Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1929)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Measurement Of Wet Gas By Orifice Meter And Calculation Of Charts
Author(s): R. D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamentally, the calcitlatlon of wet gas orifice charts and dry gas orifice charts is the same. There are, however, certain problems and dil- ficulties particularly applicable to the calculation of wet gas charts which vve wish to discuss in this class.
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Document ID: 28FC7257

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): W. H. Carsok
Abstract/Introduction:
There are certain fundamental laws that govern the action of gases which should be understood before the more complicated formulas encountered in the gas industry can be mastered. Before taking up the fundamental laws, the only ones to be considered in this paper, some of the terms used will be explained. When we refer to the temperature of any substance we mean its thermal condition which determines the tendency of this substance to give or receive heat from other bodies. The common measure of temperature as used is on the Fahrenheit scale, however as a basis for working problems where gases are involved absolute temperature must be used. The pressure of the gas means the force exerted by this gas on each unit of area of the surface of the container. Absolute pressure is used in all calculations, but gage pressure is the value read on the ordinary pressure gage. Absolute pressures that are greater than atmospheric are equal to the gage pressures plus the atmospheric pressure, all, of course being expressed in the same unit. Atmospheric pressure often varies widely from day to day and place to place, hence its value should always be determined at the place and time needed, a mercury barometer being generally -used for that purpose.
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Document ID: 60478177

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): E. E. Stovall
Abstract/Introduction:
In the first place I would say that the basic principle of the orifice meter is the indicating of velocity or rate that the gas is traveling through the line and which is determined by the drop in pressure through an orifice which is smaller than the diameter of the pipe and which we term the differential
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Document ID: 7339F53B

Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. C. Diehl
Abstract/Introduction:
The positive displacement dry meter is the type of gas meter used in this country for measuring gas to domestic consumers, and it is also generally used for measuring gas to industrial consumers using less than 17,000 cubic feet of gas per hour. In cases where the consumption is greater than this, meters are often set in batteries that is, two or more in parallel.
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Document ID: 0A01E74B

Principles Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): A. D. Mclean
Abstract/Introduction:
To those gas men who have to do with distribution, the pressure chart is a log whereby they may judge their work. Tf a certain gauge shows a smooth line around the chart, the distribution man is very proud of it. It, however, it is made up of jagged sharp broken lines indicating an uneven pressure, it is something he is normally ashamed of, and will make every possible effort to correct the condition which gave him the poor chart.
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Document ID: BBF473E4

Operation Of Gravity Balance
Author(s): C. T. Gill, D. A. Silleks
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing the Gravity Balance and its use in the determination of specific gravity of gas it is almost a necessity to give a brief resume of the history. The balance was evolved to fill a great need for an accuratci method of determining gravity in the field. Previous to this time the Schilling or Botde method had been used or else the gas was shipped in cylinders to a central laboratory where the gravity was determined by direct weighing on a chemical balance. In the case of the first method i.e. the bottle,-due to the inability to obtain constant conditions, accurate determinations were not possible. The second method, while accurate enough, was, to say the least, inconvenient.
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Document ID: F4B17802

Problems Of Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): E. H. Schoenfeldt
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas from oil wells is usually referred to as wet of casing head gas and differs from natural gas in that it contains considerable gasoline, usually ranging from .5 of a gallon per thousand cubic feet to as high as 20 gallons per thousand cubic feet. The gas when produced in sufficient quantities is contracted by the gasoline companies from the various producers in the field for the purpose of manufacturing casing head or natural gasoline. This seemingly insignificant branch of the oil industry a few years ago has grown until today it is considered one of the chief branches in the industry.
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Document ID: 2CB4E0DF

Measurement Of Gas At The Well
Author(s): Fay C. Walters
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of this discussion, as it appears on the program, Measurement of Gas From Well to Consumer, was of such scope that it was feared generalities only could be covered by the paper and by the discussions. The chairman of the program committee approved a reduction of the assignment to include only, T h e Measurement of Gas at the Well. In discussing this subject, it is my intention not to dwell on the meters themselves, but to consider the handling of the gas itself as it is brought to the meter and to sketch briefly several methods as practiced in Oklahoma. There are also several questions T desire to bring bctore you fori discussion, if time permits. I earnestly request that you stop me at any time for questions or discussions.
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Document ID: 93B5A062

