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Title: High Viscosity Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement, A Challenge For Ultrasonic Flow Meters?
Author: Jankees Hogendoorn, Karsten Tawackolian, Peter Van Brakel, Jeroen Van Klooster And Jan Drenthen
Source: 2009 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop
Year Published: 2009
Abstract: Ultrasonic flow meters for custody transfer application were introduced in the industry in 1996. Supported by a significant number of national and international approvals, ultrasonic measurement techniques have been adopted by oil and gas industries and frequently used for custody transfer measurement of hydrocarbon products worldwide. After the introduction of the API standard 5.8 Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology in February 2005 the confidence of industries rose and resulted in higher acceptance of this technology for custody transfer crude oil applications. During the introduction of the first ultrasonic flow meters approved for custody transfer applications, manufacturers focussed on the generic applications where most of the applications were liquids with viscosities up to 140 cSt. Analysing the present crude oil exploration and production developments it is evident that highly viscous crude oils are being increasingly produced and make up a significant part of global crude oil production.