not intended for low pressure in ounces or as a district regulator, but is limited principally to reducing from pounds to pounds, such as the town border station regulators, where the pressure is later reduced, either through district regulators or house service regulators.
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Document ID: BC704838

Methods Of Pilot Loading Regulators
Author(s): Blanchard Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
There are numerous methods of applying the Pilot Loading Principle, No attempt is made to go over all of the methods in this paper, Discussion. herein, is limited to several methods which have been used successfully on pressure reducing regulators
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Document ID: B3E22898

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Mike Meuffels
Abstract/Introduction:
Low pressure regulators are more widely used than any other type. Engineers and manufacturers are continually striving to improve their performance to meet the exacting requirements of the modern gas burning appliances. modern gas pressure control is quite a complex problem in all its various phases of todays application.
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Document ID: 6DE6207E

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): m. D. Gilbert
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief study of a single regulator design will illustrate clearly the individual elements, their relationship and method of operation. Fig. 1 presents a typical regulator which incorporates in fimplest form the principal elements involved. This regulator is designed to accept the gas at the left and it maintains the desired pressure in the consuming system connected to the opening on the right. The desired or controlling pressure has access to the space below the diaphragm and its upward force is opposed by the weight mounted on the top of the diaphragm. This weight is the standard to which the outlet pressure is com- pared. The diaphragm assembly is directly con- nected to the valve assembly which in this case consists of two valves operating in two orifices. the upper section of the diaphragm case has access to the atmosphere. This is necessary in this design because a movement of the diaphragm in either direction will cause a change in the volume above the diaphragm. If entrance and exit of air were prevented by elimination of the diaphragm vent opening, a change in volume above the diaphragm and cause a change in pressure in this space, and any change in the pressure above the dia- phragm would influence the forces applied to the top of the diaphragm and thus change the standard which is the force opposing the controlling pressure under the diaphragm,
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Document ID: 0919F2F3

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): H, V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Low pressure regulators are available in a wide variety ol sizes and designs. This wide range of manufacture permits the solution of each particular problem of pressure regulator in the manner which is most satisfactory to the distribution department. In the design of these regulators, considerable attention has been paid to the selection of the proper material for each particular part of every type of regulator. The valve seat discs are furnished in leather or in neoprene in various degrees of hardness. The neoprene seat discs are recommended lor natural gas service, while leather seat discs are widely used for manufactured gas. The diaphragms are fabricated from sheepskin or flexible composition material. Sheepskin impregnated with an oil dressing is recommended for most lowpressure service. All of the castings are made of alloyed grey iron, which is unexcelled for uniformity and high tensile strength.
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Document ID: F19E93A5

Time-Temperature District Gas Regulators
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will be confined to the construction, operation, and use of district gas regulators to whicli have been applied temperature boosting and time control equipment. District Gas Regulators are classified as those regulators which supply gas to the low pressure system ot a town, this low pressure is that which is required for the low pressure gas-burning equipment of domestic and industrial users. Such district regulators may have as low as one or two pounds on the inlet, but usually this inlet pressure is about five to fifteen pounds. Higher inlet pressures are sometimes encountered but they are the exception rather than the rule. The low pressures delivered to the appliances rarely are less than four inches of water and usually are in the range of tour to eight ounces but may, in some cases, be slightly less than four ounces and occasionally get up to pressures as great as fourteen to sixteen ounces. Usually in a town of any size, there are two or more regulators operating in parallel and taking the gas from the high pressure or intermediate pressure system and feeding gas into the common low pressure and inter-connected system. Each regulator takes care of the gas load or demand in the domestic or indu
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Document ID: 374C389C

1944 Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course
Author(s): Miss Jane Pfeifer
Abstract/Introduction:
I have outlined my report into four groups, name- - I. Orifice Meters 11. Calculation of Meter Charts Gas Accounting IV. Fundamental Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 092E0133

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): A. S. Hall, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
District regulators can be divided into two main types, low or standard pressure and medium or high pressure. Standard pressure is a better term than low pressure and should be adopted by the gas industry. Standard is defined in the dictionary to mean: That which is set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value or quality. For years the distribution of gas was handled entirely by low pressure systems. Therefore, it is sound and reasonable to use this method as a standard. The general public will accept and understand the term and not misunderstand it as they have often misunderstood the meaning of low pressure. How often in periods of maximum demand one hears over the telephone an irate voice inquiring, Am I not on the low pressure line?
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Document ID: 2D61CF59