The Mcgaughy Integrator
Author(s): J. B. Mcgaughy
Abstract/Introduction:
The Integrator was designed to lacilitate the calculation ot the extension of gas orifice meter charts. 1 helieve we will pass lightly over the fundamental principles of extension calculations by stating that we all realize that certain theoretical discrepancies exist in the inspection and other present known methods of extension estimation. I wish to present in the Integrator a machine which calculates or integrates the value of the whole extension o the chart in strict accord with the true formula tor flow thru an orifice. By the inspection method we state that the extension equals the summation of the square roots of the products of average values of pressure and differential over certain finite time intervals, say fifteen minutes or one hour. This procedure, of course, would become theoretically correct as the finite tiine interval used approached 7-ero. However as such procedure would involve an infinite number of calculations, wc compromise practically by using the average for finite time intervals.
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Document ID: EAECBAB7

Operation Of Meter Prover
Author(s): B. L. Maulsby
Abstract/Introduction:
The fundamental standard for all gas measurement work is the cubic foot bottle. The most general use of which is in the calibration of meter provers and other gas container. They are also used in testing meter, particularly small wet laboratory meter, for which the purpose the fractional cubic foot bottle is especially useful.
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Document ID: 84D4CE16

Calculation Of Pressure, Volume And Temperature Charts
Author(s): Gilbert Estill
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing the calculation of pressure and volume charts, one is limited to a certain extent. However, a great deal depends on these calculations. In my discussion, I only hope to explain the system as used by our company, along with a few short cuts which we have found in the past few years.
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Document ID: 66556D3A

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): George H. Baird
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of regulators is a very broad one, in fact much too broad to be fully covered in the brief space of time alloted to the discussion at this tirne. ThercforCj I will classify regulators in a general way and only attempt to discuss that particular type as used in the gas industry for the control of pressure in pipe lines carrying gas under high pressure. By high pressure, I refer to pressures which are generally encountered in main transportation lines ranging from five or ten pounds to live or six hundred pounds per square inch, and not pressures generally encountered in natural gas low pressure distribution systems, or artificial gas plants. In genera!, whether speaking of regulators for the control of steam, air, gas, water or electricity, they can be divided into two general classes, namely-Regulators for the control of volume, and regulators for the control of pressure, or in the case of electricity, regulators for the control of potential. In this paper, I will speak of regulators for the control of pressure only.
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Document ID: 0B055837

Operation Of Gas Density Balance Under Vacuum
Author(s): L. G. Rheinberger
Abstract/Introduction:
The topic which we are going to discuss during this period is the operation of the gas density balance under vacuum. It is no doubt easier to operate a balance with both gas and air under pressure in excess of atmospheric, so why run the tests under vacuum? Gases having high gasoline content and especially those whose content is of the heavier hydrocarbon, are apt to partially condense under pressure slightly in excess of atmospheric. If a gas is saturated when it leaves the oil sand it may or may not be saturated when it leaves the casing head.
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Document ID: E891933F

Care And Operation Of Orifice Meters Under Pressure
Author(s): W. R. Mclaughlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Mucii has been said and written in the past in regard to care and operation of orifice meters under pressure, but in spite of this fact, errors in mailing an installation together with those made in the care and repair of same, seem to continue. It seems to be the idea oi many individuals as well as some companies that as long as an orifice flange and plate together with a diHerential gauge and static recorder are installed in some manner, in or on a line passing gas, and as long as the differential gauge is tested occasionally against some sort of mercury or water column that all is well done. Truthfully, this is only the first step in proper measurement, for there are many angles to be considered.
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Document ID: F889B015

Critical Flow Orifice Provers
Author(s): J. C. Diehl
Abstract/Introduction:
The critical flow orifice prover may be used for testing positive displacement meter at the pressure of 15 pounds gage or more by passing gas or air through the meter and the orifice, and discharging it into the atmosphere. If the proof of the meter does not change with changes in pressure (it should not) the time required for a full circle reading of the proving hand of the index will be the same for any particular orifice and kind of gas regardless of the various pressure.
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Document ID: E6528DAF

