Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1940)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Functions Of Field Meter Men
Author(s): Pat H, Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Science Begins With Measurement. This statement is credited to Aristotle who, thou.h living in the age of wood, stone and hand forged metals, could Tsion the technical and scientific progress that might be brought about by increasing refinements in methods of meas- jremtnt. Through the ages this has been the rule of things, and today fine measurement is the basis for the manufacture of the industrial machinery that makes our hifjh standard of living possible. Every branch of science and industry is constantly endeavoring to improve measurement practices. In many industries, e.specially amonp public utilities, there are departments set up for the specific purpose of handling the measurement of their commodities. In this field the nat- jral gas industry is probably the most highly developed because it does not manufacture its product, but must maintain meters for lioth purchases and sales. The GAS MEASUREMENT DEPARTMENT consists primarily of an OFFICE force and a FIELD force, both under the direction of the DEPARTMENT SUPERINTENDEXT. FIELD METER MEN arc held responsible for the care ind operation of the GAS MEASURING EQUIPMENT, and the OFFICE looks to them for prompt delivery of CHARTS, PERTINENT GAS TESTS, and other information required for calculating the volumes measured. This responsibility requires the energies of one having an uncompromising determination to have accuracy in every detail. METER
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Document ID: F18F8ADB

Tanning Of Sheepskins For Meter Diaphragms
Author(s): H. A. Kahler
Abstract/Introduction:
Animal skins have been tanned by many different processes during the centuries. It is evident that the tanning of skins on a commercial scale has been carried on in this country since the landing of the Pilgrams, however, before that time the aborigines chd have crude methods of tanning skins. This industry was first started on a commercial scale in the New England States, probably near Boston. It must be kept in mind that this deals principally with Lhe tanning of sheep skins for meter diaphragms. The methods discussed are used by one of the largest tanneries in the United States in which tanning has been carried on during the past ISO years which is evidence enough that ears of experience lies back of the industry. It has become a highly specialized profession by those who have the direct responsibility of converting the hides into leather. Many buildinKS are retiuired to house the various departments which constitutes such a tanning plant. The equipment required for the tanning processes is the latest design sjQd the most modern that the machinery manufacturers can huild.
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Document ID: 116C8FDB

Pressure Regulation As Related To Underground Leakage And Consumer Service
Author(s): C. H. Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the major problems of gas distribution is pressure rcguiation, but only in the 3ast scen nr eight years has it been given the consideration it deseres by the industry. Economic conditions, and the very rapid increase in the use of automatic pilot controlled appliances, have been the principal factors in bringinR the gas industry to a realization of the importance of accurate pressure regulation. It is my desire to point out some of the practical problems of pressure regulation, as encountered in every day sas transportation and distribution. The conventional gas pressure regulator is constructed to maintain a constant pressure at the regulator outlet, and does so, within reasonable limits. Consequently, Ras flow supplied to a transmission line, or into a distribution system, through a pressure regulator, will have a constant jjressure at the regulator outlet, and with no flow of gas or demand on the line the irauge pressure aill be the same at all points on the line but with flow demand on the system, this condition changes, and a pres- ?are dro5 occurs at the terminal or load center of the system :iat is caused by friction as the gas flows through the confuit from point of entry into the system to point of de- - md or consumption.
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Document ID: 453F1734

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): T. S. Bacon
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject assigned me, namelyi The Odorization of Natural Gas, might be treated in several ways, and from several angles. As this is primarily a course in gas measurement, I shall limit discussion principally to the design, installation, and operation of odorization eciuipment, as that is the phase of odorization that probably has the most immediate interest to you gentlemen. Other phases of the subject that might be discussed include general considerations of odorization, such as the type of odorant to be used, the most desirable concentration of odnrant to use, and the physiological and psychological effects of the odorant both on operators of odorization equipment and on persons exposed to the odorized gas. I have heard long discussions of all of these points, but feel that any lengthy comments of mine would be out of order here.
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Document ID: 8C50E53F

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. E. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
Mr. Chairman, Gentlemen Before going into the subject of orifice meter mcusurcment, let us go over some of the terms used and the laws upon which orifice meter measurement is based. Atmospheric presmre.-Atmospheric pressure is the jressure of the atmosphere above an absolute vacuum. It is measured by a barometer. Cage cr line pressure.-Gage or line pressure is the pressure above atmospheric pressure and is measured by an ordinary pressure gage. The pressure gage on a gas main measures the difference in pressure between the gas in the main and atmospheric pressure, or pressure on the outside of the main. Absolute pressure.-Absolute pressure is the pressure above a perfect vacuum. In our work it is equal to gage or Une pres.sure plus atmospheric pressure or barometric pressure. Differential pressure.-Differential pressure is the difference between two pressures. The differential pressure across an orifice or any device in a gas line is the difference between the pressure before the gas passes through the orifice or device, and the pressure after it has passed through the device. Absolute iemperalure.-.bsolute temperature is the tcmrierature above absolute zero. In our work, absolute temperature is 460 degrees plus the reading of an ordinarj Fahrenheit thermometer.
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Document ID: 1260F84B

