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Title: Shipboard Sampling For Accountabilitt In Custody Transfer
Author: E. Garsetti
Source: 1992 International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement
Year Published: 1992
Abstract: The importance of water measurement in the marine transportation of crude oil is considerable. A study carried out by the Institute of Petroleum and reported in Petroleum Review has shown that on a sample of 6,500 voyages, the quantity of water detected in the outturn was on average 0.13 percent higher than had been declared in the bill of lading and, furthermore, a discrepancy of 0.5 percent between the outturn and bill of lading water content was not unusual. These discrepancies have enormous financial implications and highlight the need for improved sampling and analysis methods. Indeed, this study showed that the larger water discrepancies occurred when the hill of lading had been based upon shore tank manual sampling techniques and analysis by centrifuge. The problems associated with manual sampling had long been suspected and over seven years ago SGS Redwood set out to develop a portable sampler which could be used to collect representative samples of crude oil and products being loaded onto or discharged from a vessel.