Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1934)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Safety In Operating And Maintaining Meters And Regulators
Author(s): A. W. Breeland
Abstract/Introduction:
First, I want to tell you that these gas measurement men believe in making things short and snappy. It was only last Thursday, just a week ago, that I was requested to write a paper for this meeting on Safety in Operating and Maintaining Meters and Regulators After being requested to write the paper, I was told that it could be used nicely if it were not too long. We shall, therefore, be able to touch only the high spots of the subject. I do not feel that the subject is a timely one and one that should be of paramount importance to every man who is engaged in this work. Few people, other than meter and regulator men, realize the hazards to which you gentlemen are exposed. In addition to being almost constantly exposed to fire, explosion, and asphyxiation hazard, you are also exposed to the hazards confronting the driver of every motor vehicle, the latter being even greater than the former. There are also a number of other hazards, such as injuries from the mis-use of hand tools, flying particles, foreign objects in the eyes, etc.
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Document ID: DED56011

Determination Of Line Losses On Transmission Lines
Author(s): Earl Knightlinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted for gas has until recent years been an expense taken for granted along with the operation of any pipeline system but, due to the increase in price of produced gas and the lengthening of the line to serve a community from a field in another state or across several states, the problem of lost gas per mile of line is now one the solution of which has become imperative. As long as the pipeline systems were comparatively short, a high leakage rate per mile of line did not necessarily mean the loss of a large percentage of the purchased gas but, with the present length of lines a high leakage rate could not be countenanced.
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Document ID: 9B5FE0BD

Leak Detection In Low Pressure System
Author(s): Roy Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas leakage is, has been, and probably will always be of the utmost importance to the entire gas industry. The more modern plant of superior materials and construction according to improved methods of design, is giving the operators very little trouble. However, the majority of the city plants in Oklahoma are many years old and the Unaccounted for figure indicate a condition that cant pass unnoticed. After establishing the fact that excessive leakage does exist, the next step is its location. Several methods have been in use for years and have proven their worth. Listed in this group could be the bar test inspection, soil and vegetation observation, pressure drop and metering into method.
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Document ID: 458B5C26

Elementary Gas Laws
Author(s): E.F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
The important properties to be considered in gas measurement calculations are pressure, volume and temperature. The units of these three properties are of great importance. The volume unit is the cubic foot and needs no explanation. The measurement of temperature is a measurement of the intensity of heat and not the quantity of heat. Temperature is usually measured in Fahrenheit or centigrade degree units. It is often necessary to convert a reading of one of these scales to the other temperature scale. The following chart and examples will illustrate the method of the conversion.
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Document ID: E955B1EB

Well Capacities
Author(s): E.C. Mcaninch
Abstract/Introduction:
The production of natural gas for commercial use been carried on for many years. It has been in the past few years only, however, that the activities of the gas industry have been broadened until gas service is available to localities far removed from the source of supply. In those days when the sale of gas was a matter of local concern, the amount of available gas and reserve supply of gas were of comparative minor importance. At the present time one of the more important problems with which a gas company has to contend is the amount of gas it has accessible with which to meet the demands of its consumers. It is important, then, that all data which deal with this phase of a companys activities be accurate and dependable. If a company meets a situation upon the assumption that is has a sufficient amount of gas with which to meet it, and finds that through misinformation dealing with its well capacities, it falls short in its service requirements, and it has failed signally in its duty to those who have made its existence possible.
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Document ID: 0F76527D

Calculation Of Orifice Coefficients
Author(s): Max K. Watson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement by orifice meter is generally not fully understood and, in some instances, questioned because the delivery through the meter is not directly recorded on a dial or recorder in terms of cubic feet. However, the necessity for a series of calculations from the record obtained from an orifice meter can be attributed to the wide range of capacities of this type of meter. It is a remarkable measuring device, since accurate measurement can be obtained over a range of from approximately 1 to 10,000 by changing orifices. This is comparable to measuring ounces of weight on a ton scale or millions of cubic feet per hour through a 2,000 cubic foot capacity positive meter which is obviously impossible by any means. But an orifice meter is as accurate as any other commercial measuring device, depending upon attention given the meter as to the details and care.
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Document ID: F294FC55