Repair And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Ray P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
The duty of a gas pressure regulator is to reduce the pressure of gas flowing through it to a lower pressure and to maintain the reduced pressure constant within certain limits. A regulator is essentially an automatic mechanism in which there is continuous motion and, consequently, it will require periodic service and maintenance. To be able to perform these operations in the shortest time and with the least difficulty, it is necessary to understand how a regulator is constructed and how it operates
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Document ID: 3CD45A48

Remote Measurement And Control
Author(s): J. N. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Remote Measurement and Control is a familiar one to every engineer in the Gas Industry. To him it suggests two things. First, the means whereby pressures and flows are measured at remote points on his system and these measurements transmitted to some central point for the information of his system operator and secondly, the method in which pressures and flows may be controlled at will in outlying areas by an operator or dispatcher miles distant from the equipment being controlled.
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Document ID: 41940324

Principles Of Automatic Controls
Author(s): R. m. Hemfelt
Abstract/Introduction:
By definition automatic means sell moving, regulating done from force of habit, or done by self acting machinery. Likewise, the dictionary states that control means to exercise a directing or restraining influence over some action, process, etc. Therefore, applying those definitions to the subject Principles of Automatic Controls we find that we are to study some of the basic principles of self acting machinery that has been designed to exercise a directing and restraining influence on some process variable.
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Document ID: 3F528C04

Gas Regulation And Blending
Author(s): Harold A. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulation of gas starts from the minute it reaches the surface of the earth, usually by means of Gate Valves. The gas travels on through more regulation by means of choke valves, usually through an oil and gas separator, or stock tank, through a back pressure regulating or field gathering system on into the natural gasoline plant. At this point, it is guided by means of a series of reducing back pressure, flow, and temperature regulators, through scrubbing compression, cooling: absorption heating, and stripping then out of the natural gasoline plant in the form of residue gas. This residue gas is then carried through a transportation system for distribution where further regulation is required.
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Document ID: 1BF5E62A

Automatic Flow Control
Author(s): Mike Meuffels
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic flow control covers the automatic maintenance of a determined set of pressure conditions. Distribution systems often are divided into several parts and different pressures are maintained that will best serve the connected load. It is the maintenance of these different pressures that is called automatic flow control. Flow control covers all gas pressure regulators but for this discussion district regulators, and their auxiliary equipment, will be covered. District station regulators, generally, are designed to reduce inlet pressures from two to 100 pounds to ounces outlet pressure. They are of many and varied types, but all are of the same basic design. This paper deals with station reduction and it is proposed to discuss In some detail the following
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Document ID: C6FADF0A

Helpful Hints On The Installation And Operation Of Regulators
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
While our overall war picture looks very favorable today, new regulators and repair parts are still hard to obtain. In fact, deliveries are even slower than ever before. This is due to many high priority demands for the war effort, difficult raw material procurement, labor shortages, and many other factors. Today it is very important to make existing control equipment stay in service and to maintain it m the best possible working condition. Possibly some otherwise obsolete equipment can be salvaged to take care of some emergency needs.
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Document ID: 8C96F84D

Fundamental Principles Of The Orifice Meter
Author(s): C. C. Abbott
Abstract/Introduction:
Our modern life has become so complicated in all of the multitudinous ramifications of our commercial and social activities that we seldom stop to consider the source of origin and the fundamentals upon which any of our interests are based. Few of us can trace even the history of any one of our so-called modern inventions and certainly not many of us hesitate frequently to consider the basic elements upon which any one of the implements we use in our every day activities are based
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Document ID: 00E3A6E6

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. F. Downey
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement by the orifice meter does not mean literally the meter alone but includes all the component parts which are necessary to make up a complete meter installation. The meter is only one important cog in the mechanism set up for accurate measurement. The other parts necessary to complete the installation, and one is just as important as the other, are the meter run and the orifice plate. The degree of accuracy in orifice meter measurement depends upon the manner in which the above mentioned parts are assembled and located and upon the correct operation and efficient maintenance of these parts.
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Document ID: FD37E13A

Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
The application ol the orifice meter to closed flows in gas pipe lines is relatively new and can be accredited to the demand occasioned by the need oi a reliable measuring device to meter the large volumes oi natural gas which wore being released about the beginning of the 20th Century. In the period around 1000, a great many gas lines were started out of the West Virginia fields to Pittsburgh and other large centers ol industry, In 1903, the Hope Natural Gas Company built the first gas compressing station at Hastings, West Virginia, and with it came further recognition of the need for facilities for transporting natural gas. Simultaneously came the need for an accurate and reliable means of measuring this gas.
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Document ID: DB95427C

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
Wiiy is gas measured? Gas, as we are using the term, reiers to natural and manufactured gas as distributed by a public utilities. It is a very elastic fluid and unfortunately it is not possible for us to pour so many pounds into a sack, take it home, and have the gas in our sack when we get home. Due to this quality, it is necessary for us to measure gas differently than many commodities which we purchase over the counter.
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Document ID: 909F696E

Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
Of the above meters, by obtaining a seal tube of sufficient length for the 200 meter the 20 to the 200 have interchangeable high side pots. In addition to the above we build a 100 meter with 3000-lb. pressure test good for 1500-lb. working pressure, and a 50 meter for the same pressure range. The Westcott Orifice Meter is also supplied in, 50 and 100 differential ranges for a static pressure test of 4500 lbs. and static pressure test of 10,000 pounds, the first meter being suitable for 2500 lbs. working pressure and the last meter being suitable for 5000 pounds working pressure. In addition to the above, a Bell Type Float Meter is available in 1 to 10 differential range for pressures up to and including 250 pounds. Westcott Orifice Meters are also supplied in Dry Type or Bellows operated, one design of which is suitable for Figrure 1 250 lbs. working pressure, the other for 1000 lbs working pressure
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Document ID: A93164D4

The Orifice Meter
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
While discussing the Orifice Meter we are dealing in theory with an old principle of the weight of a falling body, or sometimes referred to as a free fall. Most well known makes of differential pressure flow meters use as an indication of the quantity of flow, a differential in pressure resulting from a constriction in the pipe through which liquid is flowing. These measurement instruments are based on a remarkable discovery of the Italian, Venturi, who after considerable research in 1797, announced that liquids under pressure gained speed and lost head in passing through converging pipe and that the reverse is true for liquids passed through diverging tube. This basic principle was not made usable in fluid measuring devices for more than 100 years after it was known as a scientific fact. Clemens Herschel was the first to use it as a means of measuring flow. He proved by a series of tests that a constant relation in a convergent-divergent tube, existed between the differential pressure at the inlet and at the contracted sections and the rate of flow. Herschel named this instrument a Venturi meter.
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Document ID: B9CE6AA8

Specific Gravity Balance And Gravitometer
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific gravity balance and gravitometer are instruments for determining and recording the specific gravity of gases. Before discussing the principles and operations of these instruments the meaning of specific gravity should be considered, Specific gravity can be defined as the ratio of the density of a gas at a certain pressure and temperature to the density of air at the same pressure and temperature. The interest in specific gravity of gases here is because of its bearing upon the measurement of gas, Whether the gas is being measured by a positive meter or by an orifice meter the specific gravity of the gas should be Itnown at all times. It is particularly important to have an accurate specific gravity of the gas when using the orifice meter because the density of the gas is taken into consideration in the very basic formula for the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 4E7056AB

Specific Gravity Balance And Gravitometer
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific gravity balance and gravitometer are instruments for determining and recording the specific gravity of gases. Before discussing the principles and operations of these instruments the meaning of specific gravity should be considered. Specific gravity can be defined as the ratio of the density of a gas at a certain pressure and temperature to the density of air at the same pressure and temperature. The interest in specific gravity of gases here is because of its bearing upon the measurement of gas. Whether the gas is being measured by a positive meter or by an orifice meter the specific gravity of the gas should be known at all times. It is particularly important to have an accurate specific gravity of the gas when using the orifice meter because the density of the gas is taken into consideration in the very basic formula for the orifice meter
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Document ID: 44225E2D

