Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1939)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Reminiscences Of The Development Of Large Quantity Gas Measurement
Author(s): Geo, D. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
When asked to choose a iopic which might be of some interest to laymen and technicians alike and still bear a relation to the general subject matter of a gas Measurement Short Course, I hesitated somewhat before adopting so general a topic as one entitled Reminiscences of the Development of Large Quantity Gas Measurement. However, with both credit and apologies to such eminent pioneer gas measurement engileers as S. W. Robinson, F. M. Towl, Thomas R. Weymouth, H. C. Cooper, D. O. Hickstein, and others, and because the history of such development within the writers experience of the last thirty years has proved to be of interest to some, I hope this paper may serve some useful purpose.
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Document ID: A951DF31

Fnstallation And Maintenance Of Regulators And Prevention Of Freezing
Author(s): Edward Sackett, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators may be thought of as a medium in the law of supply and demand of natural gas. The most practical way to transmit natural gas long distance is under high pressure. Natural gas is used by the consumer under very low pressure. Therefore, we have a high pressure supply and a 1ow pressure demand. The duty of the gas regulator is to take this high pressure supply at any pressure within its range, reduce it to the low pressure demand, and automatically maintain that pressure within very close limits. Installation of regulators as a general subject automatically divides itself into several different subheads, each of which has its own individual characteristics and will be taken up separately.
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Document ID: E631EF1C

Fundamental Principles Of Measurement By Displacement
Author(s): Allen D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
In our subject line the words Measurement by Displacement were very carefully chosen. This is a principle of measurement very widely used in gas ptactice, yet it can be confused with many other factors which are common to the gas industry. The sale of gas often times involves pressure of the gas being measured, the heating value expressed in Btu, chemical analysis of the gas, speciflc gravity, temperature, and other factors of lnterest to the gas man yet the meter, upon which he depends to express the value of the commodity he sells, can know only one thing, and that ls displacement or because the displacement ls caused by a movement, we sometimes use the term swept volume.
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Document ID: 7FCB862E

Practical Application Of A. G. A. Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 2
Author(s): J. E. Overbeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Your program committee has again asked me to handle the same subject this year on which I had presented a paper here last year. Since my paper last year covered the majority of the subiect matter conained in the A. C. A. Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 2, I shall not attempt to repeat any of this information, but will attempt answer any of the questions concerning that data which may have come to your attention during the past year. Rather than for me to attempt to take up all of this class period by reading a paper, I believe we should develop this class session into a worth while discussion, all taking part. I feel sure that for those questions which l may be unable to answer, there will be someone present in the classroom who is qualified to do so.
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Document ID: 8FE1CA3F

Testing Displacement Meters With Low Pressure Flow Prover
Author(s): H. J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
Displacement meters should be in proof at all rates of flow on which the meter will operate. This is especially true with large meters, which generally measure gas over a large range of flow than the domestic meter. To obtain accuracy, the meter must be tested and adjusted up to the capacity rate of flow.
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Document ID: D5A894C8

The Emco Orifice Meter
Author(s): Allen D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
In measuring gas with the orifice meter there are four important factors to be considered. First, there are the mathematical and physical principles involve. These have been very well covered in the handbooks, and the coefficients, as used, gave been approved by various bodies such as the A.G.A. and the A.S.M.E.
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Document ID: 0D3F9C2E

Testing And Repair Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Joe G. Mallory
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject assigned me for discussion this afternoon is Testing and Repair of Orifice Meters and, of course, we understand by this that it refers to those meters installed for gas measurement. However, as you all know, the orifice meter is equally as practical for the measurement of steam, water, oil, etc, but we will discuss the testing of meters installed for the measurement of gas only. It is rather diffcult to adhere strictly to the subject of testing, but I shall truy not to oberlap in subjects that have been, or are to be, covered by others during this course.
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Document ID: F3941733

Fundamental Principles Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Lyle E. Eige
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic controllers or regulators, to those possibly not closely in touch with the subject, occasionally present the thought that a pressure regulator is a rather complicated piece of mechanism. On the contrary, all pressure regulators are a common adaption of simple mechanics, wherein we utilize the force developed by the pressure acting on a flexible diaphragm, to operate various types of regulators and valve structures, and thus control the pressure. A pressure regulator can well be likened to a balance scale or the common seesaw in its fundamental principle of operation. In the seesaw we have balance forces on either side of the fulcrum in a pressure regulator we also find that we merely balance opposing forces.
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Document ID: 3ADD5C85

