Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1944)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Large Capacity Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): m. D. Gilbert
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a number of peculiar paradoxes in the gas industry. In the first place something is sold which cannot be seen, yet good money is received for it. It is called gas and as -such is hoarded, stored, and distributed very carefully, but. without paying for cr regard, a much laiger volume of another gas Is taken from the atmosphere (oxygen) in order to produce any utility from the product. In some cases The gas has a malodor to it, about which there is considerable complaint yet, in other cases, it is necessary to purposely add a smell by means of an odorant to make people complain of its presence, But perhaps the most peculiar of all is the fact that heat (which is expressed in terms of BTUs) is offered as its sole value, most calculations concerning it are performed in weight units (in grams or pounds), and final measurements aiE expressed in volume (cubic feet).
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Document ID: CFC48C46

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): T. G. Kimball
Abstract/Introduction:
In any gas company, no matter how large or how small, gas metering is one of the major problems and should receive study and attention both from the stand- point of maintenance and revenue. The gas meter is considered the cash register of the company, as it registers the amount of gas the customer uses. from this amount the revenue is computed, and is shown at the end of the year as income of the company. This figure is used as a basis for taxes, profit, dividends, and other things for which the company is asked to furnish figures. On the other side of the ledger we have the cost of the upkeep or maintenance which must be considered. If this is too high too much of the income will be used, and the dividends will be small.
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Document ID: F1B924E1

Meter Trends
Author(s): F. Whitworth
Abstract/Introduction:
All of us have often heard it said, that war, regardless of the terrible carnage, the waste of men and materials, and the chaos that results, has one virtue scientific progress. Important discoveries are usually associated, in the mind, with the slow process of evolution. During periods of crisis the process is accelerated until a stage is reached when evolution approaches revolution. Progress acquires the pace of seven league boots. Helicopters, super air transport, television, electronics, more and better plastics, better methods, new drugs and medicines are a few of the most evident results of recent advances
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Document ID: 2A4756F1

Domestic Meter Repair Demonstration
Author(s): E. R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no task which has ever been done that would not have been done better liad the person or persons doing the job been, gifted with the experience available after the work was completed. Each step taken in any work makes the preceding steps seem relatively simple and the steps that follow that much easier. In order to avoid duplication of effort and to continually progress, adequate records must be kept of any work. These records must show what the work consists of, duration of the work, the results obtained at various intervals, the cost of obtaining the results and the value of the results obtained. The comparison of the cost of the work to the value of the results obtained will no doubt show improved methods are justified.
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Document ID: BB8C3D17

Domestic Meters
Author(s): A. P. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic Meters manufactured by our company are four compartment, two diaphragm meters. When one measuring compartment is being- tilled with gas, another measuring compartment is forcing its measured quantity of gas into the meter outlet. At no time in the cycle of operation cf the meter Is there a point at which gas is not being admitted to one measuring compartment, and being forced from another measuring compartment into the meter outlet. As a result of this, there is no dead spot in these meters, The most important thing in the operation of any displacement meter is its maintenance of proof. One of the most important points relative to a meter maintaining its proof aside froin correct design, proper material and construction, is the setting of its valves, When the tangent points toward the meter index and the short back flag arm is directly in Une with the tangent, the back diaphragm is at its innermost position, In this position, the back -valve cover should just be ready to or admitting gas to the back diaphragm compartment. The tangent is now turned 180. The tangent is now directly under the short back Hag arm and in line with same. In this position, the back valve cover should just be ready to or admitting gao tc the back case compartment. The distance frcm the edge of the valve cover to the edge of the bar of the valve seat in these two positions should be equal
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Document ID: 7DAFB284

