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Title: Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author: James Bozeman
Source: 1979 International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement
Year Published: 1979
Abstract: The direct measurement of a fluids flowing density has many Important advantages it can offer in flow measurement. The volumetric measurement of fluids in the liquid state requires that the flowing product be related to an equivalent unit volume of H2O at a base temperature of say 60F. This is a commonly accepted practice due to the universal acceptance of water as a reference. In order to establish the relationship of the metered liquid at flowing condition to a unit volume of water at say another pressure and temperature, it is a must to know the density or specific gravity of the metered fluid. With many liquids this flowing density is not predictable and therefore must be measured by some means. The accurate volumetric metering of a fluid in the vaporous or gaseous state also requires some knowledge of the products density at flowing conditions as it passes through or around the primary flow element. In the case of orifice metering of a gas, it is very necessary to compensate somehow in the flow equation for the difference between (1) the density of the fluid which the discharge coefficient (or basic orifice factor) is based upon, and (2) the actual density of the metered gas passing the orifice. This is commonly done via specific gravity (air 1.000), supercompressibility and pressure/temperature correction factors. Sometimes it becomes extremely difficult to accurately compensate for these critical factors when the flowing conditions are in a varying, changing state. Therefore, an on-stream density analyzer or transducer becomes a very logical tool to the measurement man seeking accuracy.