Emco Regulators
Author(s): C. C. Abbott
Abstract/Introduction:
While recorded history and the storehouses of experience can be used only as foundations upon which to build our present and future progress, it is highly fascinating, as well as inspiring, to sometimes delve into the archives in search of the landmarks which stand a monuments to the advancement of our own specialized field of activity. By comparison, we find relief from the complicated and perplexing problems whlch confront us in our current endeavors. Picture the developments from the time when, ln 1792, Murdoch, in lighting his home, demonstrated the first use of gas manufactured from coal when, in 1816, skeptical visitors to Mr. Peales museum in the town of Baltimore viewed with wonder the new illumination from gas without oil, tallow, wick, or smoke when the first gas mains were laid in 1806 when our forefathers were amazed by the first use of natural gas at Fredonia, New York, in 1825 when wooden mains were being used extensively in 1850 and so on through the years to 1872 when a 24-inch high-pressure natural gas line of cast iron pipe, depending on well pressures alone, was completed from the Newton well to Titusville, Pennsylvania. It has ever been a struggle for better methods and materials which could bring to us the multitude of necessities and comforts of life supplied by energy in the form of gas.
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Document ID: 74B9B0A3

The Effect Of Pulsating Flow On Gas Measurement
Author(s): S. R. Beitler
Abstract/Introduction:
It is rather difficult to choose a title for a paper of this sort because the subject is difficult to grasp, and because of the fact that very little is known about it, except that it is almost impossible to measure pulsating flow. It is the purpose of this paper to present a short survey of the known facts about measurement of this type of flow and to describe these facts.
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Document ID: 3B409106

Limitations Of Displacement Meter Uses
Author(s): C. H. Whitwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Our aim, as gas measurement men, is to meter our product accurately, economically, safely and with no detriment to efficient utilization. In other words, we wish to choose a meter which is suitable for each situation, which is not unduly costly to purchase or to maintain, which is accurate when installed, and which will remain accurate over a reasonable period of time. We will test this meter periodically to determine whether it has maintained its accuracy, and to detect and remedy any deterioration which has caused, or which may be likely to cause, inaccuracy or interference with good gas service.
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Document ID: C9DEF5A0

Gas Measurement As It Affects Our Industry And The Public
Author(s): C. C. Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
It is particulary pleasing to note the splendid group here assembled and I am most happy to be one of you. Back in the early days of measurement most of the original development work and the greater part of the progress in measurement equipment and methods took place right here in the East. Then some years ago the Norman Oklahoma and California Meter Associations and Schools were organized. It was rather surprising to note the fine interest that followed the organization of these two groups in the West, and to follow the excellent development and progress in measurement which was made as a direct result thereof. For several years, following this activity, a great deal of progress and development in connection with accurate measurement took place in the West and Southeast.
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Document ID: 19F534CE

Tlee Enco-Mcgaughy Integrator And Its Use In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Clark Goodman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Emco-McGaughy Integrator had its inception in the mind of Mr. John B. McGaughy in the year 1927. Mr. McGaughy, then employed in the orifice meter department of a large western utility, saw the need for an accurate, speedy device for calculating orifice meter charts. His first experiments were conducted with a mechanical device similar in design to the present chart integrator, but intended rather to be a part of an orifice meter itself. Many experiments proved this idea to be impractical.
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Document ID: 4BCAC818

Pittsburgh Equitable Displacement Meter Repair And Maintenance
Author(s): E. R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
The present Emco gas meters of the large capacity type incorporate improvements that have been developed over a period of forty-five years. A constant study of field conditions and requirements indicates the necessity of making all wearing parts easily accessible and readily replaceable. Emco meters are designed to meet these specifications and thus offer a decided advantage in maintenance and repair, since all service work can be performed with the greated economy.
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Document ID: 4F87ECB6

Determination Of Heating Value Of Gases
Author(s): A. J. W. Headlee
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is composed of hydrocarbons, that is, compounds consisting of the elements carbon and hydrogen, chemically combined, and nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfur compounds will combine with oxygen in the usual process of combustion to produce heat. Artificial gases consist of various mixtures of hydrocarbons, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, organic sulfur compounds, and ammonia as combustibles, and nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen, and small quantities of rare gases such as argon as inerts. The major combustibles in fuel gas are hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen.
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Document ID: 83116F2E

Foxboro Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is essentially a rate measuring device. From the continuously recorded rate of flow on the chart, total flow may be calculated or deduced hence, it is frequently called the inferential type of meter, sicne the gas is not divided out into known volumes and these volumes counted up on a counter or dial.
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Document ID: 2F813192

