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Title: Gas Pipeline Leak Location And Measurement
Author: Fred L. Graf
Source: American Gas Association 1975
Year Published: 1975
Abstract: Cast-iron joint leakage began to increase with the introduction of nearly moisture-free natural gas into distribution pipelines originally built for manufactured gas. These older pipelines, using bell-and-spigot joints to connect their twelve to sixteen foot section lengths, were sealed with jute and backed with cement or lead to make them gas-tight. The moisture inherent in the manufactured gas kept the jute in a swollen state to prevent gas leakage. With the change to natural gas, the internal condition of the mains became extremely dry. Some utilities injected water, oil, or both into the gas in an attempt to keep the jute swollen. This resulted in limited success. Joint leakage tends to saturate large areas over a long period of time. This creates difficulty when attempting to distinguish significant leaks from negligible or non-leaking joints.

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