Domestic Meter Shop Practice
Author(s): C. F. Pee
Abstract/Introduction:
Fellow Students of the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course, we are assembled here today to discuss and exchange ideas concerning the repair practices of domestic gas meters. The role that meters play in our Great Industry, has, is, and always will be a very important one. The meter is the silent contact between the company and our customers. It is our cash register, upon the accuracy of which, depends to a great extent, the successful operation of Our Business. The gas meter is perhaps one of the most remarkable instruments of measurement in use today whan its ability to measure correctly the relatively large and minute quantities of gas over a period of 5 to 10 years, is considered with little or no attention during such periods, and often subjected to rather rough usage occasioned by the foreign matter carried by the gas, In order to enable the meters to serve most efficiently, there are certain fundamentals connected with meters which must be closely observed.
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Document ID: C7380D72

Wide Range And Controlled Measurement
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
The ordinary orifice metei will measure accurately, a maximum rate of flow which is 3a times the minimum rate of flow. Tills is due to the fact that the accuracy with which the chart may be read in its low range precludes the possibility of a greater range from any one meter, For example, take a 100 meter. It is desired to maintain an accuracy of measurement of 2% or less, A 100 meter chart may be read to within 0.4, As a result, the lowest accurate reading obtainable from same would be 8 of water. The square root of 8 is 2.B3, The square root of 100 is 10, 10 H- 2,83 Sli,
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Document ID: 0E9CF699

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Blanchard Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressuie regulator in its basic form is a flow control valve attached to a flexible piessure responsive diaphragm. The controlled pressure is applied to the diaphragm to actuate the valve in one direction and a weight, or other suitable means, opposes the diaphragm force to actuate the valve in the opposite direction. As this paper is oonoenied with fundamentals, the discussion will be confined to the two best known types, namely: Pressure Reducing Regulators and Back Pressure Regulators.
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Document ID: 5B72E322

Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): C. A. Serafino
Abstract/Introduction:
A piece of mechanical equipment is most efficient when it is worliing near the condition for which it was designed. Every mechanical device in the gas industry has been made to do some specific work, The efficiency obtained from each device depends upon how near it is adapted to the job for which it was designed. A compressor to be efficient could not be efficient when it is running with a lower suction pressure than that for which it was designed. In a like manner, an automobile is not an efficient piece of equipment when it is running at one mile per hour or at seventy miles per hour. This same line of thought holds true for any piece of mechanical equipment and a gas regulator is no exception to the rule. Each piece of equipment has a zone of efficient operation.
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Document ID: F908C593

Gas Regulation And Blending
Author(s): H, A. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Business has three fundamental characteristics: the drilling for and producing gas in the gas field the transportation of the gas and its distribution In city plant systems. Efficiency and economy in these three characteristics are measured in great part by accuracy in measurement and smoothness and regularity in the delivery. Regulation is the major factor which aids in accurate measurement and assures delivery of the product in the quantities and under the conditions required. Regulation and measurement are based fundamentally on temperature and pressure. The purpose of the gas regulator is to reduce a higher pressure to a lower and to maintain either the high or the reduced pressure constant without a great degree of variation. Therefore, utmost care should fee given to the proper selection of the regulator for the problem at hand. The principle upon which all regulators are constructed are substantially the same. Of course, there are modifications of construction, each of which has its individual merits.
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Document ID: 8B42EB54

Velocity Type Pressure Boosters
Author(s): K. R. D. Wolfe
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject to be discussed is that of improving iiiribution pressures with gas pressure boosters of ie velocity type. It is assumed that all of us are t*:iiiliar with the conventional gas distribution sys- -.an. and on that assumption it is known that as Cis is put through a pipe line, there is a certahi SKsure loss due to the friction of the moving gas In- 9de of the pipe line. Therefore, to maintain a given cDDstant pressure at the far end of the system, a higher pressure at the town border station or wherever the PE is introduced into the system is required. This scusEion will be confined principally to Intermediate IT high pressure loop lines where the pressures generiZy run from one pound pressure on up to much r.er values. Tlie Booster which is being considered . r.ot intended for low pressure In ounces or as a : -irict regulator, but is limited principally to reduc- rrom pounds to pounds, such as the town border :jn regulators, where the pressure is later reduced, -Jiev through district regulators or house servic
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Document ID: 29B896A9

