Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1936)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Public Relations As It Pertains To The Meter Man
Author(s): E. Maurice Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the depression, elettric and natural gas utilities experienced a great expansion. New sources of gas supply were developed. Electric generating plants were constructed. A great enterprise was shown in the buildins of pipe lines and transmission lines. Several million people were afforded, through these extensions, the advantages, conveniences and economy of natural gas and electricity. Then with the beginning of the depression, the great construction program practically ceased. During the last five years, utilities have suffered as other industries have suffered. Tiie National Recovery Administration has added the burden of additional costs without a corresponding increase in revenue. It is probable that most companies have tried to offset this with increased rates. This has a tendency to create anti-utility sentiment that seems to be gathering force in many directions. Municipalities decide to have their own systems and plants which also causes complications. There is the continual investigation which always hurts the innocent. Problems of financing, of taxation, government control and legal decisions, all of which have helped to bring adversity to the utility field.
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Document ID: 52417EAD

Calculation Of Orifice And Displacement Meter Charts
Author(s): m. m. Parley
Abstract/Introduction:
The actual calculation of the meter chart record is more or less mechanical. The various gas purchase and sales contracts contain information as to the basis of measurement. Published tables or especially prepared office tables are used in determining the various measurement factors specified by contract. These factors are used in calculating the volumes pa.ssing through the various measuring stations. They remain in use until such time as changes develop which affect them. When charts are received in the office from the various measuring stations, the volumes indicated by the chart records are calculated, using accepted and routine methods.
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Document ID: 4F5B34B6

Recording And Controlling Instruments Applicable To Gas Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): L. G. Marsh
Abstract/Introduction:
In this day of progress when competition and cost of production afford smaller profit margin in the sale of the conmiodity, the Natural Gas Industry is giving greater attention to detail in the matters of construction, operation, and application of the yarious instruments designed lor the measurement and control of its products. Efficiency and economy in the production, transportation, and distribution of natural gas are intimately linked with the factors of measurement and control. Control of pressures is vital from the time the gas is taken from the weli until it is piped to the burner of the consumer. With the advent of the orifice meter, the element of control as.-5umes additional importance from the standpoint that smoothness in regulation determines in great part the accuracy of flow measurement. Accuracy in raeasiu-ement and sensitivity in regulation is imperative.
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Document ID: 28F43892

Problems Of Wet Gas Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): G. W. Mccullough
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of wet or casinghead gas presents the many feindred problems of dry gas measurement, and also many more problems peculiar to itself. There is also a great difference in value per MCF usually between wet or casinghead gas and dry, or gas well, gas. This economic difference in value is sometimes the cause of many of the problems of wet gas measurement and regulation. Only so much can be spent on meter maintenance and operation before it becomes uneconomical to measure wet gas. For this reason, when meters and regulators are put in to measure wet gas, they should be put in properly, and intelligently, with proper study having been given to problems on hand. The changing of metering runs, regulators, plates and meters will so run the cost of installation up to such a point that the metering expense can exceed the value of gas being metered.
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Document ID: 26E131BB

Care And Operation Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): K. I. Snyder
Abstract/Introduction:
When a stream of liquid or gas. flowing in a pipeline, encounters an obstruction, a drop in pressure results, and the condition becomes practically that of a liquid or gas escaping through an orifice from a chamber under a certain pressure to another chamber under lower pressure. The greater the rate of flow of the liquid or gas in the pipeline, the greater the resulting pressure drop. If the size and condition of the obstruction remain constant in a given line, a given rate of flow of liquid or gas will always result in the same pressure drop in passing the obstruction, and for any pressure drop there will be a definite corresponding rate of flow for the liquid or gas. The measuring device known as the orifice meter has been developed to malie use of these facts.
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Document ID: 37EC9D3A

Field Testing Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): E. C. Mcaninch
Abstract/Introduction:
The maintenance of its large capacity displacement meters while in service is a very important gas measurement function in any gas company. The cost of bringing these meters into a i-epair shop for testing is prohibitive, especially if they are tested at sufficiently frequent intervals that accurate measurement is maintained. As a result the testing of these meters at their service location Is necessary, and thl.s work becomes a large factor in the activity of the field meter inspector. This subject has been treated very comprehensively by others in previous meetings of the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course, and I can only bring to your attention once more the mechanics and administration of these methods of testing. Several methods of testing meters in service have been devised, any of which may, under proper testing conditions, be used for testing meters operating under high pressures, However, it is customary to use the methods for low pressure testing on meters operating under low pressures, and high pressure test methods lor meters operating under pressures exceeding 15 pound gauge,
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Document ID: DD2532D7