Problems Of Wet Gas Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): W. H. Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
The problems of wet eas measurement and regulation present most of those encountered in drj gas work in addition to several others peculiar to itself. For instance, wet gas meter men are called upon to measure, regulate, and distribute gas varying in pressures in excess of 2,000 pounds per square inch to as low as 28 inches of mercury vacuum. ariations of temperature from 200 degrees Fahrenheit to -35 degrees Fahrenheit are also encountered. In addition to these variations of pressure and temperature there is the ever present moisture, both from water and heavy gasoline fractions, presence of scale, hydrogen sulphide, and a few other foreign materials which considerably handicap the measurement and regulation of wet gas not usually encountered in handling dry gas. In recent years, there have been several contributing factors which had tremendously increased the importance of accurate measurement and trouble free regulation in the handling of wet gas. Up to a relatively few years ago, the problems of gas measurement and regulation were largely confined to the natural gasoline manufacture and the gas distribution companies. However, times have changed and Lhe utilization and con5eration of natural gas has become 1 matter of paramount importance to oil producers. Two -?f the most important reasons for this change arc in the interests of economy and compliance with legislative meas- 3jes.
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Document ID: A7846EDF

Problems Of Wet Gas Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): J. S. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Lease gas, which was at one time wasted, now has several important uses. Its value as a convenient fuel is well known, Also, due chiefly to its compressibility, it furnishes an economical means of making oil flow from the oil producing formations into stock tanks. Or it can be made to give up its heavier hydrocarbons, (natural gasoline and distillate), and then be forced back in to the gas formations. It can also be collected from oil and gas separators, compressed and forced back into the producing formation, where it serves to maintain the bottom hole pressure, keeping the oil from rising into the gas sand, and lessening the water encroachment into the oil sand. Practically everj- field regulator and meter man has been, or will be, confronted with the problems of regulating and metering wet gas in one or more of the above mentioned uses that is, as a fuel, for use in various types of gas lift and kick-off arrangements, and through recycling plants, absorption plants and repressuring plants.
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Document ID: 11644629

Recording Instruments
Author(s): A. G. Koenig
Abstract/Introduction:
The term recording instrument covers a wide variety of instruments designed to record almost any measurement which is capable of being made today. We are therefore limiting this paper to the two recording instruments most widely used by the gas industry, namely recording pressure gauges and recording thermometers. Almost all recording pressure gauges and thermometers of the pressure spring type as used in industrial practice today employ some form of Bourdon tube as the measuring element. The Bourdon tube is named after the French Engineer Eugene Bourdon, who in 1S49 made the accidental discovery that flattened and bent tubes tend to straighters under pressure, which led him to the invention of a pressure gauge using the expansion of a curved tube. The Bourdon tube is made in three major forms: the circular, the spiral, and the helical or involute Bourdon tube. The circular tube is mainly used in indicating gauges while the spiral and the helical tubes, because of their greater movement, are ideal for recording instruments. One end of the Bourdon tube is securely fastened to the instrument base and has the pressure connection, while the free and closed end carries the pen arm or is connected to it by the necessary movements.
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Document ID: 95E86DAA

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): J. D. Killough
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to obtain accurate measurement by the orifice rnctcr, you must first have a correct installation the equipment must then be kept in correct operating condition and the proper rules for interpreting the results must be followed. Our discussion is limited to second of these qualifications, and the assumption is made that the station is designed, instaUed and interpreted in compliance with the A. G.A. Gas Measurement Committee Report or Manufacturers publication under which the meter is being operated. The orifice meter consists of an orifice plate, the meter tube piping and accessory fittings, the differential and pressure recorder with manifold and leads, and auxiliary instruments of various types. As a general rule a definite testing schedule is followed, based upon terms of a contract, local operating customs and rules, and the convenience of the parties interested in the measurement. This usually occurs once a month, and consists of a calibration of the recorder, an inspection of the orifice plate, and a spot test of the recording thermometer if included in the installation. Much benefit may be derived from the proper planning of a testing schedule to fit in with the inspectors varied duties, so that the work may be accomplished with a minimum of auto mileage and time lost in back-tracking. Operating conditions will of course vary any fixed schedule, but the work should be planned for maximum efficiency, just as revenues are budgeted by the management.
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Document ID: DCBBD26A

Determination Of Line Losses High Pressure Lines
Author(s): D. H. Tucker
Abstract/Introduction:
Bulletin No. 265 of the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Mines, by E. L, Rawlins and L. D, Wosk, published in 1928, is a complete study and engineering analysis of the problem of Leakage from High Pressure Natural Gas Lines. Our company uses methods of determining leakage as set out in this report. We assume that the leakage is a direct function of the gage pressure and the internal area of the pipe and arrange our statistics on the basis of leakage per mile per year of three inch pipe per one hundred pottnds per square inch gage pressure. This report outlines 3 methods of determining leakage, viz.:
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Document ID: 23D2F866