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): B. P. Worley
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of most gas burning equipment incorporates the use of variable or fixed orifices for controlling the flow of gas into the burner. The orifices are sized or adjusted for certain conditions of pressure, temperature, specific gravity, and B.T.U, It follows that the maximum utilization of the equipment is enjoyed when the conditions for whicli the orifices are sized or adjusted prevail. Companies engaged in the distribution and sale of gas to residential, commercial, and industrial customers must recognize, in the order of their importance, all of the factors which influence the utilization of the ideal fuel if a high standard of service is to prevail,
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Document ID: 8CD205A3

Remote Measurement And Control Instrument
Author(s): Dean D, Ault
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic idea of remote measurement is to reproduce, at a convenient location, the same magnitude existing at a remote point, in a most intelligent form for the guidance of tlie operators. Similarly, remote control is correcting these magnitudes to the liest condition either automatically or manually. There are many types and varieties of Instruments to accomplish this result. They all work toward better measurement, better regulation and their related results, The newer types work equally well on short or long distances on intricate and complicated systems a,? well as on the simpler types. An attempt will be made to discuss this paper under the following subjects: 1. Remote measurement 2. Remote Control 3. Remote Signalling - Metaphone
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Document ID: 1AC55BCD

Fundamentals Of Automatic Control
Author(s): E. B. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
All will readily agree to the vital importance of automatic control in some of the more complicated of present day industrial processes-for example, the modern oil refinery with its complicated and sensitive cracking and fractionating processes. Another familiar example is the newly developed synthetic rubher industry. Neither industry could operate successfully without automatic control correctly designed and correctly applied, The oil refining industry was probably the first industry to recognize the value of automatic control and as a result there is probably a better understanding of the fundamentals of automatic control among process engineers engaged in refinery work than in any other group. Automatic control fundamentals have also come in lor considerable attention from another group of engineers, those interested primarily in controllers themselves. Naturally an engineering subject such as control lends Itself to mathematical treatment and considerable work has been dftne by control engineers to explain control fundamentals mathematically, apart from any specific industrial application. Certainly this mathematical approach is worth while and will provide the basis of future development work by control engineers.
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Document ID: 3D9ACC1A

Time-Temperature District Gas Regulators
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will be confined to the construction,operation, and use of district gas regulators to which have been applied temperature boosting and time control equipment. District Gas Regulators are classified as those regulators which supply gas to the low pressure system of a town,this low pressure being that which is required for the low pressure gas-burning equipment of domestic and industrial users. Such district regulators may have as low as one or two pounds on the inlet, but usually this inlet pressure is about five to fifteen pounds. Higher inlet pressures are sometimes encountered but they are the exception rather than the rule. The low pressures delivered to the appliances rarely are less than four ounces and usually are in the range of four to eight ounces but may in some cases, be slightly less than four ounces and occasionally get up to pressures as great as four- teen to sixteen ounces. Usually in a town of any size, there are two or more regulators operating in parallel and liking the gas from the high pressure or inter- connected pressure system and feeding gas into the common low pressure and inter-connected system. each regulator takes care of the gas load or demand in the domestic or industrial area surrounding that particular regulator.
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Document ID: 093AE1CF

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Low pressure regulators arc available in a wide variety of sizes and designs, This wide range ot manufacture permits the solution ot each particular problem of pressure regulator in the manner which is most satisfactory to the distribution department. In tlie design of these regulators, considerable attention has been paid to the selection of the proper material for each particular part of every type of regulator. The valve seat discs are furnished in leather or in neoprene in various degrees of hardness. The neoprene seat discs are recommended for natural gas service, while leather seat discs are widely used for manufactured gas. The diaphragms are fabricated from sheepskin or flexible composition material. Sheepskin impregnated with an oil dressing is recommended for most lowpressure service. All of the castings are made of alloyed grey iron, wliich is unexcelled for uniformity and high tensile strength.
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Document ID: CE2DDC9C