Calculation Of Orifice And Displacement Meter Charts
Author(s): R. H. Jenney
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of gas in general, and the calculation of meter charts in particular, have been referred to as the cash register of the natural gas industry. This is an accurate comparison so far as the results are concerned. As the cash register records and totals the sales and purchases, so the calculations of meter charts determine the gas bought and sold. The proprietor of a store can keep in constant touch with his sales by occasionally looking in the cash register. Likewise, the management of a gas company depends on the calculations of meter charts for this information.
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Document ID: 274DD5A4

Meriam Manometers And Their Use In The Gas Industry
Author(s): A. A. Hejduk
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, more than ever before, there is a need for accurate measurement in the gas industry. With each year of progress, we find ourselves with problems of measurement, brought forth by improvements in design, construction, operation, and service requirements of industrial equipment.
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Document ID: 3029BCC8

Testing And Analyzing Displacement Meters By Bell-Type Prover
Author(s): R. L. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing is the act of comparing some artical or assembly to some predetermined standard. The standard in this case is called the bell-type prover, on which Mr. B. P. Stockwell will direct a class in practical installation and operation during this years short course. The assembly to be tested or compared to the prover is known as the displaement type meter.
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Document ID: 06AAA727

Rotary Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): F. F. Bogardus
Abstract/Introduction:
The rotary positive displacement type meter has been widely used for gas measurement for approximately twenty years, its initial use in measuring unpurified manufactured gas gradually spreading to all types of gas measurement. While this is a rather short period of time, compared to the length of time some types of meters have been used, the rotary displacement theory, for both measurement and pumping, dates back a good many years. As early as 1868 this principle was employed by two brothers, P. H. and E. M. Roots, of Connersville, Indiana, in an attempt to develop a two-impeller type water wheel as a subsitute for the undershot water wheel.
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Document ID: EABA91AF

Sprague Domestic Meters
Author(s): A. Sidney Mcintire
Abstract/Introduction:
The reciprocating steam engine producing continuous rotation of a flywheel and crank shaft was invented in 1781 by J. Murray Watts. The cycle or sequence of events, namely, the position of the valve relative to its seat, and the position of the piston relative to the crank as used in that engine, is used in the modern steam engine. This cycle is used in domestic and industrial gas meters today.
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Document ID: 5BB20AC7

Pressure Regulation By Means Of Auxiliary Control
Author(s): William Adams, George Day
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will try to describe how gas pressure can be regulated by means of auxiliary controls. An effort will be made to describe nearly all of the different types, but time will not permit a description of the various applications of each. The remarks, on the whole, will be based on personal experiences, and, therefore, may be affected somewhat by personal prejudice. Names of regulator manufacturers are intentionally omitted.
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Document ID: 8166F6D9

Gas Laws And Their Application To Measurement
Author(s): Ellsworth Ungethuem
Abstract/Introduction:
Various means are employed in measuring gas volume correctly. The methods or apparatus are affected in the main by two important entities namely, pressure and temperature. As this paper is concerned only with these two entities, there is no reason to complicate the subject by discussing anything other than the two fundamental laws, Boyles and Charles.
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Document ID: 0705049D

Emco Regulator S,epair And Maintenance
Author(s): F. H. Kindl
Abstract/Introduction:
Development of the high pressure gas distribution system with its required high pipe-line pressure, together with the necessity for reducing this pressure to a point where it can be safely and economically distributed, as well as properly measured, has placed upon gas regulators a responsibility that is of major consequence. Therfore, their maintenance is of first degree importance.
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Document ID: 96206B4E

Various Methodls And Apparatus For The Deterrnination Of Tjre Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to make a study of the various methods and types or apparatus used for the determination of the specific gravity of gas, it will be well, first, to see what the specific gravity really means, and why it is necessary to determine the specific gravity. In the first place, let us distinguish between the meanings of density and specific gravity of gas. In chemistry and physics, the definition of density is the weight of matter per unit volume of a substance whereas, the general definition for specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of some other substance chosen as the standard. In the case of gases, the standard might be oxygen, hydrogen, or air, and the commonly accepted standard, particularly in regard to gas measurement in the industrial field, is air.
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Document ID: 981EFBC1