Domestic Meter Shop Practice
Author(s): W. J. Henking
Abstract/Introduction:
In outlininp our meter shop practice I have purposely omitted too much detail as regards tests, records, classification of repairs, etc. I am sure yoii are all familiar with procedure of this nature. I ill endeavor to follow practical lines without thought of having our methods adopted unless they seem logical and would be of material benefit. All incoming meters arc allowed to remain in the proving room over night, proved the following morning, placed in their respective classifications as to age, proof, and previous repairs, our meters are proved and adjusted according to accepted standards, repaired meters 1% slovv, OK meters not more than 2% slow, new meters from 1 to 1J% slow, all OK iron meters that are more than )j4% slow are adjusted to 1% slow following the initial test. OK and partial repairs are taken care of in the usual manner of which I am sure you are all familiar. Meters classiiied for oiling have the tops and back plates removed, diaphragms tested at 4 W. C, those passing this test are sent, to the oiling bench, those showing leaks have their fronts and backs removed, diaphragms are inspected and tested in water.
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Document ID: 39F3A9E3

Elementary Gas Laws
Author(s): E. F. D.AWSON
Abstract/Introduction:
STArt:S OF MATTER Matter is said to exist as a solid, liquid, or pas. Fluids, : mtercst to the engineering field, i. e., water, ammonia, ,-phur dioxide, freon, air, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, : iro.een, etc., may exist in one or more of these phases : the range of pressures and temperatures encountered in i.dern engineering practice. These phases or conditions of :-.:t-r are more often referred to as States of Matter. It ::-nimon knowledge that water in the liquid state may he imeed to ice or steam. The operation of the vapor com- sion system of refrigeration depends upon the change : refrigerants from the liquid state to the gaseous state, ni vice versa.
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Document ID: A05BD5BB

The Slide Rule
Author(s): E. E. Ambrosius
Abstract/Introduction:
The cakuJatioiis which the average engineer is required to make in ordinary work are numerous. He could hardly be expected to make them if he did not have the necessary calculating device. Inasmuch as he cannot always carry with him a large, bulky calculator he must resort largely to the use of a slide rule. The slide rule has sufficient accuracy for most engineering calculations and as a result it furnishes a means of performing rapid and reasonably accurate calculations. Little time is required to become familiar with its operation, and with httle practice reliable results can he obtained. Slide rules have been constructed for almost any kind o( computation. Special rules have been made for flow calculations, calculation for quality of steam, interest charges, the discharge from meters, and for innumerable other purposes. The two most common slide rules, however, are the ordinary polyphase and the log log duplex. These two rules arc used for straight multiplication, division, and the elevation of numbers to powers. However, it would be safe to say that with these rules one can do a diversified type of work. The solution of trigonometric relations are easily handled. In algebraic
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Document ID: 108ED6D1

Gravity Balance And Gravitometer
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
Before making a study of tliefe two types of apparatus and tlieir operation it will be well, first, to see what specific gravity really means, and why it is necessary to determine the specific gravity. In the first place, let us distinguisli between the meaning of the density of gas and tlie speciiic gravity of gas. In chemistry and physics, the definition of density is the weight of matter per unit volume of a substance. Whereas, the general definition for specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of some other substance chosen as the standard. In the case of gases, the standard might Ise oxygen-Iiydrogen or air and the commonly accepted standard particularly in regard to gas measurement in the industrial field is air. When considering gas, the density of the gas is the weight of the gas per unit of volume and can be expressed in pounds per cubic foot, grams per cubic centimeter or in any unit of mass and volume desired. The specific gravity of the gas then is the ratio of the density of the gas as measured in certain mass per unit of volume compared to the density of the standard air as represented in the mass per unit of volume under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. The Bureau of Standards gives this definition The term specific gravity means the ratio of the weight of an equal volume of gas to the weight of an equal volume of dry air free from carbon dioxide measured at the same temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: E9A4DD14

Obtaining Performance From Regulators
Author(s): C. E. Terrell
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the first essentials to getting good performance from a regulator is that it be kept in good mEchanical condition. Tight packing glands, worn or eroded valve guides and valves, crooked valve- and diaphragm-stems, off-center diaphrasjms or carelessly adjusted valves, arc sources of trouble which work to defeat our efforts toward the perfect pressure line. The parts requiring most frequent attention arc the valves and in replacing them or making adjustments they should be so positioned on the stem that they will make a perfectly co-ordinated contact with their seats. A test for this adjustment may be conveniently made by closing the valves on narrow strips (approx. % wide) of cellophane or cigaret paper. When both valves take hold of the strips they are in practically perfect adjustment. This careful adjustment is especially important on soft-seat valves where a complete shut-off and no pressure build is desired. If one soft valve contacts its seat slightly in advance of the other scat a high lock-up pressure will occur. In making any adjustment on valves care should be taken to see that lock-nuts are left perfectly tight otherwise they will work loose. A final test for lock-up may be made by cracking the upstream gate admitting a slight flow of gas while the outlet side of the valves is at atmosphere then holding the valves closed by hand or lever.
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Document ID: F63B59FE