Repair And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Raymond P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure regulator, bdng essentially an automatic mechanism, requires the periodic maintenance and repair operations always necessary in any object in which there is motion. In order to secure the efficient performance which is embodied in their design, it is necessary at times to replace those parts normally subject to wear or deterioration and to maintain the regulator in proper operathig condition. Safety and efficiency combine to make worthwhile the proper maintenance of pressure regulators. We have endeavored to make their construction as rugged as possible, utilizing the best of materials available, and to reduce to a minimum parts requiring frequent attention by simplifying their design as much as possible without sacrificing desirable operating characteristics.
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Document ID: B0046602

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Mike Meuppels
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas was burned one thousand years ago when the Chinese obtained natural gas from wells 2,000 feet deep and transported it through bamboo poles to be used to heat salt brine and thus pioduce domestic salt by evaporation. In 1840 at Centerville, Pa., natural gas was again used to evaporate salt brine, the same as the Chinese had done 1,000 years before. .Since that time natural gas has been discovered in many places and is now produced in 26 of our states. In the early history of the industry pressure control problems were simple and were confined to storage, short transmission and distribution. Very little, if any, consideration was given to utilization. Before 1925 deliveries were confined to cities and towns close to the fields. With the discovery of the two largest known gas fields-the Amarillo in the Texas Panhandle and the Monroe in Northern Louisiana we have seen higli pressure transmission mains extend over most of the nation. As the industry expanded to meet the increasing loads and new fields of application the pressure regulators and control equipment have been improved in design, construction and performance.
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Document ID: B0A29482

Bell Pkover Operation
Author(s): Dean Bruce
Abstract/Introduction:
The meter prover is the standard apparatus by which the proof of accuracy of our gas meter is determined. So the first thing to consider is to obtain the best possible location for it. Of course the ideal place would be an air conditioned room of constant temperature and free from drafts, But as most shops do not have this equipment the prover should be located in a well lighted place, preferably an inside room, away from the direct rays of the sun. The heating equipment used should maintain a constant and uniform temperature in all parts of the proving room.
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Document ID: 384E550D

Recording Instruments
Author(s): A. G. Koenig
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording instruments most commonly used in the gas industry are in their order of importance aa follows Orifice Meters, Recording Pressure Gauges and Recording Thermometers. Generally, the installation and maintenance of these instruments are under the supervision of the Gas Measurement Department, and the Field Meter Men are usually responsible for their installation, care and operation. They are charged with the instrument layout and proper installation so that reliable measurements may be obtained. Not only should the Field Meter Man be familiar with the technical and practical Installation wrinkles but he should also be familiar wtih the design and construction of the instruments. All manufacturers prepare and distribute very complete instructions and technical descriptions of their- instruments, and the Meter Man should really study these instructions. It will save him much trouble when difficulties arise. Since other papers are being presented on specific instruments of the above classifications, we will briefly define each of the instruments enumerated and discuss their general method of installation, calibration and maintenance.
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Document ID: C5F11B3E

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): W. R. Mclaughlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Emco Regulators are available for the various major requirements encountered in the Gas Industry including- Transmission Lines Tov/n Border Stations High Pressure and Low Pressure Distribution Systems Industrial Service Commercial Appliances House Serv- ice Lines and Domestic Appliances, In presenting this discussion of Regulators, consideration will be given to each of the various types. Naturally the individual requirements of the various services control the details of design and construction because the specifications for a regulator are based upon the pressure conditions, capacity, and regulation accuracy desired.
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Document ID: 454BCE89

Auxiliary Measuring Devices
Author(s): A. P. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Metric Volume and Pressure Gage is built in two different styles, In the first instrument, a chart is revolved by means of a clock. A pressure tube records the pressure at which gas is passing through the meter and a marker arm on the margin of the chart records each 1,000 cubic feet, or each 10,000 cubic feet of gas which has passed through the meter. In addition to the above, the chart record slows the demand hour by hour.
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Document ID: 5384298C

