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Title: Ultrasonic Flow Meter Compliance With API 14.10 Measurement Of Flow To Flares
Author: John Chitty
Source: 2011 International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement
Year Published: 2011
Abstract: Ultrasonic flow meters have been used for over 20 years to measure flow to flare stacks. Due to changes in plant construction philosophies to more compact building, environmental regulations, and an increased offshore activity the demands to these measurements have changed during recent years. New regulations implemented in Europe and North America requires the measurement of fuel and flare gas to calculate CO2 and VOC emissions. Compact and more optimized production facilities have higher capacities and therefore result in higher maximum flow conditions over the flare. Flow rates of more than 100 m/s have been recorded during shut down conditions. Waste or flare gas can vary greatly in its composition and abrupt flow condition changes should be expected. Furthermore the low flow conditions became more important to identify valve leakage in normal operational conditions. Minimum flow rates demand advanced signal processing algorithms to ensure exact and high resolution time measurement. High flow velocities will introduce soaring noise within the flowing gas and at the ultrasonic probe itself. Even drift of the ultrasonic beam has to be considered at high gas velocities. With all of these considerations, the main guidance for flare flow installation is API 14.10

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