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Title: X-Ray Based Densitometer For Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author: Stein-Arild Tjugum, Romulus Mihalca
Source: 2009 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop
Year Published: 2009
Abstract: Flow measurements by use of gamma-ray attenuation has been utilised in multiphase flow meters for many years. This represents a robust and reliable type of flow composition measurement1. The use of a radioactive isotope does however introduce some challenges. When using radioactive sources there is additional paper work to be done, the source has to be tracked through its life-time and after end of life-time of the instrument the source has to be disposed of in a safe way. The radiation hazard has to be handled during storage, transportation and installation. An X-ray based system will only be switched on after it has been installed and it does not represent any radiation hazard when switched off. Multiphase flow meters are installed worldwide and Roxar has experienced that in some parts of the world it is more difficult to install nucleonic gauges and there is a request for multiphase meters with no radioactive source. Most Roxar multiphase meters are equipped with a Cs-137 source for density measurement. For some years Roxar has also supplied non-gamma multiphase meters where the gamma-ray measurement is replaced with a patented algorithm that combines the information from the other flow measurements in the meter. The non-gamma meter does however have flow-range limitations and higher measurement uncertainty compared to the standard meter with gammaray source. The X-ray based flow meter is a new option without radioactive source that does not have these performance limitations. A prototype X-ray based flow densitometer has been developed in collaboration between Roxar (Norway) and PANalaytical (the Netherlands). The prototype meter has been successfully flow loop tested at Christian Michelsen Research (CMR) in Bergen and TUV NEL in Scotland. The flow testing includes both measurements on multiphase flow and on wet gas flow

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