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Low pre.ssure regulators are available in a wide variety of sizes and designs. This wide range of manufacture permits the best possible answer to be given to each particular problem of delivering gas in the most satisfactory manner. In the design of these regulators, considerable attention has been paid to the selection of the proper material for each particular part of every type of regulator. The valve seat discs are furnished in leather or of various composition materials. The composition materials are recommended lor valve seat discs for natural gas service, while leather is widely used for manufactured gas. The diaphragms are fabricated from sheepskin or flexible composition material. Sheepskin impregnated with an oil dressing is recommended for most low-pressure service. All of the castings are made of alloyed grey iron, which is unexcelled for uniformity, high tensile strength, and general superiority.
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Document ID: 45CD15E9

The Functions Of Field Metermen
Author(s): Harry R. Mccauley
Abstract/Introduction:
We wonder if the person who put those five words together to make them a topic of discussion or the basic theme for a paper realized the magnitude and scope of the subject. We feel sure, if he gave it any consideration at all, it was in a very casual manner, just as we did when we accepted it as the subject for this paper. Our first look at the subject pictured the meterman as one whose duties involved primarily the installation and maintenance of the various types of gas meters generally in use in field service. We could readily see how the functions of that meterman might be comparatively simple and clearly defined. But the longer we looked at our picture the more convinced we became that the present day meterman is working in a considerably broader field. He is no longer charged merely with the care and supervision of the ordinary orifice or displacement meter, but he is required to familiarize and acquaint himself with and have an understandable working knowledge of a considerable group of other mechanical devices and various types of instruments, such as regulators, controllers, recorders, level controls, etc. The meterman of yesterday has come a long way from Just an ordinary workman with little or no particular qualifications, to a well-trained, expert instrument technician. Hence, the functions of a field meterman may be divided into several definite and distinct divisions, all of which have their importance, but because of the broad scope of his activities, we will, in presenting this subject, consider only some of his general duties and requirements
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Document ID: DC8E26ED

High Pressure Service Regulators
Author(s): H. Mike Meuppels
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution systems, generallys arc classified as standard pressure, high pressure or a combination of both. Standard pressure distribution are generally those carrying twelve inches water column l7 ouncesj or less. High pressure distribution can be at any pressure in excess of 12 WC, but arc generally those carrying from one to 100 pounds. Where systems become over-loaded due to increased use of gas it is sometimes necessary to increase the pressure over all, or parts, of the system and use HIGH PRESSURE REGULATORS on the services. New systems or additions to the present ones, where high pressure gas is available, are often built of small higli pressure mains. This is nothing new and many companies have been using this method for the past twenty years. It has the advantage of lower first cost and the carrying of large amounts through smaller mains. This eliminates, in many cases, the necessity of calculating the sizes of mains, especially where the growth of a aistrict might be difficult to estimate. The function of the high pressure service rcgulatoi is to reduce widely varying inlet pressures, from one to 100 pounds, to constant outlet pressure of ounces or inches water column, so that the gas will burn easily and efficiently in the normal type of atmosplieric burner.
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Document ID: 1722AB1E

Helpful Hints On The Installation And Operation Op Regulators
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Under the stress of war conditions, it is very important to maintain pressure regulating and controlling equipment to make it last for the duration and, secondly, to make it operate to its maximum efficiency. Automatic control equipment of every type has been on the critical list and hard to obtain because of the thousands of new installations needed for national defense. Existing equipment has to be used and a lot of otherwise obsolete equipment has or must be salvaged to take care of some emergency needs. Gas pressure regulators, gas pressure relief valves, motor valves, and pilot operated types ol regulating equipment are many times neglected .Jmply because tliey are entirely automatic in their operation and do not require much attention. Many automatic devices are left alone to operate without attention until some serious difficulty arises as caused by inoperation of the control. Such a difficultry or interruption of service could be overcome in many cases by the regular inspection, checking and cleaning of the control equipment.
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Document ID: 750AEAC7