Determination Of Specific Gravity
Author(s): T. S. Whitis
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to determine the specific gravity of a gas, it will be well to fully understand what specific gravity really means, and why it is necessary to determine specific gravity at all. Density and specific gravity should not be confused. In chemistry and physics, the definition of density is the weight of matter per unit volume of a substance whereas, the general definition for specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of some other substance chosen as the standard.
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Document ID: 685ED17C

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Eugene F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas laws, as generally used, are mathematical relationships of the properties of gases. Those properties of specific interest and value in the field of engineering are pressure, volume, temperature, heat, enthalpy, and work-place The so-called Gas Laws are often referred to as Ideal or Perfect Gas Laws as they apply to the relationships of properties of an ideal or perfect gas, It is fortunate that, while no actual gas conforms exactly to these laws, many gases such as air, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen act nearly in accordance with these laws to such an extent that engineers can use these laws with real gases to a high degree of accuracy.
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Document ID: F155D778

Problems In The Measurement Of Gas At Extremely High Pressures
Author(s): Z. C. Ambrose
Abstract/Introduction:
High pressure gas measurement is usually thought of in connection with high pressure gasoline or cycling plants. In 1943, there were thirtyfour high pressure cycling plants in the United States. These plants had a combined capacity of 2,204,000 MCF per day. Since then, other such plants have been built and additions made to existing ones which have increased this capacity to conservatively three billion cubic feet of gas per day. Most of these high pressure plants have been constructed during the last four years. This accounts for the fact that the problems in tlie measurement of high pressure gas are still many, varied and at least partially unsolved, infinitely more so than in the measurement of low pressure gas. Because of the nature of the products recovered in this type plant and the large volume of gas processed through them, they have taken a very prominent place in the industry. The products which they manufacture are usually high in octane rating or are specification products requiring very little further processing by refineries to make them available as high quality finished materials. They are particularly important from the standpoint of gas production since the raw material which they process consists entirely of gas and since they process such large volumes relative to the amount of equipment installed. The residue gas from such plants has become one of the chief sources for the supply of natural gas. The value of gas at the tail gate of high pressure plants has increased tremendously during the last year and a half. No definite market had previously been established. The increased value and the steady market has caused all interested parties to require more accurate accountmg of all gas produced and disposed of, and has further caused state regulatory and conservation bodies to scrutinize more closely the methods of production and disposition.
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Document ID: 1DEE6ADC

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. m. Hankins
Abstract/Introduction:
To those men who have been making this school annually for the last several years this paper is going to be rather monotonous. The primary purpose is to reach the new men coming into the field of gas measurement rather than go into the technical field of gas measurement, which one would have to do to hold the attention of the older men. It is the problems that are faced in gas measurement that the books have not covered that will be treated at this time.
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Document ID: 0C106474

Gas ACCOUNTING-DRY Gas
Author(s): Cecil Van Gundy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas accounting departments are organized in various ways. In some companies, all gas measurement field work, chart calculation, billing to customers and payments for gas purchased or produced are under one department head. In others, a meter department handles field work with the gas accounthig department handling chart calculation and the additional work of gas accounting
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Document ID: 8868C840

Gas ACCOUNTING-WET Gas
Author(s): K. R. Tibbets
Abstract/Introduction:
The various companies engaged in the business of either buying or selling casinghead gas have procedures of accounting that lit their respective policies and requirements. These procedures are probably dissimilar in many respects, yet the final results attained are always the same. The progress made in the manufacture of Casinghead Gasoline over the past fifteen years has necessitated changes from time to time in accounting procedures. In the earlier days of the industry, and I imagine there are several here who can remember, tlie only value of casinghead gas was the Gasoline Content Value. Contrast this with the present day, when usually the value of casinghead gas consists of two other values in addition to the gasoline content value namely. By-products or Butane Propane value and Residue Value. Along this same line of thought it would be reasonable to make the statement that, these two additional values have approximately tripled the amount of work in gas accounting,
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Document ID: 6C8D08A2

Large Capacity Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): m. D. Gilbert
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy is the main feature expected from a meter. When inaccuracies in measurement are present, they should be of paramount importance to the management. Many times, however, these inaccuracies cannot be laid to the meter as a mechanism, lor questions of temperature, pressure, bases ot measurement, etc., may enter and influence accuracy, even though the meter is performing its mechanical ,iob satisfactorily. However, where inaccuracy can be laid to the meter mechanism, a study should be made to determine and eliminate the cause, tor good management begins with good measurement.
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Document ID: 9C778C46