Testing Large Capacity Displacernent Meters With Low Pressure Flow Prover Or Critical Flow Orifice Prover
Author(s): Fred Hickel
Abstract/Introduction:
Various types of equipment and a number of different methods have been used in the testing of displacement meters. The bell-type prover has been used almost universally to test low-pressure small capacity displacement meters and it has also been used, to some extent, for the testing of low-pressure large capacity displacement meters. Some low-pressure, and practically all high-pressure, large capacity displacement meters were tested in former years by use of the funnel-prover, and in more recent years, by the low-pressure flow prover, or the critical flow orifice prover. The use and operation of these last two mentioned provers will be discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: 7A998C60

Ternperature Measurement Methods On Orifice Meter Installations And Resulting Effect On Measurement
Author(s): Charles G. Fellows
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several practical methods used for the determination of the temperature of flowing fluids. These methods depend upon physical changes created by temperature changes, examples of which are as follows: 1. The volumetric expansion of liquids is directly proportional to temperature. 2. For volatile liquids there is only one vapor pressure for a given temperature. 3. Under a condition of constant volume, the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. 4. The resistance of electrical conductors varies dierctly with the temperature (the resistance thermometer). 5. When the junction of two dissimilar metals - a thermocouple - is heated, the resulting generated voltage is proportional to temperature.
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Document ID: 9B4E6655

Use Of Pressure-Volume Gauge And Other Equipment For Adjusting Meter Registration To Gas Volumes Of Definite Pressure Base
Author(s): A. C. Daugherty
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in the development of the gas business, artifical, as well as natural, a need was felt for measuring devices. Out of this we have the present-day positive displacement and orifice meters. Each type has its place in the industry. However, as this paper has to do with the Use of Pressure-Volume Gauge and Other Equipment for Adjusting Meter Registration to Gas Volumes of Definite Pressure Base, we must deal with the measurement of gas by the positive displacement meter, since it is only on this type of meter that such gauges are used.
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Document ID: 3569BF8A

Meter Shop Practice
Author(s): G. W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not my intention in this paper to discuss the details of meter repairing, because there are so many outside factors which enter into the matter of meter shop practice. To try to tell each one, or all of you, what particular practice you should follow would not be only foolish but impossible. Conditions vary to such an extent, from company to company, that the particular problems of meter repair become an individual affair. Meters vary as to age and type. The gas delivered may be manufactured, mixed, or natural it may be a wet or dry gas, clean or dirty. Also, state commissions require different change periods and allow for different tolerances of proof. Therefore, if I were to expound my ideas on any particular phase of meter repairing, it is doubtful if it would be entirely applicable to any other meter shop.
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Document ID: 4F181A9A

Use Of Emco-Mcgaughy Integrator In The Calculation Of Gas Deliveries, Including Corrections For Superexpansibility
Author(s): Denna Winter, Paul G. Schwender
Abstract/Introduction:
To approach this subject assigned for this class period, we will briefly discuss the orifice formula and the primary mechanisms of the integrator which function to apply the formula in the calculation of meter charts.
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Document ID: 1C8C3C66

Installation And Operation Of Sell-Type Meter Provers
Author(s): B. P. Stockwell
Abstract/Introduction:
This subject is as old as the gas business, and since the construction and operation of a bell type meter prover is so well known to most of us, I sometimes wonder if, as a result of this condition, we do not at times become a little careless in its operation. Even though simple, the meter prover is, under proper operation, one of the most reliable and accurage test instruments we have.
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Document ID: 1D61BC35

Fundamental Principles Of Measurement By Orifice Meter
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter consists of two elements: First, the upstream and downstream runs of pipe which are joined together by orifice flanges, between which the orifice plate is clamped and second, the differntial recording gauge.
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Document ID: F9B2E66E

Testing, Repairing, Anal Operating Orifice Meters
Author(s): C. A. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper which I have prepared and will read to you, on the subject of Testing, Repairing, and Operating Orifice Meters, can, no doubt, divulge little that is new to you meter engineers. However, I wonder if our knowledge is proportional to our years of experience.
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Document ID: 133E5109

Importance Of The Proper Pressure Regulation To The Utility And To The Customer
Author(s): A. m. Hutchison
Abstract/Introduction:
I know I need not emphasize to you ment the importance of proper gas regulation in our present-day operations. In the early era of the gas industry, when production, transmission, and distribution of natural gas was in its infancy, when applications were few, and when equipment had not yet been highly developed, the importance of accurate measurement, proper regulation, and all of the other things that go to make up efficient gas service were, more or less, of minor importance.
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Document ID: 9D29F2AB