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Eugene E. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas laws, as generally used, are mathematical relationships of the properties of gases. Those properties of specific interest and value in the field of engineering are pressure, volume, temperature, heat, enthalpy, and work. The so-called Gas Laws are often referred to as Ideal or Perfect Gas Laws as they apply to the relationships of properties of an ideal or perfect gas. It is fortunate that, while no actual gas conforms exactly to these laws, many gases such as air, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen act nearly in accordance with these laws to such an extent that engineers can use these laws with real gases to a high degree of accuracy,
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Document ID: 5602C8B2

Back Pressure Method Of Testing Gas Wells
Author(s): J. A. Lyon
Abstract/Introduction:
The back pressure test on gas wells is a result of the gas industrys search during the last decade for a reliable standardized method of determining the ability of gas wells to produce. The capacity of a gas well to produce gas usually has been described in terms of its open flow. This open flow of a gas well in the Panhandle and other fields was determined by measuring the flow of a gas well with a pitot tube when the well was opened to the air through the casing. This method of testing was very wasteful. The United States Bureau of Mines Monograph Seven, covering the back-pressure testing of a gas well in which not more than 25 percent of the capacity was produced, was made available in 1936 and was the first method other than the opening of a well to the air. This Back Pressure Method has come to be standard in determining the absolute open flow of a gas well.
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Document ID: 64267CCB

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): T. C. Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of the flow of fluids is one of the three most important measurements required by industrial instruments tho other two being temperature measurement and pressure measurement. There are, as you know, two primary reasons for the measurement of the flow of gas: Mrst, to establish the ratio or volume needed into a continuous process or to an established market, such as the amount of wet gas into a plant or to a pipe line so that the plant or pipe line can be technically operated, based on these volumes. Second, to determine the disposition of the material relative to the cost settlement or payments.
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Document ID: 75C6ACCA

Problems In Gas Measurement At Extremely High Pressures
Author(s): W. D. Yale
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurements under high pressures present many problems in design, operation and rehable computation of flowing volumes. Gas cycling and pressure maintenance plants require a major portion of the volume measurements to be made at pressures ranging from 1500? to 5000s. In view of the increasing number of cycling- plants installed in the last few years, and the prospects of many more installations of this type, it is felt that a general outline of the high pressure measurement requirements and problems of a typical cycling plant will be of Interest.
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Document ID: 8E5CF376

Gas Accounting - Wet Gas
Author(s): L. R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a distinction and honor in being Invited to conduct a class in this Short Course, and I trust that the presentation ot this subject and the subsequent dlscussicn will prove beneficial, in some way. to all present. Each company has its own method of Gas Accounting which is handled by one or more departments depending on the amount of worli involved and governed by the number of plants in operation, sales, etc. however, the general practice is more or less uniform. Accounting is the setting up of a value on a product or products in order to determine a profit or loss, and in the case of Wet Gas, many phases enter into the evaluation before its conclusion.
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Document ID: 73F22D6E

Gas Accounting - Dry Gas
Author(s): Roy S. Peace, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Any similarity of the methods and practices in this paper to my own company or any other company are purely coincidental and do not necessarily represent the actual practice of any operating gas company. The following are general procedures designed to create a discussion that might lead to some constructive ideas on the subject. Gas accounting, as the term has been used in this school includes the records maintained in connection with metering, billing customers, checking gas purchases, royalty payments of production and the tabulation of all statistics and reports in reference to gas volumes.
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Document ID: 68BCF5B7

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): C. C. Abbott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early days of the gas industry each custoniev paid for his gas according to the number of burners he had in his house and he was entitled to use the service for a specified number of liours, usually from sunset to an hour decreed by the gas company as the proper time for retiring. The first gas meter was of the wet type, the invention of Samuel Glegg, patented in 1816. Three years later Malam developed a wet meter which is identical in principle with the wet meter used today, Figure 1 shows a cross section from which the operation of a typical wet meter may be studied. The wet meter, however, is not satisfactory In locations where constant attendance is not available. It is very bulky for its capacity and not particularly suited for general use.
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Document ID: 293EA45A