Meter Shop Practices
Author(s): Pat Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter repair department efficiently operated involves the task and obligation of accurately recording- all gas used, The system employed in our shop of handling, repairing and accounting for meters is based on experience with local conditions and the number of meters passing through the shop. At the piesent time we have in service a total of 53,000 meters. These represent. Tin, Iron, and Rotary type, the latler being used on larger Industrial installations. Meters received at the Repair Shop come under the following classes
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Document ID: 627CCFAD

Functions Of Field Metermen
Author(s): Geo. E. Greiner
Abstract/Introduction:
1. Knowledye oj Theory 0/ Gas Measurement and Meter It is absolutely essential for field metermen to have sufficient knowledge of the theory by which meters function to enable them to use tables which are available and capably handle any problem of ineasurement deviathig from standard conditions. 2, Figuring Charts A field metermans knowledge does not end with Ills ability to ligure charts, but he should be ever-increasing his knowledge cf the effect of deviation in recording, such as. widely fluctuating charts in both static and differential records. He must be able to interpret quickly and make necessary corrections to meters, or help the operator in changing his operations in such a way that the recorded charts are more accurate and more easily read, e. g,, Insertion of proper size plate to obtain better differential.
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Document ID: BCDF0469

Automatic Demand Control On Distribution Intermediate() Pressure
Author(s): C. H. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
To the writer, the above subject divided itself into at least four subheadings. First, why is autonnatic control of distribution pressures desirable? Second, if it is desirable, what type or method of control shall we choose? Third, having made a choice, what operating advantages can we anticipate? Fourth, how will control affect our customer relationship? Physical laws have considerable influence over our decision in favor of automatic control of distribution pressures. We all appreciate that an intermediate pipe line system free of lealis will place gas at the disposal of the low pressure regulator. On the other hand, flow of this gas through the low piessure regulator is dependent on adequate pressure in the intermediate sy.stem. as well as facilities for handling adequate volume. Furthermore. not one but all low pressure legulator points must be thus served or customer contact fails. The ideal intermediate system would, therefore, be one having neither pressure drop nor variatioiis in pressure drop to the system. If unlimited tiemand or thi-oughput didnt change this condition, the system would always assure adequate pressure w-ithout excess pressure, resulting in minimum leakage.
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Document ID: 7979B72D

Regulator Operation
Author(s): Thomas H. Thorn
Abstract/Introduction:
The object of this paper is to discuss regulators. Before we get into such a discussion let us briefly review the principle of any gas regulator. Taking the medium pressure toggled regulator as an example, we find the operation to be as follows.
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Document ID: 326000DD

Intermitters
Author(s): L. J. Griffey
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discussion will cover only the control units used to intermit the flow of gas to bottom hole devices for the production of oil by gas lift methods. The name intermitter is, no doubt, derived from the use and purpose of the control instrument. They are in general, pilot valves time actuated which control the diaphragm pressure of a motor valve or valves, the resulting open and close time of these valves controlling the flow of gas to bottom hole devices, The cycle of action is controlled by the unit giving full adjustment as to the number and length of steps of action to complete the cycle,
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Document ID: A8CD642E

Gas Hydrates And Their Relation To Pipe-Line Operation
Author(s): W. m. Deaton
Abstract/Introduction:
The plugging of natuial-gas pipe lines due to freezing is one of the many problems of the natural-gas industry. It is not a new problem but one with which all pipe-line operators are familiar, and is so important that many companies go to considerable trouble and expense to eliminate or minimiae the freezing hazard. This commonplace difticulty has lately been receiving special attention by the natural-gas industry for it has recently been shown by investigators that such freeze-ups are not always due to ordinary ice formation but oftentimes to the formation of solid compounds termed hydrocarbon hydrates. It has been found that these aoilds may be formed in high-pressure pipe lines at temperatures far above the normal ice point, 32 fahrenheit.
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Document ID: 93C5F92F

Determination Of Line Losses High Pressure Lines
Author(s): E. C. Chaney
Abstract/Introduction:
Year after year ai this school, and at various other meetiiigs of the gas industry, I have listened to talks and discussions on the subject of High Pressure Line Losses and the ground has been covered thoroughly so many times that I feel as though I have little more to offer on this subject. If, however, you find that the so frequent repetition of this topic is becoming iiionotonous. only beai- in mind that the discussion of the subject could hardly become so monotonous as the persistence with which uicreased line losses continually show themselves with no apparent provocation. In combating line losses it is iiecessary first to know what they are, and for this purpose it is common practice to beep a discrepancy record. In its simplest fonn the discrepancy record consists of a balance between the quantity of gas measured into the system by the purchase meters and the gas measured out of the system by the sales meters.
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Document ID: 0FE82D69

Leak Detection And Control L Low And Lntermediate Pressure Systems
Author(s): J. R. Bird
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas losses is one topic the gas industry has successfully dodged in the past but must face today. No longer can we say that leakage is to be expected, that it is not an alarming problem. Due to present day competition, the gas industry has awakened to the fact that gas losses is a real and tangible item, contributing generously to the cost of operation and occurring as regularly as out payroll and taxes.
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Document ID: 6B734432

