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Title: Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author: Jack D. Stringer
Source: 1983 International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement
Year Published: 1983
Abstract: Since the beginning of the petroleum industry, crude oil has normally contained some amounts of sediment and water. In the early days this was not considered a problem because the price of crude oil was low and the returns on the end products were high enough to overlook it. However, the modern era has seen prices that hover around 35.00 per barrel and production volumes which are mind boggling. The United States alone is currently producing approximately 8,650,000 barrels of crude oil per day as well as importing 3,520,000 barrels per day. Although the amounts of sediment and water (S & W) contained in crude oil will vary depending on a number of factors, losses of over 150 million per year will be incurred in the U.S. alone for every 1/10 of 1% S & W sold as crude oil.