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Hilding Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
PUTTING METER IN SERVICE When a large capacity displacement meter is bei put in service, the downstream valve and the upstream valve should both be closed. The downstreair valve should be left closed and the upstream valvt sbould be cracked open until the meter is completel: full of gas at line pressure. The downstream vai.r is now opened slightly. This is to prevent the mett: from being subjected to an exceedingly high differential while packing the downstream section c the line.
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Document ID: 8217102B

Chart Integration
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
The correct amount of gas measured for any time period is a very important factor to the industry, as a large amount of the production, main line measurements, and industrial sales of gas is measured with orifice meters. Extensive research has taken place during the last ten years by joint committees of the American Gas Association and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers with the cooperation of the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C, in proving the accuracy of orifice meter flow coefficients and making important, definite recommendations concerning the correct way to install this type of equipment so that the most accurate results could be obtained. This work is having an Important effect on the improvement of measurement with orifice meters.
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Document ID: A2E0A703

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): W. C. Doughty
Abstract/Introduction:
Before going into the actual calculation of orifice meter charts it might be well to briefly mention some of the other essential phases of gas measurement because chart reading alone is only one of several important operations If gas is to be accurately measured. It should be realized that each step taken from the field to the office where charts are read has a definite bearing on the accuracy of gas measurement. Obviously it would be useless to exercise extreme care in reading charts unless the meter records reflect the actual conditions.
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Document ID: 9740AA54

Gravity Balance And Gravitometer
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific gravity balance and gravitometer are instruments for determining and recording the specific gravity of gases. Before discussing the principles and oiaeration of these instruments the meaning of specific gravity should be considered. Specific gravity can be defined as the ratio of the density of a gas at a certain pressure and temperature to the density of air at the same pressure and temperature. It is realized that the density of any gas, including air, will vary with variations of pressure and temperature, so in order to refer to a definite value representing the weight of gases the specific gravity is used. Specific gravity is one of the physical descriptions of a gas and therefore is a value which must be determined when working with gases.
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Document ID: 57D61C62

Determination Of Specific Gravity
Author(s): W. A. Brewster
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing the methods, or the types of instruments, used for determining specific gravity, it is necessary to understand what specific gravity really means and why the correct determination of it is essential to good gas measurement. In physics the density of a substance is a phrase used to denote the ratio of the mass of that body to its volume, in Mass the form of an equation, then Density Volume Thus specific gravity may be defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of some other substance chosen as the standard- In the gas Industry the accepted standard is dry air at a pressure of 30 Mercury and at a temperature of 60 F.
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Document ID: 0452550D

Fundamental Principles Op Specific Gravity Determination
Author(s): P. J. Renner
Abstract/Introduction:
WHY FUNDAMENTALS? It has been said that the technical man knows why the practical man knows how but the successful man knows both why and how. There is a very large element of truth in this sayhrg. Most of us here in this class are quite familiar with the how of determining specific gravity of gases. Some of you are thoroughly familiar with the operation of a certain type of specific gravity apparatus. Others are more familiar with other types of instruments and metliods. Some, more fortunate, have a good working knowledge of varied methods of determining specific gravity. To be a top man in the gas measurement field, this is not enough. We must not only know how to run a specific gravity test with a certain type of equipment, we must know why. Why should we dry the air in using a gas balance? Why should the air check and the gas check be made under the same temperature conditions? Or, if the temperatures are not the same, iiow and why do we apply the corrections? Why specific gravity, anyway?
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Document ID: 34CAD73A

Care And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): G. m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION Conservation of our resources of natural and manufactured gases requires the utmost in accuracy of measurement and control of gas heating value. To maintains a high standard of measurement, the Recording Calorimeter must receive regular and intelligent servicing. This can only be accomplished if the maintenance personnel have a clear understanding of the underlying principles of the Recording Calorimeters and complete familiarity with the instruction book. The purpose of this paper therefore, is to bring out and discuss the points which are most important in the maintenance routine.
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Document ID: 08528EEB