Remote Measurement And Control Instruments
Author(s): E, H, Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
Every one who is associated with a business concern which rroduces, distributes, or consumes gas is -ivell aware of the inportance of mechanical or electrical devices which pcr- t accurate regulation and measurement of flow, pressure ind temperature. The Bristol Company has cooperated with the ga.s in- iiitrj in solving many of the problems which have arisen 3 the measurement and control of pressure and flow. Many : the earlier applications were of a relatively simple type but as distribution systems were e.ctended the matter of disjiices and time factors became of greater importance and is a result automatic controllers have greater demands placed ipon them. The equipment used for control naturally becomes somewhat more complex hut the benefits dcri-ed easily offset all disadvantages. Remote measurement is accomplished by means of a trans- :2itter which measures the variable condition such as pres- cre or flow, and a receiver which records on a round cliart -he value of that condition for any instant. The transmitter is usually connected to the receiver by two wires or through a telephone circuit.
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Document ID: C9E8943F

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Alex m. Brooks
Abstract/Introduction:
In any discussion of gas regulators, it would seem well to commence by defining just what is meant by a gas regulator and by stating what it is supposed to do. Most people are familiar with the gas meter, and although they may not know how it operates, they are thoroughly acquainted with the service it performs. On the other hand many people have never seen a regulator, or if they have done so, have not recognized it as being such. Inasmuch as the gas regulator does not directly aifect the pocket-book, the general public is little interested in the use and operation of the same. They would undoubtedly be more interested if they realized that accurate metering is impossible without accurate regulation.
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Document ID: 9F2D7AFF

Reconditioning Of Mercury
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to obtain chemically pure mercury for use in meters and other apparatus, the best method used is the distillation of mercury. The distillation method, however, is usually slow and requires glass stills and equipment whicK are susceptible to breakage and therefore not practical in the meter shop and for use in connection with orifice meters. For this reason the present discussion will be confined to the use of the filtration and acid cleaning method for the reconditioning of mercury. The apparatus illustrated in Fig. 40 is for cleaning large quantities of mercury for technical uses. By this means a large amount of mercury can be purilied very readily. The instrument combines pressure filtration with electro chemical activities to effect purification.
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Document ID: AC4DCBEE

Calculation Of Orifice And Displacement Meter Charts
Author(s): Roy S. Peace Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The calculation of meter charts in the gas industry is the basic accounting of dollars and cents and these charts should be considered as promissory notes of the customers. While the routine calculation of these charts is fairly simple, the importance of the work and the necessity of being thorough should be stressed emphatically. The price of the gas metered influences most companies in the amount of care exercised in the calculation of the charts. It is food for thought that an error ot one pound in reading a 7 day positive meter chart delivering 20 M.C.F. per hour (SO lbs. delivery pressure, 23c gas) amounts to 11.96 a week, and an error of 2/10 inch of differential on a 24 hour orifice meter chart (delivering gas at 30 differential 60 lbs, pressure, 13 tubes with 7 inch orifice on pipe taps, 23c gas) amount to 16.6 per day. In our discussion we will confine ourselves strictly to the calculation of the charts, assuming the meter attendant will keep the meter functioning properly and record correct conditions within commercial practice.
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Document ID: 6BF8D0C7

Foxboro Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. H. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is essentially a rate measuring device. From the coniinuously recorded rate of flow on the chart, total flows may be calculated or deduced hence, it is frequently called the inferential type of meter, since the gas is not divided out into known volumes and these volumes counted up on a counter or dial. The orifice meter is based upon the principle that any impediment placed in the hne of flow of a gas or fluid will create a drop In pressure that is. as long as there is any fluid flowing past or through the impediment, the pressure will be lower on the downstream side than on the upstream side, and the amount of this drop in pressure will bear definite relation to the rate of flow. The flat, square, sharp-edged orifice is chosen as the simplest and most easily reproduceable type of restriction. The pressure taps must be at a definite location corresponding to the location at which the calibration tests were run. These are commonly at 1 upstream and downstream on the face of the orifice plate or 24 pipe diameters upstream and eight pipe diameters downstream. Since the location of the pressure taps has a direct bearing on the pressure drop or differential which will be measured, they are a definite part of the meter setup.
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Document ID: DFADBB9F

Measurement And Regulation Of Extremely High Pressure Gas
Author(s): R. L. Sullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement and regulation of extremely high pressure gas will be discussed in two parts: first, there -ndll be a review of a paper presented here last year on high pressure sas measurement and orifice meter installations second, will be a discussion of the regulation problems, with some pictures and sketches of typical regulalinf instaliations in the Gulf Coast Area. In this discussion, the term dry gas will mean a gas which, if subjected to moderate changes of pressure and temperature, will remain a gag, Wet gas will mean a gas that carries entrained hcuid, or liquid in a vapor state, some of which will condense upon a moderate reduction of pressure or temperature. Figure #5S illustrates the reason why condensation takes place in a wet gas and not in a dry gas upon reductions in pressure or temperature.
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Document ID: A1659A93