Bristol Recording And Controlling Instruments And Their Application To Gas Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): Perry A. Borden
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic control of pressure and flow values in the distribution of gas involves not only the problem of maintaining a predetermined value, but often that of varying the value over a considerable range through different hours of the day and of compensating not only for normal variations in the temperature and pressure of the gas itself, but of meeting sudden demands engendered by extreme weather conditions. The normal control of gas pressures, particularly as derived from high-pressure transmission mains, or from natural gas systems, is effectively taken care of by automatic regulators with which most gas men are inherently familiar. As detailed descriptions of such devices are available from those who have long manufactured and used them, no attempt will here be made to duplicate this information.
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Document ID: 6FC93328

Trhe Integrating Meter And Its Uses
Author(s): John A. Eppler
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing the various types of integrating meters, let us first define integration and its relation to measurement. Integration means the adding of a series of like objects, whether they are numbers, area of rectangles, or volumes of gas. Just as the addition of 2+2+26, 3 volumes of gas, each being 2 cubic feet, when integrated, or added, equals 6 cubic feet. now the meters which perform this simple operation, most nearly like the additions cited, are the positive displacement Glover meters, tin or iron cased, which, day after day, do this ceaseless integration of the volumes of gas used by our consumers. Every time the meter clicks, a fixed volume of gas has passed through it and has been registered on the dial train as an addition to the total volume which has preceded it.
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Document ID: B6315621

Practical Application Of Supercornpressibility To Commercial Gas Measurement
Author(s): C. C. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1662, Boyle discovered that the pressure on a gas multiplied by the specific volume, or volume of a pound, was equal to the product of any other pressure times the volume of a pound of the same gas at that other pressure. This was only true of a very few gases, such ones being known as perfect gases. Natural gas is not a perfect gas in that it does not follow Boyles Law exactly, and it is this Deviation from Boyles Law in which we are now interested.
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Document ID: 5363CBDC

Pittsburgh Equitable Displacement Meters
Author(s): R. F. Davisson
Abstract/Introduction:
For the benefit of those not fully acquainted with the meter as a measuring unit, we will briefly discuss the theory of the meter as compared with that of the stream engine. Although the uses of the two different pieces of mechanical equipment are not alike, the construction of the two are almost identical, and the operation of the two are in many ways the same. We know that the engine is used to convert thermal energy to mechanical energy, which is accomplished by passing the steam into the cylinders, and this confined steam drives the pistons of the engine, and the pistons carry the energy to the desired location by crank and linkages. The essential portions of the engine are the cylinder, to contain the steam, and a series of valves, to permit the steam to enter the cylinders. Of course, it is plainly seen that these valves must act with the pistons so that the steam may enter the desired compartment at the desired time.
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Document ID: 1952F593

Meter Installation And Operation Practices Where Fluids Or Condensable Vapors Are Present
Author(s): A. F. Kraus
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing and plugging up of gas lines is nto a new problem for the industry, and meter engineers have always been similarly troubled with ice and water in maintenance and operation, especially with field and main-line measuring stations. Many companies go to considerable trouble and expense to eliminate or at least minimize this fluid and freezing condition.
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Document ID: 283B6B46

Chaplin-Fulton Regulators
Author(s): Thomas H. Thorn
Abstract/Introduction:
Past experience in conduction classes of this nature has indicated that the most benefit is derived from an open discussion in which all of you are invited and asked to participate. I want you to feel free to interrupt me at any time you may have a question or when any statement may not be perfectly clear. Please bear in mind that this is your class. A paper has been presented on the subject of auxiliary controls for pressure regulation. In view of this, I would like to take the opportunity of explaining the operation of the Fulton Pilot Loaded Regulator. At our exhibit you have seen the complete unit, but here we have a cross-sectional view from which the principle of operation may be explained, Figure 1.
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Document ID: DDCEE1A2

Proper Construction, Installation And Operation Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Edward Sackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In former years, very little attention was paid to the design and upkeep of measuring stations in which gas was bought or sold in large quantities. The writer can remember when the proportional meter was the usual measuring device for this purpose, and for very large quantities of gas a battery of several Pitot tubes was used. These tubes were housed in a building, and the records of delivery obtained by sight reading of the differential water column. The readings were taken each quarter hour, and the gas volume calculated from teh pressure and differential readings. It kept the station operator busy almost continually, when he read his tubes each fifteen minues, figured up his delivery, made hourly reports, operated the gates, and answered the telephone on the side. Many of our prominent gas men served their apprenticeship in a tube station. When the tube station and proportional meters were supplanted by the orifice meter, very little was known concerning the requirements for accurate measuring.
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Document ID: AA9E33D2


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