Calculation Of Orifice And Positive Meter Charts
Author(s): R. O. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people connected with the gas measurement department of a gas company know how to read a meter chart. Orifice meter coefficients and positive meter pressure multipliers are on record in the office and can be obtained on short notice if needed, and with this information the volume of gas through any meter can be quickly determined. In this class we shall therefore merely mention the various steps in figuring charts and devote the major part of the discussion to the different factors in the gas equations which affect the measurement of gas, and consequently, the calculation of meter charts. Our object will be to better understand what we are doing.
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Document ID: 6C17D594

Field Testing Of Large Capacity Positive Meters
Author(s): B. Porter
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity positive meters are an important factor in the measurement of natural gas. The regular testing of these meters in the field is necessary in order that their accuracy and efficient may be maintained. In this paper I shall discuss the proper methods and equipment for making these tests.
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Document ID: C25A5E97

Care And Operation Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. C. Rhineberger
Abstract/Introduction:
For economic reasons it is necessary the the maintenance of an orifice meter be kept at a practical minimum, and therefore particular requirements of each installation should be carefully considered before deciding what respective differential and static ranges that meter should have. The differential range which we will consider first should be such that accurate measurement is obtained at all rates of flow if possible. We realize that if fluctuations are of sufficient violence and proper tempo accurate measurement is impossible with any type of positive or orifice meter. In cases where the fluctuations are wide, but not violent, a dual installation of gauges of different ranges is something desirable.
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Document ID: 088F06EA

The Flow Calorimeter
Author(s): Sylvan Cromer, B. F. Worley
Abstract/Introduction:
When a company sells gas, even though gas be measured in cubic feet they are in reality selling heat. Since the gas is measured in cubic feet it is necessary to know how much heat a cubic foot of gas will give up.
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Document ID: F4D2A6EF

The Slide Rule
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The slide rule is an instrument used to a great extent by engineers for the purpose of performing multiplication, division, and similar operations. It furnishes a means of performing rapid and reasonably accurate calculations, and when used by a person familiar with its operations, the results obtained are dependable values.
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Document ID: A4279635

Showing The Effect Of Temperature And Pressure Variations On Meter Accuracy
Author(s): W. H. Carson
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people know that there is an error in domestic meter measurement of gas when the pressure is something other than the agreed base pressure and that this error has some effect on the heating value per cubic foot. Since the extent of the error is not generally known it is the purpose of this paper to impart correct information on the subject in the non-technical a manner as possible.
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Document ID: E1A17BB3

Training And Functions Of A Field Meter Man
Author(s): E. E. Stovall
Abstract/Introduction:
We have found that by starting the meter inspector in the office, acquainting him with the procedure of that particular part of the departments work and letting him study the various handbooks for a few days, has proven to be a very good policy in that he is associated and in direct contact with men who actually understand the theory and the principle of each instrument that is used in gas measurement and that he will be called upon to take care of when he is a full fledged meter inspector. This has the tendency to get him gas measurement or meter minded it seems more quickly than any other method since he is acossiated with persons totally meter and gas measurement minded.
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Document ID: 3B138CE7

The Finding Of The Committee For The Study Of The Practical Methods
Author(s): R. m. Scofield
Abstract/Introduction:
First, it is recommended that all orifice meter installation conform to specification as outlined by the Gas Measurement committee of the Natural Gas Department, of the American Gas Association. Some companies, in constructing town border line industrial measuring stations where main line pressures range from 175# to 350# use three regulators for reducing the main line pressure to the desired pressure required on intermediate pressure lines. The pressure usually ranges from 2# to 30#. Other companies use only two regulators for reducing the pressure the same amount. However, where only two regulators are used and the main line pressure is as high as previously mentioned, the regulators freeze during periods of low temperature and heater installations are necessary on the line on the high side of the regulator station.
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Document ID: 94A56EF6

Report Of Sub-Committee On Recording Thermometer
Author(s): R. L. Rountree
Abstract/Introduction:
All of the present-day recording thermometers used for measurement of flowing gas temperatures are of the closed system. Helical of Burdon spring type, operating from the resultant pressure increase exerted in the spring as the medium in the bulb expands or yields greater vapor tension when heat is applied. There are three general classes of recording thermometer systems, each having its own characteristics which govern, to a great extent, its suitability for a particular application.
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Document ID: CB5C7180