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Allen D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most fundamental precepts of physics, or in fact of our existence in general, is that two bodies can not occupy the same space at the same time. If, by reason of greater force, one body moves in, the body previously in that space must move out. All we do in making positive displacement gas meters is to provide a way for a certain amount of gas to muscle in where a like amount existed previously, and this gas is in turn muscled out by a succeeding increment of gas. To be sure, this arrangement whereby we permit, or even encourage, a muscling in process, may be somewhat complex, may involve some rather intricate mechanical structures, yet all we do is control and count the number of muscling in cycles, and we have a Iositive displacement gas meter. In one of our meter schools a few years ago we approached the principle of operation of a gas meter by putting ourselves in the place of old Xerses, the Persian general, who, as explained, just missed, by about a hair, being the designer of the first positive displacement meter. While Xerxes was on one of his periodical campaigns against his traditional enemies, the Greeks, he was faced with the task of counting the number of his vast army as it was on the march. He built a stockade along the line of march such as shown at the left of Fig. 59 and allowed his soldiers to march into it until it was full. By actual count, he knew the number of troops required to fill it once, and by filling and emptying, filling and emptying as his army marched through, and counting the number of times it was filled, he could obtain the number of his troops.
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Document ID: 21077E93

The Cutler-Hammer Recording Calorimeter
Author(s): G. m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
The first succestful recording Calorimeter, the C-H Thomas Calorimeter, was placed on the market in 1921. The value ::* :hc instrument was quickly recognized by the gas indus- -.- and today it is accepted as a standard for gas heating -.zJit determination. These Calorimeters provide a guide to - economical manufacture of gas, the measure of quality : -end-out gas, the basis for pricing of gas bought and r.:M, and a means for controlling the mixing of gases. The basic principles of the old aluminum type Calorimeter, kive been retained in the new instrument, but with an en- ::r-c!y new construction and arrangernent of parts. As be- :: rr. gas is burned at a constant rate in an enclosed type : -.er. and the heat developed by combustion is absorbed 27 a stream of air. Air is used as the heat absorbing meiSczi! in the recording Calorimeter, because it behaves in r same manner as gas as to temperature, pressure, and Tn-dity. The streams of the test gas and of the heat abaiEtiins air, are maintained in fixed proportion to each tSer by water sealed metering devices geared together and ferren by a common electric motor so that the temperature rsE of the air as it passes thru the burner is directly projcrdonal to the healing value of the test gas. The use of air IE 2. heat absorbing medium, and the measurement of the Er 2iid the gas sample under the same conditions of tempETinire, pressure, and humidity, eliminates corrections for c&ise conditions, and permits automatic recording directly 31 B.T.U. per standard cubic foot,
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Document ID: 05869BD4

Retrograde Condensation
Author(s): R. L. Huntington
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been almost sixty years since Cailletet, (1) a Frenchman, observed the phenomenon of retrograde condensation in the compression of air-carbon dioxide mixtures. He found that up to a certain pressure, the condensation of liquid increased but that still further compression resulted in diminishing liquefaction. In 1892, Kuenen (10) who was also studying the same phenomena, termed this unexpected trend, retrograde condensation. That little research or attention was given to these lindings lias probably been due to the fact that only within the past ten years have engineering operations had much to do with high pressure 5roces5es. Within the past decade a number of outstanding pieces of research (2) (8) (12) (14) have been made on this subject of retrograde condensation. In three large branches of the petroleum industry, high pressure (1000 lbs. per sq. inch and higher) has come to play an important role:
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Document ID: 20446AB0

Hints For Installing And Operating Regulators
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
In conducting this class, it is my purpose to discuss a number of random and unrelated subjects which may be helpful in the installation and operation of regulating equipment. There are a number of operating kinks and tricks of installation and adjustment which are very helpful in getting better performance out of such controls. While the various subjects that I have selected here will be discussed in their order, I suggest that you take the liberty of interrupting me at any time to ask questions or if you have any special problem which may come within the scope of this class, I would appreciate it if you would bring that up also. It is my opinion that the greatest benefit is derived from a class of this sort when we can get a general discussion of the subject. First of all, I wish to call your attention to the master capacity or alignment charts of which each of you have been provided a copy. These eajjacity charts are for calculating the capacity or size of regulating valves bodies when passing either liquid or gaseous fluids. These charts have been prepared liy actual laboratory tests and measurements conducted on the most approved standards for the measurement of fluid flow and are as accurate as it is humanly possible to make them. They are not based on tlieoretical mathematical calculations. It will be interesting to you if we mention here that it is almost an impossible problem to set up a mathematical equation which would cover the capacity of valves due to the wide number of variables involved. Because of that almost impossible and difficult problem of calculating capacities, by reducing
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Document ID: 9865DFCE