Report Of Approved Methods Committee
Author(s): C. W. Robbins
Abstract/Introduction:
At the first called meeting of the Approved Methods Committee it was found that there was considerahle confusion and uncertainty regarding the territory to i)e covered by the committee, the extent of its work, and its connection with other associations. A great deal of this trouble was due to the fact that practically all of the members of the committee were also members of the meter and regulator committee of the Natural Gasoline Association. After various conferences and exchange of correspondence, the matter was finally cleared up late in the fall so that progress could be made.
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Document ID: FD1E602F

Operation Of H. P. Positive Meters In Lone Star Gas Companys System
Author(s): T. O. Banta
Abstract/Introduction:
The Lone Star Gas Company now have 300 H. P. positive meters m service. Ot this number there are 160 meters used as city gate measuring stations and 140 measuring gas to drilling rigs, pump stations, creameries, cotton gins, etc.
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Document ID: FDD5AFE8

Wet Gas Round Table Discussion
Author(s): G. P. Bunn
Abstract/Introduction:
In view of the fact that, in general, the fundamentals upon which the measurement of dry gas is based apply to the measurement of casing head gas, we have felt that attendance in the fundamental sections would supply all of the essential information for casing head gas meter men. There are, however, a great many problems in connection with the measurement of casing head gas which are not experienced in the measurement of dry gas, and we have felt, therefore, that some time should be allotted for an informal discussion of such matter. Such class periods as this will afford benefit only in proportion as general problems are brought up. We believe it valuable to continue periods assigned for the discussion of Problems of Wet Gas Measurement by Orifice Meter and accordingly time will be requested for such discussion in the next forthcoming short course.
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Document ID: 46DE0777

State Commision Rulings On Measurement
Author(s): R. H. Lussky
Abstract/Introduction:
(a) Each utility shall provide and install at its own expense and shall continue to own, maintain and operate all equipment for the regulation and measurement of gas to its consumers. (b) Where additional meters are furnished by the utility to be used as sub-meters, or for the convenience of the consumer, a charge for such meters may be made in accordance with a schedule approved by the commission. Rule 10. Location of Meters. (a) It is recommended that all meters hereafter installed on consumers premises be located inside the building and as near as possible to the point where the service-pipe enters, and in a clean, dry, safe place, not subject to wide temperature variations and so placed as to be at all times accessible for reading, inspecting and testing. (b) Meters shall not be placed in coal or wood bins, or in close proximity to stoves or furnaces. Unless unavoidable, meters shall not be installed in sitting rooms, bed rooms, bath rooms, or in any location where the visits of the meter reader or inspector will cause annoyance to the consumer. (c) When it is
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Document ID: FA040848

Calculation Of Orifice Meter Charts
Author(s): Gilbert Estill
Abstract/Introduction:
The system of figuring orifice meter charts as used by our company is commonly known as the period or inspection method. SETTING UP When the charts are received in the ofEce, the first thing that is necessary is to look them over to see if the meter has been running properly. Then the charts are marked off usually with a colored pencil, showing the number of hours gas is passing and if there are any hours that do not pass gas the full time, the fraction of the hour is placed on the outer edge of the chart, so when the extensions are put on a fraction ol an hour will be used instead of the whole extension. When the chart is being set up, a coeiScient is usually placed on the back of same and chart is checked to see if the right kind of chart has been used. Also, the disc number is checked to see if same corresponds with the office record.
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Document ID: 203D2BFC

Pressure Base And Gas Measurement At High And Low Altitudes
Author(s): D. A. Stiller
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the business of scientifically determining How Many and What. Every gas company spends many thousands of dollars determining How Many. Many gas companies lose thousands of dollars because of the misunderstanding or a misinterpretation of the What. The How Many part of our business is very well taken care of. The trouble arises when we consider the What. The cubic foot is the unit of measurement. Unfortunately there is no standard unit. Gas being compressible, a cubic foot of gas is a variable unit. For purpose of buying and selling, a definite unit must be determined upon. Therefore, in the sale of purchase of contract, the unit it be used is defined.
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Document ID: 8CD44760