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): H. C, Cowdery
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the measurement of gas represents the cash register of our various companies it follows that the calculation of the meter chart is necessarily the basic accounting of the dollars and cents flowing through that register. While some of us are primarily interested in selling gas, others only in buying, most in both, all of us arc very much interested in selling good measurement.
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Document ID: E80A6422

Chart Integration
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart integration has been discussed each year at this school since the McGaughy Integrator was first introduced in 1929. Since that time it is apparent that chart integration is playing a very important part in the improvement of orifice meter measurement and is now considered by a number of companies as a vital link in their measurement procedure
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Document ID: 85768926

Instructions For Changing Charts
Author(s): W. m. Hieronymus
Abstract/Introduction:
A class for Instructions For Changing Charts has never been conducted during the history of Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. Various suggestions have been presented in the Wrinkle Class to help the chart changers but not a class to stress the importance of chart changing and the duties of a chart changer. However, now that gas is becoming more valuable and a large number ot changes have occurred in field and office personnel due to the war, it has become evident that the subject of Instructions for Changing Charts should be given a vast amount of thought. After due consideration, it was found that there was a great need for a Practical Methods Report and a committee was appointed to write a report on changing charts and present it at this class. The committee appointed to make this Practical Methods Report was Mr. B. F. Worley, Chairman Mr. C. H. Jackson Mr. W. H. Woods asid the Writer, The pamphlet, which you received upon registering, is the committees report in its entirety and was endorsed by the General Committee of the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course.
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Document ID: 25285637

Recording Instruments
Author(s): A. G. Koenig
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording instruments used by the gas industry are installed for the very definite purposes of what might be termed automatic evaluation of the quantity of gas being bought or sold. Of course, the records produced by these instruments are usually interpreted and evaluated in terms of standard cubic feet. The installation and maintenance of recording instruments are usually under the supervision of The Gas Measurement Department, and the care and operation of these instruments are usually the responsibility of the Field Meter Men, who usually lay out the proper installations and install the instruments so that reliable measurements are obtained. For this reason the Field Meter Men should not only be familiar with the practical and technical installation procedures, but should also be familiar with the general design and construction of the instruments. Since all manufacturers prepare and distribute complete instruction manuals and technical description of their instruments, it is up to the Meter Men to study and follow these instructions. This will not only save him trouble when any difficulty arises with the instrument, but should cause him to prevent troubles arising by properly servicing the instruments at periodic intervals. The most commonly used recording instruments in the gas industry are the Orifice Meter, Recording Pressure Gauges and Recording Thermometers. Probably the most important of these instruments is the Orifice Meter. and for this reason we will discuss it first. Since there are other papers being given on specific Orifice Meters we will limit this discussion of the Orifice Meter to its general theory, construction, and operation.
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Document ID: 5656B7FB

Auxiliary Measuring Devices
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of gas, two general methods are employed measurement by displacement meters and measurement by orifice meters. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. With positive displacement meters, the measurement is automatically limited to those pressures which a meter case will stand which in most instances would be something less than 500 lb. gauge. Furthermore, the size of the meter is quite large relative to the amount of gas measured. It has the distinct advantage, however, that measurement can be made down to extremely low rates of flow. With the orifice meter, quite the reverse is true measurement can be made at pressures up to 5000 lb. gauge, and flow can be measured at rates as high as the carrying capacity of the pipe line with apparatus of relatively small size. The orifice meter is limited, however, by its inability to measure flow accurately at low rates-the range of accurate measurement being in the neighborhood of 3 1/2 to 1 This limitation is a fundamental one since it results from the fact that measurement is obtained from the orifice differential pressure which varies as the square of the rate of flow for example, with a range of flow of 3 and one half to 1, the differential will vary from about 12 to 1. At one-twelfth of the maximum differential, there are inevitable errors in reading the chart which would consequently limit the accuracy which could be expected.
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Document ID: 6425CF6D

Operation Of The Flow Calorimeter
Author(s): George F. Russell
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the real value of natural gas is almost directly proportional to the heat ou combustion, it is quite important that this heat of combustion be determined accurately. The fact that no two pure gases evolve the same amount of heat upon burning causes one to appreciate the function of the calorimeter all the more. Though there are several types of equipment available for the determination of the heating value of gas, this discussion is limited to tlie operation of the Sargent Flow Calorimeter.
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Document ID: F258CDA0