Rotary Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): F. F. Bogardus
Abstract/Introduction:
The rotary positive displacement type meter has been widely used for gas measurement for approximately twenty years, its initial use in measuring unpuriiied manufactured gas gradually spreading to all types of gas measurement. While this is a comparatively short period of time compared to tlie length of time some types of meters have been used, tlie rotary displacement theory for Ijoth measurement and pumping dates back a good many years. As early as 1868 this principle was employed by two brothers, P. H, and F. M. Roots, of Connersville, Indiana, in an attempt to develop a two-impeller type water wheel as a substitute for the undershot water wheel. Indifferent success attended the efforts of the would-be inventors in this attempt, but eventually the use of this theory for measurement purposes resulted, the first meters of the two-Iobed rotary displacement type being used for liquid measurement. Some years later, it was realized this theory could be employed not only in the measurement of liquids but also in the measurement of gas, and in 1022 a number of gas meters of the two-impeller rotary displacement type w-ere installed in manufactured gas plants to measure the plant output. It was only a short time until this type of meter was used almost universally for station metering and as natural gas became available in the industrial centers, the meters were used for measuring large industrial loads, transmission line service, and city gate measurement.
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Document ID: DD2D73EC

What Federal Control Would Mean To The Oil & Gas Industry
Author(s): Wm. J. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
I am here to discuss, from a practical administrative standpoint, some of the effects which the proposed bill of regulating the oil industry would have. We have no quarrel with that part of the bill which involves the question of preventing waste in the production of oil and gas, because that questions is not debatable. The controversy concerns the question of what laws, rules and regulations should be established and how, and by whom, these are to be administered without conflict of authority in order to be most effectual and in the best interest of the people and the industry. At the outset, we hold that the regulation of industry should be such as to best serve the interests of the whole people. We hold, at the same time, that an industry as far-reaching as the petroleum industry must not be so over-regulated by duplication of authority that it cannot properly function in the development and production of a product so essential to the Ufe and welfare of the people.
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Document ID: 0ABB4C02

Determination Of Line LOSSES-LOW Pressure Lines
Author(s): O. H. Hegemann
Abstract/Introduction:
The unaccounted for gas, which is the difference between the gas purchased and gas sold, is composed principally of differences in metering, unmetered gas, and leakage. In order to stay within the scope of the subject of this paper, only the determination of actual leakage will be considered. Also, determination of hne losses will be considered as including detection of losses. Since the term high pressure generally is considered to refer to transmission lines, it will be assumed that the term low pressure includes all lines in a city distribution system. This classification may be actually broken down into groups such as low pressure meaning lines carrying from 4 to S inches water column pressure, intermediate pressure carrying from 1 pound to 25 pounds, and high pressure pertaining to supply lines carrying from 30 pounds to 7S pounds pressure, depending on the load and season of the year.
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Document ID: 8F8C9AF8

Determination Of Specific Gravity
Author(s): Geo E. Greiner
Abstract/Introduction:
The terra Specific Gravity may be used in referring to any number of substances but for our purpose and consideration at this time, it will be confined to gases and vapors and its effect upon their measurement through orifice meters. Definition. Webster defines S)ecific Gravity as ttie ratio of the weight of any volume of a substance to the weight of any equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard or unit. So followdng tlic rule laid down by iVIr. Webster-it is a comparaticly simple process to obtain tiie specific gravity of gas or vapor, after we once have obtained or discovered a substance which may be used as a standard. This standard substance, we are told is Air-the air we breathe, which has an assumed S)0cific gravity of 1,00. However, we must be even more specific than Mr. Webster as wc are dealing with gases, standard substance and the gas or vapor whose specific gravity we wish to obtain must be at the same pressure and temperature condition. So with an apparatus of some description, the air and the gas or vapor can be weighed or measured separately, establishing a ratio between the air and the gas or vapor. Having once determined the ratios of these weights wc in turn can calculate the specific gravity. Thus we have established a weight for the gas or vapor directly related to the weight of our air-and we may no%v refer to the gas or vapor as being so much lighter or heavier than air, just the same as we generallj speak of fluids or liquids being so much lighter or heavier than water.
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Document ID: B3749A07

Back-Pressure Tests Of Gas Wells
Author(s): T. W. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the delivery capacity of a gas well at various back-pressures is a relatively simple operation and the data so obtained are fundamental in the study of many problems connected with the production of natural gas. These data describe the characteristics and performance of the individual well and are fundamental in that they relate the characteristics of the reservoir itself. The usual procedure for determining the relationship between the rate of flow and back-pressure against the sand consists of first measuring the shut-in well-head pressure after the well has been closed in sufficiently long to stabilize the pressure. The well is then produced at several different rates of flow and after stabilization of each rate the wellhead pressures are again observed. The determinations of the rates of gas delivery from the well may be made bjany acceptable method of measuring gas volumes often it is possible to use the orificc-meter equipment normally serving the well and during the periods of testing to deliver the gas to a pipe-line system thus eliminating gas wastage. For the well-head pressures observed under static conditions and at several different measured rates of production the corresponding pressures at the bottom of the well are computed. In general, there are two factors which must be added to surface pressures observed under flow conditions to obtain the absolute pressure at the sand face (P ) first, pressure due to the weight of the column of gas and second, pressure due to friction in the flow string. When the production is through tubing and the pressures are taken on the casing, the calculations are simplified in that only the
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Document ID: BE0F8312