Fundamental Principles Of Regulation
Author(s): J. C. Deihl
Abstract/Introduction:
When the first natural gas lines were built, the companies experience considerable difficulty in obtaining satisfactory pipe fittings and means of controlling pressure. In 1886 the use of natural gas was new, and was approached with great caution by the gas companies and with trepidation by the house holder. A pamphlet published at that time by a company illustrates this. It starts with wood cuts of the house regulators which were intended to control the pressure which at that time had a pleasing habit of changing from zero to roaring out of the chimney. Then follows a list of company surgeons to be called in case of explosions and that public was notified that cotton and oil were kept at the company station for first air in case of burns. This article forcibly emphasized the need which existed for satisfactory regulators.
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Document ID: 9FF89F14

Positive Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Allen D. Mclean
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement engineer is a comparatively modern development in our races history. Only in the last century has measurement problems such as gas volume measurement required the exclusive and intensive service of individuals. Yet few of us realize how close we are to the fifth century B.C. come to producing a really great measurement engineer. We can sit back in the present day of knowledge of measurement principles and marvel at how close Xerxes, the Great Persian General, came to developing the principle of the positive displacement gas meter. But for missing just one little thought he might have been remembered as the great engineer, instead of another man who caused the Greeks a lot of trouble.
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Document ID: C3AB0BD9

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
There are certain fundamental laws that govern the action of gases which should be understood before the more complicated formulas encountered in the gas industry can be mastered. Before taking up the fundamental laws, the only ones to be considered in this paper, some of the terms used will be explained. When we refer to the temperature of any substance we mean thermal condition which determines the tendency of this substance to give or receive heat from other bodies. The common measure of temperature as used is on the Fahrenheit scale, however as a basis for working problems where gases are involved absolute temperature must be used. The pressure of the gas means the force exerted by this gas on each unit of area of the surface of the container. Absolute pressure is used in all calculations, but gage pressure is the value read on the ordinary pressure gage. Absolute pressures that are greater than atmosphere are equal to the gage pressure plus the atmospheric pressure, all, of course being expressed in the same unit. Atmospheric pressure often varies widely from day to day and place to place, hence its value should always be determined at the place and time needed, a mercury barometer being generally used for that purpose.
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Document ID: 35799C2F

Fundamentals Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): L. K. Spink, J. B. Mcmahon
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice is one of the oldest of mans accurate measurement instruments. Its consistency of performance was used by the Chaldeans to measure time accurately as a basis for astronomical calculations and there is evidence that the Maya Indians in Central and Southern Mexico made use of it for the same purpose. One of its first uses as a rate of flow measuring device was in Ancient Rome, where an orifice was installed in the water supply line leading to each house. It was part of a plug cock which was turned on for a certain number of hours each day. That the Romans were acquainted with the effect of orifice pipe ratio on orifice efficiency is shown by their specifying a definite maximum ratio that might be used. I believe it was one-half. The orifice type of flow meter has developed very rapidly in this country. There have been roughly, two broad, general lines of development which are now rapidly converging, that in the power plant and general industrial field, and that in the natural gas and petroleum industry.
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Document ID: 58DB9841

The Emco-Mcgaughy Integrator
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
The Emco McGaughy Integrator has been developed and perfected during recent years by the Pittsburgh Equitable Meter Company. This machine is designed for the purpose of calculating the total extension of orifice meter charts. It is now possible to calculate with one machine, Emco, Foxboro, and Westcott charts in any static or differential range and in any atmospheric pressure that may be used at the point of measurement. This is accomplished by simply changing the pen arms to correspond with the make of the chart to be calculated. Separate arms are necessary due to the fact that the radius from zero to the upper limit of the chart varies on all three of these meters.
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Document ID: 524279AA

Foxboro Pressure Control
Author(s): G. B. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
Every avenue of human endeavor, from time immemorial, has been laden with an element of romance. History abounds with the glamour of soldiery, the fascination of statesmanship, the fortitude of business leadership, and the dauntlessness of engineering. In our own natural gas industry, though out individual tasks may seem prosaic and commonplace, there is a true romance that fires the imagination and urges us collectively to greater achievement. Who is there among us who has not thrilled at the sight and sound of a huge gasser, which, responding to the last turn of the bit with a belch and roar sends countless quantities of uncontrolled gas skyward. Mans ingenuity in harnessing this natural resource, and subduing it is his use, is indeed romance. The mighty Niagara has been reduced to a ribbon of electric current the turbulent water of the Colorado have been bought to rest and the service of mankind in Hoover Dam with no less skill and ingenuity, we have tamed a defiant nature when we have brought millions of cubic feet of virgin gas to a condition suitable for mans use and economic consumption.
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Document ID: 632150FC


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