Well Capacities
Author(s): E. m. Tignor
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the important phases of the present day gas industry is the matter of well capacities. With the expansion this business has experienced during the last few years and the construction of long transmission systems, it has become of more and more vital importance to have an accurate check on the amount of gas available for peak conditions. Of course the matter of load factor is coincident with the efficient operation of a gas system, but as that is another phase it will not be gone into in this paper. The duty of the public utility business is to give service, and the gas pipeline companies must furnish their customers with ga.s as contracted for and obviously must know what the wells connected to the system will do in operation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss briefly some of the various methods of well capacity determination, pointing out the advantages and fallacies of the methods discussed.
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Document ID: A3F5C07A

The Flow Calorimeter
Author(s): Sylvan Cromer
Abstract/Introduction:
When the natural gas industry was in its infancy, meters were unknown. The customer merely paid a flat rate for the privilege of attaching his appliances to the gas system. Naturally some consumers used more gas than others, and to allow each consumer to pay his portion of the cost of producing and transporting the gas. the meter was developed. With this system the customer buys his gas by the cubic foot. Obviou-sly this would be just to everyone concerned but for the fact that more heat is developed by the combustion of a cubic foot of some gases than is developed by others. For this reason many large consumers now buy gas. not by the cubic foot, but by the number of heat units the gas will produce when burned. Although many companies do not determine the heating value of gas for rate purposes, careful surveys of the various sources of supply should be made to allow gas of a uniform heating value to be distributed. This is true because experimental results show that a burner regulated to burn a gas of, say 1000 B.t.u. perfectly, will not give efficient combustion without readjustment on gas with a heating value of 1100 B.t.u. This results in complaints from the customers, which cause excessive service costs.
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Document ID: 9BF9558F

The Thomas Recording Calorimeter
Author(s): G. m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to describe the operating principle and construction of the Thomas Recording Calorimeter. It made its appearance in 1921 when twelve instruments were built and installed in as many different gas plants. The instrument was very well received because it opened up new possibilities in the manufacture of gas by providing a continuous record of gas B.T.U. for closer control of plant operation. The fact that the record of heating value was in corrected B.T.U. and that the results were continuous and immediately available, gave the instrument many advantages over the old manual method of gas testing. In 1925 the Thomas Calorimeter was introduced into England where the first instruments were installed in the plant of London Gas Co. Ltd. It was not long before the instrument was recognized as a valuable aid In gas manufactin-e and its use extended to other gas companies. The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research of Great Britain, made an exhaustive investigation of the Thomas Calorimeter and published the results of their findings in Fuel Research Technica.1 Paper #20, dated 1927.
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Document ID: 1C684A05

The Ac-Me Specific Gkavity Gas Balance
Author(s): C. R. Duffy
Abstract/Introduction:
The Ac-Me Specific Gravity Gas Balance is a gas measuring instrument. It measures and solves one of the factor problems in flow meter calculations. We are learning more each day of the importance of specific giavity, especially at many of the metering stations where millions of cubic feet of gas are going through the line in a short space of time. The importance of obtaining accurate specific gravities cannot be overestimated when we see the effect it has on the calculated flow. The Ac-Me Specific Gravity Gas Balance was designed to give the gravity of the gas in the same condition as it is in the line where the measurement occurs. The instrument is so constructed that it can be set up for a test in most cases right next to the meter. The most important requirements for the Balance at the start of a test is to be sure it is setting firm and that all connections for transmitting- gas to the instrument are free from leaks.
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Document ID: 6663C05B

Gravitometer
Author(s): H. P. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The gravitometer is an instrument designed to give a continuous record Of the specific gravity of gas. The necessity for using a specific gravity recorder arises because of the change in the gravity of gas flowing in a pipe line during a short period of time. The change of gravity could be caused by mixing gases from different fields, by mixing natural gas with artificial gas, or by mixing refinery gases with other gases of lower gravity. The effect of the specific gravity on the measurement of the gas through an orifice meter is talien into account when calculating the coefficient. To determine the importance of the gravity in this connection, consider the correction factors for different gravities. For example, when using a gravity base of .60, the correction factor lor a specific gravity of .59 is 1.0084 and the correction factor for a specific gravity of .61 is .9918. From these two correction factors it is indicated that a difference of .01 in the specific gravity of the gas will malie a difference in delivery of almost one per cent,
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Document ID: 688B2F1C