Gas ACCOUNTING-DRY Gas Practices
Author(s): W. A. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
The accounting practices used by various companies en- Siafjed in the natural gas industry are fundamentally the same. These practices, however, may vary according to the dictates of the company management, the system of accounting used, or to the requirements of various regulatory bodies. The practices presented in this paper are typical, however, of those used where the Chart Department and Gas Accounting Department are coordinated as one. There are other practices in use which, no doubt, will be of interest to the class. At the conclusion of this paper, the class will benefit from a general discussion of those practices used in the gas industry which I have not brought out. The practices are presented herein in chronological order from the preparation of the meter statements to the closing of the books for the month and the routine handling of the records thereafter. The Gas Accounting Department in this discussion is a division of the General Office. This department, as stated above, is a combination of the Chart and .-Vccounting Departments.
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Document ID: 28DF05F5

Domestic Meter Repairs
Author(s): E. R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
haye a thorough understanding of the functions of the mechanism. There is a definite reason for each part of a meter mechanism and each part has a definite relation to every other part. The alignment of any one part with the other parts has been established definitely for each type and size of meter. If the repairman has a complete understanding of the relation of the various parts he can assemble them properly. If he has some mechanical means of establishing these relations and uses a few standard measurements he can i)e certain of having all meters perform satisfactorily. It is possible to adjust an improperly assembled ineter by lengthening or shortening the tangent or changing the angle between the tangent and the crank. This adjustment can be made to compensate for the errors which may be built into the meter. Houever, it does not correct the improper alignment or actual fault in the meter.
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Document ID: 1D840F84

District Station Regulation
Author(s): H. Mike Meuffels
Abstract/Introduction:
Tn the previous sessions and classes, the theory, fundamentals, operation and different types of regulators or controllers, have ably and thoroughly been discussed and covered, and these will be reviewed only in so far as they concern this class room work. District station regulators, generally designed to operate on an inlet pressure from I to 60 pounds, reducing to an outlet pressure of 2i to 14 water column, are of many and varied types, but in general may be classified as one of the following:
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Document ID: 6C7F6030

Chart Integration With The Emco-Mcgaughy Integrator
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
The correct amount of gas measured for any time period J 3 very important factor to the industry as a large amount the production, main line measurements and industrial lis of gas is measured with orifice meters. Extensive re- irch has taken place during the past ten years by joint nmittees of the American Gas Association and the Ameri- Society of Mechanical Engineers with the cooperation ir-e Bureau of Standards, Washington, D, C, in proving ccuracy of orifice meter flow coefficients and making iTLant, definite recommendations regarding the correct wi.-- to install this type of equipment so that the most acijratE results could be obtained. This is having an important ZT. on the improvement of measurement with orifice
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Document ID: F164E1A1

Fisher Gas Pressure Boosters
Author(s): Kenneth R. D. Wolfe
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject we arc going to discuss is that of gas pressure boosters. The title on the program wasnt as clear as it should have been, since we have really broken this discussion up into two sections. Immediately following this discussion there will be another on the Time Temjjerature Booster, .t this time, however, we shall discuss the Fisher- King Gas Pressure Booster, or high pressure pounds-pounds booster. We will consider this one on the basis of pounds to pounds pressure. I think perhaps the best thing to do first is to discuss briefly the application of this type of booster and its primary requirements, and where it does the best type of work. Kow there are perhaps various conditions which must be met. We have a system in one type of locality where five pounds would be required, and in others ten pounds, fifty, or even one hundred, so it all depends on your particular type of application. We can boost with this type any pressure from one to four hundred pounds. We can boost as little as one pound, or as much as 150 or 200 pounds.
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Document ID: 4578BB84

Emco High Pressure Balanced Valve Regulators
Author(s): Allen D. Mclean
Abstract/Introduction:
There are four very essential reasons for the control of pressure in gas transmission and distribution. The first is a very obvious one and that is safety, for we cannot have too hiph a pressure on the mains, meters, appliances and other parts in the gas system. The second reason is transmission, for we must have at the initial end of any transmission or distribution hne sufiicient pressure to insure transmission of the gas in satisfactory quantities to the opposite terminal. The third is measurement since gas is a compressible fluid, its weight varies as the absolute pressure at which it exists, therefore at those points where gas is measured the pressure must be controlled very accurately or recorded very accurately. In general the higher the accuracy in pressure control at a meter the more accurate the measurement. The fourth reason is combustion when gas is burned it is forced through an orifice and united with air. The amount of gas passing through the orifice depends on the pressure and tlie efficiency of combustion depends upon the gas velocity and other factors at the point of combustion. Hence, accuracy in pressure control just ahead of the burning orifice is a very important consideration. In general the more accurately pressure is controlled in transmission and distribution systems, the better will be the results in all phases of the operation of the company.
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Document ID: A9D0E73B

