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Title: Geysering Effects In LNG Lines
Author: James P. Lewis, Kenneth A. Smith
Source: American Gas Association 1975
Year Published: 1975
Abstract: Geysering is the self-induced expulsion of a liquid from its containment by the vapors as the liquid boils. A rapid expulsion rate may follow a quiescent period, after which a small disturbance initiates the expulsion from an unstable saturation-pressure condition. The transition from a stable condition to an unstable condition occurs as heat flux into the system increases liquid temperatures to the saturation pressure in portions of the systems which are subject to hydrostatic head. If the hydrostatic head is reduced, then expulsion may be initiated. By gathering information from various disciplines, it is possible to make reasonable estimates as to whether geysering can happen within a system, the resulting volumes and rates which will be involved, and a determination as to what countermeasures, if any, are appropriate. An understanding of the geysering concept is of interest to the LNG industry because geysering can provide unexpected transients in LNG piping systems if not anticipated, but also can provide a beneficial operating technique if understood and used.