Operating Flow Calorimeter
Author(s): George F. Russell, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
When one considers the fact that no two pure gases evolve the same amount of heat upon burning, the importance of determining specific heating values will be appreciated. The gross heating values for substances commonly found in natural gas are listed in Table I. The percentages of these components in natural gas have been found to vary widely from one field to another. For example, one extreme in gas of low heating value is found in New Mexico, where there are natural gas wells which produce almost pure carbon dioxide which does not support combustion. On the other hand, a certain field in California produces almost pure methane. However, from most fields one might expect to find a natural gas of a mixture such as indicated in Table II.
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Document ID: 4B3A2228

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
An orifice meter is undoubtedly the most versatile of all measuring devices. It is used for the measurement of hydrogen, our lightest gas, and for tar, one of our heaviest liquids. It is used for measuring at temperatures of -300 F., and is also used for measurement at +800 F. It is used for measuring gas under a vacuum. It is used for measuring gas at 3,000 pounds pressure. I am sure that I am safe in stating that it can be used for a greater variety of conditions than any other type of measuring device.
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Document ID: 55EB849B

Safety Practices
Author(s): A. H. Muncy
Abstract/Introduction:
In general we may state that Safety Practices are safe working procedures arising from the practical application of engineering, training and supervision, developed in the elimination of physical hazards, personal injury and hazardous practices. Some of the basic factors directly effecting Safety Practices may be listed as follows: 1. Proper design and layout 2. Safety responsibility of the management 3. Good housekeeping 4. Accident investigation 5. Plant inspection 6. Job analysis 7. Use of hand tools 8. Fire and explosions 9. Eye and other protective equipment 10. First aid 11. General precautions
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Document ID: D77F05B0

1944 Wrinkle Class
Author(s): Pat H. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
All Wrinkles received in response to the letter inviting operating companies to participate in the 1944 Wrinkle Class are Included in this report. There are seventeen of them which incidentally is the approximate number usually required for a satisfactory class. They all seem to be of better than average quality
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Document ID: F9840C9E

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): W. R. Beardsley
Abstract/Introduction:
When we speak of the orifice meter, we refer to the complete meter- installation which is comprised of tire meter run. the orifice plate, and the recording instrument. Accurate measurement with this type of meter is dependent upon the intelligent installation, and efficient operation and maintenance of each of its component parts. One part Is just as Important as the other and must be treated so if accuracy is to be achieved.
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Document ID: 767FE60B

Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the higher working pressures encountered in the natural gas fields, recycling areas and oil re- fineries, meters for high pressure measurement have bad to be produced to meet the demand. The same general design of meter body lias been used. The thickness of the covers and the weight of metal in the walls of the high and low pressure chambers have, however, been increased to provide the extra strength necessary for high pressure service. Special stuffing boxes and other parts are used on these meters suitable for the highest working pressures. The table on this page gives the differential range and working pressures of the various meters which we manufacture
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Document ID: 03C06BF2

The Orifice Meter
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter will probably handle more different measuring- problems than any other type meter in commercial use. During- the war it has been used in various types of chemical and industrial plants under a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions. It has been used for more than thirty years by the oil and gas industry who accept this type measurement as essential routine in handling large volumes of flow under all types of conditions.
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Document ID: 80C37E7F

Orifice Meters
Author(s): L, K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
You may have wondered by what logic the manu- faturers are chosen to discuss the subject of orifice meters. Probably there are several, if not many, in the audience who have had more intimate experience with the care of orifice meters than the speaker, It would seem that the main reason for this selection lies in the broader background. The manufacturers experience covers all varieties of service on all types of gases. This includes sweet gases, sour gases, dry gases. wet gases, refinery gases, manufactured gases and all types of industrial gases. Each one of the thousands of installations is some sort of a test setup. while the manufacturer does not get reports on all insallations, by any means, lie usually hears about the most troublesome ones, and if he keeps records of these reports, eventually accumulates quite a large fund of information on what to do in unusual, trouble- some cases.
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Document ID: 657CF17B


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