Care And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): G. m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy and reliability in gas heating value measurement is more important now than ever before in the conservation of our natural fuel resources. To maintain a high standard of measurement, the Recording Calorimeter must receive regular and intelligent servicing. This can only be accomplished if the maintenance personnel have a clear understanding of the underlying principles of the Recording Calorimeters and complete familiarty with the instruction book. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to bring out and discuss the points which are most important in the maintenance routine.
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Document ID: 4A34E10D

Functions Of Field Meter Men
Author(s): E. S. Iwoore
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject to be discussed at this time is the Functions of Field meter Men. In order to got a little background, and especially for the benefit of the younger generation, I will depart a little from the subject and take you back about 25 years or to about 1917 and 1918.
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Document ID: AD31975F

Back Pressure Tests Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Vernon Bottoms
Abstract/Introduction:
The methods of back-pressure testmg of gas wells that come within the scope of the experience of the writer are based upon the method outlined in the Bureau of Mines Monograph 7 Back-Pressure Data on Natural-Gas Wells and Their Application to Production Practices but with some changes that will be discussed herein.
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Document ID: C8AB7ECE

1945 Wrinkle Class
Author(s): Roy S. Peace, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
All Wrinkles received for the 1945 Wrinkle Class were presented during the class period and are included in this report. These Wrinkles represent the freedom of thought that exists and is enjoyed throughout the gas industry. We hope they will be of some real value or perhaps give someone an idea or necessary incentive for better ways to accomplish more nearly accurate results.
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Document ID: 5DAA2AF4

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The large capacity displacement meter operates on the same fundamental principles as do the smaller meters used for domestic service. The same common comparison of the meter with a steam engine having D-slide valves can be made. The front and back sections of the meter have operating cycles that are 90 degrees apart, as does the two cylinder steam engine this prevents the meter or the steam engine from ever stopping in a dead-center position from which it could not start up of itself.
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Document ID: 15D207B7

Domestic Meters And Regulators
Author(s): F. Whitworth
Abstract/Introduction:
It has generally been our custom in past years to discuss and demonstrate the repair procedure of Sprague domestic meters and regulators. This procedure is so well known throughout the Industry, we thought at this particular meeting it would be well to depart from this more-or-less established course. When thoughts of the war can be displaced, our minds turn to the problems of the future and it seems fitting to discuss post-war plans, particularly with V-Day apparently so close at hand.
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Document ID: 171F95FD

Domestic Meter Repair Demonstration
Author(s): E R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
Never in the history of the gas industry have the factors Repair and Maintenance played such an important role. With new equipment unavailable or exceedingly hard to get many have found it necessarv to repair where formerly they would have condemned, In as much as repair has assumed such importance it is evident that proper repau- procedures are necessary, both from the standpomt of economy of labor and the conservation ot material and equipment.
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Document ID: 4E944CD6

Domestic Meters
Author(s): A. F, Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters manufactured by the American Meter Company are four compartment, two diaphragm meters. They are made in two designs one where the body consisting of two sides, partition. bottom, table and gallery are one integral casting. A separate cast iron top is provided in this type of meter and a pressed steel back and front are secured to the body completing the housing for the measuring compartment and meter mechanism. In the second instance the meter case is composed of exactly the same parts namely sides, partition, bottom, table, gallery, back, front and top, but in this case, each piece is a stamping made of tinned steel. All pieces are joined together by means of solder forming the housing for the measuring compartments and meter mechanism.
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Document ID: B027D395

Domestic Meter Shop Practice
Author(s): B. A, Stockton
Abstract/Introduction:
A card record system is kept of all meters owned by this company by serial number, size, the inproot, date placed in service, address of where it is rlaced in service, and date removed when taken from service. Meters received into shop are listed by number. size and index reading and checked to the stock card file and records. A work card is filled out from these records, giving the date of last records ti the last five classifications, and attached to each meter. This card remains on the meter throughout the shop and each operation of test and repair, signed by each fitter on the various operation is posted to it. These cards are then given to the record clerk.
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Document ID: B8830C48


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