Wrinkle Class
Author(s): L, F, Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
It gives me great pleasure to present this class again to the Meter School and to linow how enthusiastically you received it last year. I again give my thanlcs to Dean Carson and to Mr. Fay Walters for making this class possible and for their splendid cooperation and to Mr. R. L. Rountree for his able assistance and untiring efforts enabling me to present the Wrinkles to you this year. This month of April celebrates the l.iOth birthday of the Lnitcd States Patent Office. The anniversary of a century and a half of American inventive ingenuity brings to light some of the models reposing on the many miles of shelf space in the Patent Office at Washington. Some of them are odd, many of them humorously impracticable, but the majority of them show American ingenuity and perseverance that is the foundation of our industries and progress. It is by this example that the Field and Measurement men who have problems confronting them that are not necessarily covered by Meter Schools and Hand Bonks, work them out to their own satisfaction. The net results are in most cases worth passing on to others for their merit and further deelopraent. In addition to this, I think this Wrinkle class should become a sort of clearing house whereby any question that you may have ijertaining to your work not covered by the Meter School class instructors could be brought to the groups attention and most likely it would be ans-nered by some one who has had a similar experience. I think too, that Safety Ecjuipraent and Practices used by us men in the field should be brought forward and demonstrated so that we could perform our work in
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Document ID: E10436E1

Field Testing Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): B. F. Worley
Abstract/Introduction:
The tield testine: of large capacity displacement meters ocr- jpies a prominent place in most Measurement Departments. rirticularl in the companies engaged in the transmission izd distribution of natural gaa. There are numerous com- Tinies represented here in this group who use various prorf- dures to meet their particular operations and I am sure .: will be of general interest to Iiave this information pre- STr:ted during the general discussion. My discussion will briefly describe the methods and equipment used by the United G Corporation.
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Document ID: A83C78A5

The Orifice Meter
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
orifice meter as a measuring unit consists of an aci-. cly designed meter run, flange, proper type orifice plate, -:: lid piping, and recording gauge. -L recording gauge might be divided into two units-one : recording the static pressure similar to an ordinary reiir. 2 gauge and the other unit referred to as the manot: or differential mechanism which is designed for meas- :r pressure drop across the orifice and this drop (or -. n created by the gas going through the orifice) is ex- - r i . for extreme sensitivity, in inches of water on the -: and a differential range chamber should be selected particular retjuircments of the gas that is being meas-
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Document ID: 5C317A4A

Operation Of The Flow Calorimeter
Author(s): L. H. Cherry
Abstract/Introduction:
The average domestic customer has little or no knowledge -: the heating value of the gas he buys and uses for heating ..-OSes in his home or business. Quantity costs are com- rri by eastern consumers using manufactured gas with -r-.r.-n consumers u.sing natural gas without a realization - .: -.he heating value of the gas in the two areas may . r s great a difference as 100% in heating value. Te burner designed or adjusted for an 850 Btu/cu. ft. gas -ut burn a 1000 Btu/cu. ft. gas efficiently. In some parts -J-e East where the gas is a mixture of producer gas and :..T--a! gas the mixture is varied to some extent according ----t amount of producer gas available. In the floods of - : i : t , many of the gas plants were flooded to an extent .-. they stopped producing gas and the mixture became natural gas. This example cites an emergency and not be common in daily practice. ITe industries consuming larger quantities of gas are rap- .:!: becoming interested in the available energy of the gas - buy. The result of this interest is the increase in the ..-:er of contracts which specify the heating value of the . purchased or contract for the gas at a certain price -r Pneim.
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Document ID: CD68EAFC

Gas ACCOUNTING-WET Gas Practices
Author(s): C. V. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
I feel highly complimented in being asked to repeat my last years effort to bring you the first class of this type to be held at the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. If my presentation of this subject, and our ensuing discussion, should bring most of us some features which will allow us to set up and maintain gas accounting records more beneficial and economical to our respective companies, I shall feel sure that our time is profitably spent. My acceptance of this assignment was more with the thought in mind that I should be able to get ideas for my own office, than with confidence in my ability to present the subject in an educational manner. The Department of which I have the pleasure of being in charge has grown to be one of the largest, if not the largest, Gas Accounting Department. Because of the fact that we handle over two thousand charts daily which measure more than a billion cubic feet of gas daily to and from thirtynine widely scattered gasoline plants, as well as from a large number of leases from which gas is sold to other companies, this large volume of work has necessitated a rather complicated routine vhich is almost impossible to describe in an exact consecutive order. For purposes of illustration, I have prepared a diagram, of which you have a copy, in an attempt to clarify the flow of such large scale work. The flow of work, in our instance, has been so devised because of the brief time allotted for getting the information from the field and presenting the final compiled figures to our General Accounting Department for closing periods. It has become necessary to cycle the flow of work so that it will
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Document ID: 124CB763

The Bell Type Prover
Author(s): Allen D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
The standard of measurement which has been adopted almost unanimously by the gas industry is the cubic foot. A true cubic foot is defined as the space occupied by a cube which is exactly one linear foot on each,side and in which all surfaces are either parallel to or at right angles to all other surfaces. Since the cubic font is important in gas measurement, it might pay us to go back a little into its ancestry, to see just what sort of forbears it descends from, We have stated that the true right-angled cube must be one linear foot on all its sides to give us an exact cubic foot. This means that we must have a real definition of a linear foot, Tt is usually defined as one-third of a yard, a yard being identified as the length of an official metallic bar maintained by the Bureau of Standards in Washington, This yard in turn is a certain fixed portion /36QO of a meter bar of iridlo
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Document ID: 915B0ABD


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