Reconditioning Mercury
Author(s): H. P. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
Before I take up the subject of gas reserves of Kansas, I wish to make a brief explanation of what we, the Conservation Division of the State Corporation Commission of Kansas, are attempting to accomplish in the way of gas conservation, For one thing, we are endeavoring to prevent unnecessary waste which so often occurs where there is an oversupply of gas, and it is being produced in conjunction with oil from combination oil and gas wells. We have several large pools in Kansas where such conditions exist and the State Corporation Commission has help hearing, after field investigations were conducted, and has issued Orders limiting the amount of gas permitted to be produced per barrel of oil. In other pool which are in the process of development we are attempting to secure the cooperation of the operators in casting off any large amount of gas encountered above the oil producing formation and where there is no market for this gas.
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Document ID: C23F52D3

The Slide Rule
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The slide rule is an instrument used to a great extent by engineers for the purpose of performing multiplication, division, and similar operations. It furnishes a means of performing rapid and reasonably accurate calculations, and when used by a person farailiar with its operation, tlie results obtained are dependable values. Slide rules may be constructed for almost any kind of computation. Special rules have been built for the computation of interest charges, for the focal length of lens, for determining the discliarge from orifice meters, and for many other rjifferent purposes. The most common slide rules, however, are the ordinary polyphase and log-log rules used for straight multiplication, division, and the evaluation of factors raised to a power. These are the most diversified types of rules since practically any calculation may be made with them, altliough the operation may not be as easy a one du with a rule built specifically foi the type of calculation to be made.
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Document ID: 3836C002

Determination Of The Hydrogen Sulfide Content Of Gases
Author(s): P. V. L, Patton
Abstract/Introduction:
The uses for which hydrogen sulfide determinations are made and the requirements imposed on them vary widely. For some purpose a qualitative test is sufficient, while for others exact quantitative determinations are necessary. In some cases the instantaneous value over a period of time is more desirable. The concentration of the hydrogen sulfide in the gas which is being analyzed varies from as little as a few hundredths of a grain to several thousand grains per hundred cubic feet. In addition mercaptans and unsaturated compounds may be present and, if present, may give erroneously high results. Because of these facts it would be that a variety of methods would be required to meet the requirements of all possible cases, and, accordingly, a number of different methods have been developed. They are of two types: the colorimeter tests used for qualitative or semi-qualitative test, and the absorption methods used for quantitative determinations.
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Document ID: 105A525F

Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Allen D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
The word regulation implies a controlling to some accepted standard, the continual governing of certain functions to arrive at a desired result. In pressure regulation we usually mean the manipulation of restrictions on a stream of flowing fluid, either manually or automatically, so that at some designated point the pressure is maintained at a desired value. There is almost always some point in a pressure regulating system where a restriction intentionally cause a pressure loss, and where by varied, so that after the loss has occurred the result is the desired device, not always a saving device. We might say therefore, paradoxically that the most efficient regulator is an inefficient one.
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Document ID: E68F085F

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. K. Spink
Abstract/Introduction:
It is often said, there is nothing new under the sun. A profound study of the history of the development of orifice meters would tend to support this claim. Knowledge of the fundamental principles of orifice meter can be traced back beyond the dawn of the Christian era and into prehistoric antiquity. Even the recognized symbol of time, the hour glass, the basic idea of which in some form or another was used as far back as the 6th century, B. C. and the sweeping outlines of which are used today by the futuristic artist to connote time, is an application of the principles of the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 41495E06

Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): J. C. Diehl
Abstract/Introduction:
Every gas man knows the common complaint, I didnt use that much gas last month. This statement infers that the meter is the real culprit- it either must be fast or operates when gas is not used. The fact is that the gas meter is correct and can not operate when gas does not pass through it, but it never forgets as it measures all the gas which passes through it. Displacement gas meters are really small engines. In fact, the diaphragms of the meter Iepresent the pistons of the engine. The compartments of the meter are the cylinder of the engine. Meters have valves, ports, cranks, similar to those of reciprocating engines. However, in the meter the only power used is that required to turn the index.
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Document ID: FDF2A18B

Report Of The Committee For The Study Of Practical Methods
Author(s): R. L. Rountree
Abstract/Introduction:
At the beginning of the 1928 meter school, the general committee of the school saw fit to appoint a committee to be known as the Approved Methods Committee, the purpose of which committee was to investigate all present known methods of installation, operation, maintenance and repair of meter, regulators, and apparatus for specific gravity determination, with the idea of approving certain methods for each class and kind of equipment.
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Document ID: 7732D487

Elementary Gas Laws
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
The important properties to be considered in gas measurement calculations are pressure, volume and temperature. The units of these three properties are ol great importance. The volume unit Is the cubic foot and needs no explanation. The measurement of temperature is a measurement of the intensity of heat and not the quantity of heat. Temperature is usually measured ill Fahrenheit or Centigrade degree units. It is often necessary to convert a reading of one of these scales to r.he other temperature scale. The following chart and examples will Illustrate the method of this conversion.
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Document ID: 88747113


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