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Title: Low Voltage Considerations In Josephson Array Voltage Measurements
Author: Thomas J. Mego, Adam Daire,
Source: 1994 Measurement Science Conference
Year Published: 1994
Abstract: This paper presents considerations for making low level DC measurements of voltage. The considerations are illustrated using the practical example in metrology of voltage reference comparison against a Josephson Array. Procedures for identifying, minimizing, and correcting sources of uncertainty will be discussed. In this example, Keithleys new 2002 8 12 digits DMM with plug-in nanovolt preamp combines the high-resolution and high-sensitivity needed to make voltage reference measurements approaching O.OOlppm total uncertainty. But only if we also control uncertainty due to Thermal EMF, leakage currents, magnetic interference, and other error sources to the 1 OnV level.