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Title: The Orifice Meter
Author: J. L. Cottrell
Source: 1945 Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM)
Year Published: 1945
Abstract: While discussing the Orifice Meter we are dealing in theory with an old principle of the weight of a falling body, or sometimes referred to as a free fall. Most well known makes of differential pressure flow meters use as an indication of the quantity of flow, a differential in pressure resulting from a constriction in the pipe through which liquid is flowing. These measurement instruments are based on a remarkable discovery of the Italian, Venturi, who after considerable research in 1797, announced that liquids under pressure gained speed and lost head in passing through converging pipe and that the reverse is true for liquids passed through diverging tube. This basic principle was not made usable in fluid measuring devices for more than 100 years after it was known as a scientific fact. Clemens Herschel was the first to use it as a means of measuring flow. He proved by a series of tests that a constant relation in a convergent-divergent tube, existed between the differential pressure at the inlet and at the contracted sections and the rate of flow. Herschel named this instrument a Venturi meter.