The Calculating Of High Pressure Orifice Meter Charts
Author(s): E. R. Stovall
Abstract/Introduction:
The first step in calculating a high pressure chart is to have a meter connect report made by the person who installs it, giving the following information: Location, which includes the contract with is a well, the name and number if a consumer, the location and nature of use of the gas the meter number, which should be obtained from the general office the size of the line and the orifice plate the type of meter connections the make, the range and the factory number of the meter the gravity of the gas and last, the exact location as to where the gas comes in the main line or where it goes out of the main line. Along with this should be a copy of the contract furnished by the legal department, giving the following information: Contract with a pressure base on which the gas is to be computed the flowing temperature and other detailed information concerning the nature of the contract.
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Document ID: 9831F026

Testing Positive Meters With Aluminum Test Meters
Author(s): W. J. White
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important phases of the gas business is correct gas measurement. To get the best results m gas measurement, vc must use the best methods of testing or proving ovir meters, for they are really the companys cash registers. There arc three general methods of testing meters. The provcr method which is used in the shop. The flow meter method and the test meter method which are generally used lor field testing. Due to the simplicity of the method, testing with the test meter has become quite popular within the last four or five years. The meter has been put through some of the most severe road tests and has proven its reliability very satisfactorily. And as a matter ol latt it has been. adopted by a great many gas comp.inies as standard meter equipment. The meter body is cast aluminum, since it must be light and easily handled. It is usually mounted on a trailer built especially for testing. The trailer is arranged to carry equipment required for testing and also repair parts and tools enough to overhaul the meters in the field.
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Document ID: A0D2597A

Tin Meters
Author(s): C. E. Sherburne
Abstract/Introduction:
1 will touch briefly on the history of tin meter so as to frive some idea JS to the fine record ior accuracy and durability that it has made for itself. When gas was first produced commercially in England, it was sold on the basis of the estimated number of cubic feet per burner. Such computation was not only unsatisfactory, but unprofitable. It was not until 1815, when Clegg brought his wet meter to a .state of approximate perfection, that the gas business changed from an unsuccessful experiment to a commercial success. The improved wet meter is used today as a station meter in the manufactured gas business, for the correct measurement of small volumes in an experimental or laboratory process, and to some extent in England as a consumers meter. It has been largely replaced abroad and entirely in this country by the more convenient dry meter. The dry meter was invented in 1843 by Richards, another Englishman, and perfected several years later by Thomas Glover, whose name is synonymous with the dry naeter in use today.
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Document ID: 7F1C7914

Operation Of Slide Rule
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The slide rule is a great aid in solving problems in multiplication, division, proportion, squares, square roots, etc. When the accuracy of the results required permits the use of the slide rule it becomes a great time saver. However, should the accuracy of the results be more exacting than the slide rule is capable of giving, it may be used to speedily check the calculations which have already been made. The accuracy of a slide rule is determined largely by its size. The Mannheim 10 inch rule gives three significant figures correctly. The 20 inch rule give.s from three to rour figures correctly.
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Document ID: F833C58F

Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): C. m. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
The common practice in natural gas distribution systems is the use of two sets of different regulators in the case of law pressure distribution system, and two or three sets in the case of medium pressure systems for the purpose of reducing the large pressures on the transmission mains into the medium pressure or intermediate pressure and from thence to the low pressures used in the system to which the customers are connected.
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Document ID: 311BEBC0

Industrial Meter Installation
Author(s): E. C. Joullian
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject Industrial Meter Installations is a subject which ordinarily covers a great deal of ground. There are so many various types of installations that it is hard to work out a set of standards, which might cover all cases. Heretofore a great many of the gas companies have not given very much thought to their industrial meter settings. The practice usually is to rush an installation in as, fast as possible in order to get the customer on the line. Invariably when a customer is sold on the idea of using gas for fuel he wants to be connected now and to start using gas at once. Before an industrial meter setting i.s installed, we should make sure that the setting will meet three primary requirements. First-Will the registration be as accurate as possible.? Second-Will the customer receive first class service? Third-Will the setting be justified from the revenue derived from the customer?
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Document ID: 3DB6C3E5


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